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Although, recent years have seen substantial reductions in noxious

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Although, recent years have seen substantial reductions in noxious  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 08 Feb 2020, 11:53
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1993-04 SECTION A 17-24

Although, recent years have seen substantial reductions in noxious pollutants from individual motor vehicles, the number of such vehicles has been steadily increasing consequently, more than 100 cities in the United States still have levels of carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and ozone (generated by photochemical reactions with hydrocarbons from vehicle exhaust) that exceed legally established limits. There is a growing realization that the only effective way to achieve further reductions in vehicle emissions—short of a massive shift away from the private automobile—is to replace conventional diesel fuel and gasoline with cleaner-burning fuels such as compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, ethanol, or methanol.

All of these alternatives are carbon-based fuels whose molecules are smaller and simpler than those of gasoline. These molecules burn more cleanly than gasoline, in part because they have fewer, if and, carbon-carbon bonds, and the hydrocarbons they do emit are less likely to generate ozone. The combustion of larger molecules, which have multiple carbon-carbon bonds, involves a more complex series of reactions. These reactions increase the probability of incomplete combustion and are more likely to release uncombusted and photochemically active hydrocarbon compounds into the atmosphere. On the other hand, alternative fuels do have drawbacks. Compressed natural gas would require that vehicles have a set of heavy fuel tanks—a serious liability in terms of performance and fuel efficiency—and liquefied petroleum gas faces fundamental limits on supply.

Ethanol and methanol, on the other hand, have important advantages over other carbon-based alternative fuels: they have a higher energy content per volume and would require minimal changes in the existing network for distributing motor fuel. Ethanol is commonly used as a gasoline supplement, but it is currently about twice as expensive as methanol, the low cost of which is one of its attractive features. Methanol’s most attractive feature, however, is that it can reduce by about 90 percent the vehicle emissions that form ozone, the most serious urban air pollutant.

Like any alternative fuel, methanol has its critics. Yet much of the criticism is based on the use of “gasoline clone” vehicles that do not incorporate even the simplest design improvements that are made possible with the use of methanol. It is true, for example, that a given volume of methanol provides only about one-half of the energy that gasoline and diesel fuel do; other things being equal, the fuel tank would have to be somewhat larger and heavier. However, since methanol-fueled vehicles could be designed to be much more efficient than “gasoline clone” vehicles fueled with methanol, they would need comparatively less fuel. Vehicles incorporating only the simplest of the engine improvements that methanol makes feasible would still contribute to an immediate lessening of urban air pollution.

1.​The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

(A) countering a flawed argument that dismisses a possible solution to a problem
(B) reconciling contradictory points of view about the nature of a problem
(C) identifying the strengths of possible solutions to a problem
(D) discussing a problem and arguing in favor of one solution to it
(E) outlining a plan of action to solve a problem and discussing the obstacles blocking that plan

​2. ​According to the passage, incomplete combustion is more likely to occur with gasoline than with an alternative fuel because

(A) the combustion of gasoline releases photochemically active hydrocarbons
(B) the combustion of gasoline involves an intricate series of reactions
(C) gasoline molecules have a simple molecular structure
(D) gasoline is composed of small molecules.
(E) gasoline is a carbon-based fuel

3. ​​​​The passage suggests which of the following about air pollution?

(A) Further attempts to reduce emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles will not help lower urban air-pollution levels.
(B) Attempts to reduce the pollutants that an individual gasoline-fueled vehicle emits have been largely unsuccessful.
(C) Few serious attempts have been made to reduce the amount of pollutants emitted by gasoline-fueled vehicles.
(D) Pollutants emitted by gasoline-fueled vehicles are not the most critical source of urban air pollution.
(E) Reductions in pollutants emitted by individual vehicles have been offset by increases in pollution from sources other than gasoline-fueled vehicles.

4. ​​​​​​​​​which of the following most closely parallels the situation described in the first sentence of the passage?

(A) Although a town reduces its public services in order to avoid a tax increase, the town’s tax rate exceeds that of other towns in the surrounding area.
(B) Although a state passes strict laws to limit the type of toxic material that can be disposed of in public landfills, illegal dumping continues to increase.
(C) Although a town’s citizens reduce their individual use of water, the town’s water supplies continue to dwindle because of a steady increase in the total population of the town.
(D) Although a country attempts to increase the sale of domestic goods by adding a tax to the price of imported goods, the sale of imported goods within the country continues to increase.
(E) Although a country reduces the speed limit on its national highways, the number of fatalities caused by automobile accidents continues to increase.

5. ​​​​​​The author describes which of the following as the most appealing feature of methanol?

(A) It is substantially less expensive than ethanol.
(B) It could be provided to consumers through the existing motor fuel distribution system.
(C) It has a higher energy content than other alternative fuels.
(D) Its use would make design improvements in individual vehicles feasible.
(E) Its use would substantially reduce ozone levels.

