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According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent

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According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent  [#permalink]

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According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent of Americans born before 1905 had suffered major depression by the age of seventy-five; of those born since 1955, six percent had become depressed by age twenty-four.


(A) only one percent of Americans born before 1905 had suffered major depression by the age of seventy-five; of those born since 1955, six percent had become depressed by age twenty-four

(B) only one percent of Americans born before 1905 suffer major depression by the age of seventy-five; if they are born since 1955, six percent become depressed by age twenty-four

(C) of Americans born before 1905, only one percent of them have suffered major depression by age seventy-five, but six percent of those born since 1955 do by the age of twenty-four

(D) major depression is suffered by the age of seventy-five by only one percent of Americans born before 1905, and by age twenty-four by the six percent born since 1955

(E) Americans born before 1905 suffer major depression by the age of seventy-five only one percent of the time, but six percent of those born since 1955 did so by age twenty-four

https://www.nytimes.com/1992/12/08/science/a-rising-cost-of-modernity-depression.html

In 1989 Dr. Weissman and her colleagues published results from five cities in the United States showing an increasing risk of depression at some point in life for younger Americans. For example, of those Americans born before 1905, only 1 percent had suffered a major depression by age 75; of those born since 1955, 6 percent had become depressed by age 24. That trend was corroborated earlier this year by a six-year study of 956 American men and women which found that those under 40 were three times more likely to become severely depressed than were older groups. The current findings suggest this trend is worldwide.

Originally posted by Maulikgmat on 11 Jul 2009, 21:02.
Last edited by Bunuel on 20 Aug 2019, 02:54, edited 4 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2011, 09:18
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41. According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent of Americans born before 1905 had suffered major depression by the age of seventy-five; of those born since 1955, six percent had become depressed by age twenty-four.(A) only one percent of Americans born before 1905 had suffered major depression by the age of seventy-five; of those born since 1955, six percent had become depressed by age twenty-four

Two concepts. 1. Use of semi colon 2. Use of past perfect tense.
Semi colon - Used with two independent clause which should be related to each other.
Past Perfect tense - Started with one point of time in past and should be continuous till another time of past, or its effect should remain till that time.

First let's analyze all options except A.
(B) only one percent of Americans born before 1905 suffer major depression by the age of seventy-five; if they are born since 1955, six percent become depressed by age twenty-four
1. First problem is with tense.
"Suffer" represent present tense so can not refer past.
This has to be in perfect tense because those 1% of americand were still suffering after age of seventy-five
2. Second problem is with Pronoun.
Here "if they are born" referring to the same people "one percent of Americans" but as mentioned later in sentence that now the number is 6% and these people or this group is different from "one percent of Americans".

(C) of Americans born before 1905, only one percent of them have suffered major depression by age seventy-five, but six percent of those born since 1955 do by the age of twenty-four
1. GMAT perfer they in place of them.
2. "Have suffered" means those people are still suffering

(D) major depression is suffered by the age of seventy-five by only one percent of Americans born before 1905, and by age twenty-four by the six percent born since 1955
1. Here first cluase is passive construction ( by x); Suffer is intrasitive verb so we can not have passive sentence with it, or in another words, Major depression can not be suffered by anything.
2. "by age twenty-four by the six percent born since 1955" is not correct construction and meaningless.

(E) Americans born before 1905 suffer major depression by the age of seventy-five only one percent of the time, but six percent of those born since 1955 did so by age twenty-four.
1)If we remove "the age of seventy-five" then remaining sentence is -Americans born before 1905 suffer major depression by only one percent of the time " , okay they only suffer 1% time 99% percent they are out of depression. Wrong meaning.
2)Suffer is in the present tense.

(A) only one percent of Americans born before 1905 had suffered major depression by the age of seventy-five; of those born since 1955, six percent had become depressed by age twenty-four.
Let's assume Americans born before 1905 were = 6000
those born since 1955= 80000
Then sentense is
only one percent of 6000 had suffered major depression by the age of seventy-five; of 8000, six percent had become depressed by age twenty-four.
1. Use of perfect tense because major depression or its effect is continious.
2. Both of these sentences are independent and related as we are talking about americans.

I hope my explanation will help.

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Re: According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2009, 21:42
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in E, first part says "suffer", second part says "did so". Tense is not matching.

A is correct, had is required because we r talking about 2 events (depression and age of 75) of which, one had occurred before another.
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Re: According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2009, 21:54
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rashminet84 wrote:
in E, first part says "suffer", second part says "did so". Tense is not matching.

A is correct, had is required because we r talking about 2 events (depression and age of 75) of which, one had occurred before another.


In "A", "by the age of seventy five" & "by age twenty four" are not parallel.

What do you say guys?? I ignored "A" only because of this reason. "the" was missing in "by age twenty four" ?????
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Re: According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2009, 05:08
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"by the age of seventy five" & "by age twenty four" - more than word per word, the logical structure should be parallel. "by the age of seventy five" and "by age twenty four" are both nouns and hence missing a "the" shouldn't be an issue. For example you can compare a "mice" to "lions and tigers" which would still be correct in a sentence:

Like mice, lions and tigers are extremely hard working animals.
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Re: According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Aug 2010, 17:56
I see no body selecting B. Am I missing something very obvious here? Moreover as per Manhattan GMAT a clause after semi-colon be able to stand on its own. So how can A be the correct answer.
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Re: According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2010, 11:08
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arundas wrote:
I see no body selecting B. Am I missing something very obvious here? Moreover as per Manhattan GMAT a clause after semi-colon be able to stand on its own. So how can A be the correct answer.


