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A team of pediatricians recently announced that dogs are more likely

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A team of pediatricians recently announced that dogs are more likely [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2017, 08:36
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A team of pediatricians recently announced that dogs are more likely to bite children under age 13 than any other age group. Their finding
was based on a study showing that the majority of all dog bites requiring medical attention involved children under 13. The study also
found that the dogs most likely to bite are German shepherds, males, and non-neutered dogs.
Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the pediatricians' conclusion that dogs are more likely to bite children under age 13 than
any other age group?
(A) More than half of dog bites not requiring medical attention, which exceeds the number requiring such attention, involve people aged 13
and older.
(B) The majority of dog bites resulting in the death of the bitten person involve people aged 65 and older.
(C) Many serious dog bites affecting children under age 13 are inflicted by female dogs, neutered dogs, and dogs that are not German
shepherds.
(D) Most dog bites of children under age 13 that require medical attention are far less serious than they initially appear.
(E) Most parents can learn to treat dog bites effectively if they avail themselves of a small amount of medical information.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by vinay589 on 17 Apr 2017, 21:13, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: A team of pediatricians recently announced that dogs are more likely [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2017, 00:33
Top Contributor
If you simplify the argument, then it is easy to see the correct answer --

Majority of all dog bites requiring medical attention involved children under 13 ---> dogs are more likely to bite children under age 13 than any other age group.

this argument uses data of a subset -- "dog bites requiring medical attention" -- to draw inferences about the entire population. i.e. about all dog bites.

Option A addresses this issue.
If majority of dog bites that do not require medical attention (AND this number exceeds the number of dog bites that require medical attention) involve people older than 13, then we can no longer conclude that dogs are more likely to bite children under 13.

Option B - Incorrect
this talks about "death from dog bites in people older than 65 years" -- we are concerned about age groups below 13 years and those above 13 years. Furthermore, we are concerned about all dog bites, not just the ones resulting in death.

Option C - Incorrect
Not relevant to the conclusion. Moreover, this talks only about "serious" dog bites, not all dog bites.

Option D - Incorrect
We are not really concerned about the "seriousness" of dog bites.

Option E - Incorrect
Not relevant to the conclusion
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Re: A team of pediatricians recently announced that dogs are more likely [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2017, 08:23
vinay589 wrote:
A team of pediatricians recently announced that dogs are more likely to bite children under age 13 than any other age group. Their finding
was based on a study showing that the majority of all dog bites requiring medical attention involved children under 13. The study also
found that the dogs most likely to bite are German shepherds, males, and non-neutered dogs.
Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the pediatricians' conclusion that dogs are more likely to bite children under age 13 than
any other age group?
(A) More than half of dog bites not requiring medical attention, which exceeds the number requiring such attention, involve people aged 13
and older.
(B) The majority of dog bites resulting in the death of the bitten person involve people aged 65 and older.
(C) Many serious dog bites affecting children under age 13 are inflicted by female dogs, neutered dogs, and dogs that are not German
shepherds.
(D) Most dog bites of children under age 13 that require medical attention are far less serious than they initially appear.
(E) Most parents can learn to treat dog bites effectively if they avail themselves of a small amount of medical information.

If the conclusion is solely based on a study and you have to weaken such conclusion then any fact point out the insufficiency or negativity about that data would be a weakener.

If total bites = 100
Conclusion: bites to <13 age children REQUIRING MEDICAL ATTENTION <50
Fact: bites to >=13 age people NOT REQUIRING MEDICAL ATTENTION >50

Now this new knowledge weakens the conslusion by showing that study did not consider the higher number of people who were bitten but not counted because they did not need medical attention.

Hence A.
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Re: A team of pediatricians recently announced that dogs are more likely   [#permalink] 17 Apr 2017, 08:23
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