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A set of 5 numbers has an average of 50. The largest element in the set is 5 greater than 3 times the smallest element in the set. If the median of the set equals the mean, what is the largest possible value in the set?

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10 Jun 2015, 04:59

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Since GMAT typically doesn't require difficult arithmetic, I figured there was at least 1 option that when you subtracted 5, was easily divisible by 3 (Biggest -5 = 3 x smallest).

There were 2 options: 86 and 92.

I quickly calculated what the smallest would have to be in these cases: 86, the smallest would have to be 27 92, the smallest would have to be 29

Using logic, we can see the data set, in order, looking like this:

Smallest, Smallest, 50 (this is the median), 50 (this is the lowest possible after the median to get the biggest remaining value), Biggest

Re: A set of 5 numbers has an average of 50. The largest element in the [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2015, 05:24

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Bunuel wrote:

A set of 5 numbers has an average of 50. The largest element in the set is 5 greater than 3 times the smallest element in the set. If the median of the set equals the mean, what is the largest possible value in the set?

(A) 85 (B) 86 (C) 88 (D) 91 (E) 92

Kudos for a correct solution.

The largest possible value is 92. At the first look you can eliminate (A), (C), and (D). 29, 29, 50, 50, 92

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14 Jun 2015, 04:15

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A set of 5 numbers has an average of 50. The largest element in the set is 5 greater than 3 times the smallest element in the set. If the median of the set equals the mean, what is the largest possible value in the set?

(A) 85 (B) 86 (C) 88 (D) 91 (E) 92

Keeping in mind the condition - Largest value = 5 + 3*smallest . Option A, C , D can be eliminated .

Option B . 86 = 5 + 3(smallest) smallest = 27

Similarly , Option E - smallest = 29. To find Max. Make the other min .

A set of 5 numbers has an average of 50. The largest element in the set is 5 greater than 3 times the smallest element in the set. If the median of the set equals the mean, what is the largest possible value in the set?

Two techniques will help us efficiently interpret the information given in the question. First, we draw a number line with 5 dots representing the 5 numbers in the set. Second, we label these numbers A, B, C, D, and E, with the understanding that A ≤ B ≤ C ≤ D ≤ E.

Attachment:

2015-06-15_1526.png [ 7.99 KiB | Viewed 2559 times ]

We are told that: A + B + C + D + E = 250 (The set of 5 numbers has an average of 50.) E = 5 + 3A (The largest element is 5 greater than 3 times the smallest element in the set.) C = 50 (The median of the set equals the mean.) We want to maximize E. We should arrange our dots on the number line such that we obey the constraints, yet also note where we have some flexibility.

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2015-06-15_1526_001.png [ 8.7 KiB | Viewed 2555 times ]

Point D can be anywhere on the line from Point C to Point E. Since D only appears in one of our formulas above (A + B + C + D + E = 250), we maximize E by minimizing D. Thus, D = C = 50

Similarly, Point B can be anywhere on the line from Point A to Point C. We maximize E by minimizing B, so B = A.

Attachment:

2015-06-15_1527.png [ 6.4 KiB | Viewed 2553 times ]

A + B + C + D + E = 250 A + (A) + 50 + 50 + (5 + 3A) = 250 105 + 5A = 250 5A = 145 A = 29

E = 5 + 3A = 5 + 3(29) = 5 + 87 = 92.

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2015-06-15_1528.png [ 7.35 KiB | Viewed 2555 times ]

Re: A set of 5 numbers has an average of 50. The largest element in the [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2017, 11:05

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Average of \(5\) no. is \(50\), so total is \(5*50=250\) Let, the first no. is \(x\). So, 5th no. is \(3x+5\) We need to maximize the 5th number, so we need to minimize the others number. The minimum value of 1st no. and 4th no. could be \(x\) and \(50\) respectively. So, it is like \(x+x+50+50+3x+5=250 => x=29.\) So, 5th no. is \(3*29+5=92.\)

A set of 5 numbers has an average of 50. The largest element in the set is 5 greater than 3 times the smallest element in the set. If the median of the set equals the mean, what is the largest possible value in the set?

(A) 85 (B) 86 (C) 88 (D) 91 (E) 92

We are given that a set of 5 numbers has an average of 50. Thus, the set has a sum of 250.

We are also given that the largest element in the set is 5 greater than 3 times the smallest element in the set. If we let the smallest element = x, then the largest element is 3x + 5. Finally since the median = average, the median = 50. To determine the largest possible value in the set, let’s minimize the first four values.

1st value = x

2nd value = x

3rd value = median = 50

4th value = 50

5th value = 3x + 5

Thus:

x + x + 50 + 50 + 3x + 5 = 250

5x + 105 = 250

5x = 145

x = 29

Thus, the largest value is 3 x 29 + 5 = 92.

Answer: E
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