(A) only one percent of Americans born before 1905 had suffered major depression by the age of seventy-five; of those born since 1955, six percent had become depressed by age twenty-four

The bolded portion is a clause that is related to the clause before semi colon.

For semi colon it is not necessary to explain the previous clause but if they are related there is no harm.
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Re: According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2010, 05:40
is there an official answer to this?
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Re: According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2010, 12:45
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@aman :

of those born since 1955, six percent had become depressed by age twenty-four .

This is a complete sentence and should be able to stand independently. A is the correct option.

Initially , I thought it was C but the latter part of the sentence is awkward with parallelism being violated .

(C) of Americans born before 1905, only one percent of them have suffered major depression by age seventy-five, but six percent of those born since 1955 do by the age of twenty-four
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Re: According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2011, 11:01
I think A would be correct choice.

According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent of Americans born before 1905 had suffered major depression by the age of seventy-five; of those born since 1955, six percent had become depressed by age twenty-four.
(A) only one percent of Americans born before 1905 had suffered major depression by the age of seventy-five; of those born since 1955, six percent had become depressed by age twenty-four [seems correct syntactically and meaning-wise]
(B) only one percent of Americans born before 1905 suffer major depression by the age of seventy-five; if they are born since 1955, six percent become depressed by age twenty-four [incorrect usage of the word suffer; should be suffered. Similarly for become]
(C) of Americans born before 1905, only one percent of them have suffered major depression by age seventy-five, but six percent of those born since 1955 do by the age of twenty-four [have suffered should be had suffered; since 1955 did by..]
[only one percent of them--unnecessary usage of them. omitting it makes the meaning clear as well]
(D) major depression is suffered by the age of seventy-five by only one percent of Americans born before 1905, and by age twenty-four by the six percent born since 1955 [no matching between only one percent and by the six percent;Incorrect sentence construction]
(E) Americans born before 1905 suffer major depression by the age of seventy-five only one percent of the time, but six percent of those born since 1955 did so by age twenty-four [suffer ..did so...No matching of tenses...also the meaning becomes ambiguous..by the age of seventy-five only one percent of the time..are we referring to a period/ passage/ quantity of time?]
Plz clarify between A, B and E....
E seems to be appropriate....????..
In A had is required or not????
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Re: According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2014, 11:22
In "those born since 1955", "since" means "after". You need to use the past perfect to imply that the Americans became depressed "before" they turned (simple past) 24.

Read the sentence with present perfect:
Of those born after 1955, six percent have become depressed by age 24.

The present perfect is used for actions occurring in this window: past--present. But the Americans did not turn 24 today. You cannot combine the present perfect with markers of the past such as "last week" or "by some (past moment)".


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Re: According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jun 2015, 03:33
Two events and both are completed in the past. So we need had with the event that happened before ie even 1.

1. People born before 1905 suffered by the age 75 and those born after 1955 depressed by the age 24.

2. Study published

Study published - only one percent of Americans born before 1905 had suffered major
depression by the age of seventy-five; of those born since 1955, six percent had become depressed by age twenty-four
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Re: According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jul 2018, 06:49
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According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent of Americans born before 1905 had suffered major depression by the age of seventy-five; of those born since 1955, six percent had become depressed by age twenty-four.

(A) only one percent of Americans born before 1905 had suffered major depression by the age of seventy-five; of those born since 1955, six percent had become depressed by age twenty-four

(B) only one percent of Americans born before 1905 suffer major depression by the age of seventy-five; if they are born since 1955, six percent become depressed by age twenty-four

(C) of Americans born before 1905, only one percent of them have suffered major depression by age seventy-five, but six percent of those born since 1955 do by the age of twenty-four

(D) major depression is suffered by the age of seventy-five by only one percent of Americans born before 1905, and by age twenty-four by the six percent born since 1955

(E) Americans born before 1905 suffer major depression by the age of seventy-five only one percent of the time, but six percent of those born since 1955 did so by age twenty-four

This is a finding of a study that specifically deals with the phenomenon of mental depression in different age groups, one in the deep past and another in the near past. However, both of them occurred and ended in the past. In such a context, we are not supposed to assume that they are both universal happenings or daily chores to describe them either in the present tense or the present perfect. On this score alone, we can dispense with B, C, D, and E.
However, is it correct to use past perfect for both events as in A? Obviously, we are tempted to say that the youngsters' depression is the later one and we should, therefore, use a simple past. Unfortunately not so. Add 75 to 1905 and it is 1980. Add 24 to 1955 and it is 1979, around the same time as 1980. In this case, we could use simple past for both the events provided there is no third event that is the last in the passage.
Nevertheless, the passage says that there is a third event that occurred later i.e., the researcher's publication that was distinctly later than the prior two events. Hence, we can use past perfect for both those earlier events.

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Re: According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2018, 04:49
Option (A) is the correct choice asit uses past perfect tense because major depression or its effect is continuous and both of these sentences are independent and related as we are talking about Americans.Hence (a).
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Re: According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jun 2019, 05:44
"...six percent had become depressed by age twenty-four."

Don't we need an article "the" before age?

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Re: According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only one percent  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jun 2019, 05:59
LevanKhukhunashvili wrote:
"...six percent had become depressed by age twenty-four."

Don't we need an article "the" before age?

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No.

There are multiple ways to express that idea, including the following:

- age twenty-four

- the age of twenty-four

- twenty-four years of age
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Re: According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only  [#permalink]

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Re: According to a study published by Dr. Myrna Weissman, only   [#permalink] 20 Aug 2019, 02:57
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