6. ​​​​​​​​​It can be inferred from the passage that a vehicle specifically designed to use methanol for fuel would

(A) be somewhat lighter in total body weight than a conventional vehicle fueled with gasoline
(B) be more expensive to operate than a conventional vehicle fueled with gasoline
(C) have a larger and more powerful engine than a conventional vehicle fueled with gasoline
(D) have a larger and heavier fuel tank than a “gasoline clone” vehicle fueled with methanol
(E) average more miles per gallon than a “gasoline clone” vehicle fueled with methanol

7. ​​​​​​​It can be inferred that the author of the passage most likely regards the criticism of methanol in the last paragraph as

(A) flawed because of the assumptions on which it is based
(B) inapplicable because of an inconsistency in the critics’ arguments
(C) misguided because of its exclusively technological focus
(D) inaccurate because it ignores consumers’ concerns
(E) invalid because it reflects the personal bias of the critics

Originally posted by pathy on 08 Feb 2020, 00:41.
Last edited by pathy on 08 Feb 2020, 11:53, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Although, recent years have seen substantial reductions in noxious  [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2020, 04:24
1
pathy
The OAs are surely wrong. Can someone post the correct OAs please?
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Joined: 20 May 2019
Posts: 10
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Re: Although, recent years have seen substantial reductions in noxious  [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2020, 07:59
OAs are incorrect. Can the author please correct them?
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Joined: 16 Aug 2019
Posts: 116
Although, recent years have seen substantial reductions in noxious  [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2020, 19:23
1
pathy wrote:
1993-04 SECTION A 17-24

Although, recent years have seen substantial reductions in noxious pollutants from individual motor vehicles, the number of such vehicles has been steadily increasing consequently, more than 100 cities in the United States still have levels of carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and ozone (generated by photochemical reactions with hydrocarbons from vehicle exhaust) that exceed legally established limits. There is a growing realization that the only effective way to achieve further reductions in vehicle emissions—short of a massive shift away from the private automobile—is to replace conventional diesel fuel and gasoline with cleaner-burning fuels such as compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, ethanol, or methanol.

All of these alternatives are carbon-based fuels whose molecules are smaller and simpler than those of gasoline. These molecules burn more cleanly than gasoline, in part because they have fewer, if and, carbon-carbon bonds, and the hydrocarbons they do emit are less likely to generate ozone. The combustion of larger molecules, which have multiple carbon-carbon bonds, involves a more complex series of reactions. These reactions increase the probability of incomplete combustion and are more likely to release uncombusted and photochemically active hydrocarbon compounds into the atmosphere. On the other hand, alternative fuels do have drawbacks. Compressed natural gas would require that vehicles have a set of heavy fuel tanks—a serious liability in terms of performance and fuel efficiency—and liquefied petroleum gas faces fundamental limits on supply.

Ethanol and methanol, on the other hand, have important advantages over other carbon-based alternative fuels: they have a higher energy content per volume and would require minimal changes in the existing network for distributing motor fuel. Ethanol is commonly used as a gasoline supplement, but it is currently about twice as expensive as methanol, the low cost of which is one of its attractive features. Methanol’s most attractive feature, however, is that it can reduce by about 90 percent the vehicle emissions that form ozone, the most serious urban air pollutant.

Like any alternative fuel, methanol has its critics. Yet much of the criticism is based on the use of “gasoline clone” vehicles that do not incorporate even the simplest design improvements that are made possible with the use of methanol. It is true, for example, that a given volume of methanol provides only about one-half of the energy that gasoline and diesel fuel do; other things being equal, the fuel tank would have to be somewhat larger and heavier. However, since methanol-fueled vehicles could be designed to be much more efficient than “gasoline clone” vehicles fueled with methanol, they would need comparatively less fuel. Vehicles incorporating only the simplest of the engine improvements that methanol makes feasible would still contribute to an immediate lessening of urban air pollution.

1.​The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

(A) countering a flawed argument that dismisses a possible solution to a problem
(B) reconciling contradictory points of view about the nature of a problem
(C) identifying the strengths of possible solutions to a problem
(D) discussing a problem and arguing in favor of one solution to it
(E) outlining a plan of action to solve a problem and discussing the obstacles blocking that plan

​2. ​According to the passage, incomplete combustion is more likely to occur with gasoline than with an alternative fuel because

(A) the combustion of gasoline releases photochemically active hydrocarbons
(B) the combustion of gasoline involves an intricate series of reactions
(C) gasoline molecules have a simple molecular structure
(D) gasoline is composed of small molecules.
(E) gasoline is a carbon-based fuel

3. ​​​​The passage suggests which of the following about air pollution?

(A) Further attempts to reduce emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles will not help lower urban air-pollution levels.
(B) Attempts to reduce the pollutants that an individual gasoline-fueled vehicle emits have been largely unsuccessful.
(C) Few serious attempts have been made to reduce the amount of pollutants emitted by gasoline-fueled vehicles.
(D) Pollutants emitted by gasoline-fueled vehicles are not the most critical source of urban air pollution.
(E) Reductions in pollutants emitted by individual vehicles have been offset by increases in pollution from sources other than gasoline-fueled vehicles.

4. ​​​​​​​​​which of the following most closely parallels the situation described in the first sentence of the passage?

(A) Although a town reduces its public services in order to avoid a tax increase, the town’s tax rate exceeds that of other towns in the surrounding area.
(B) Although a state passes strict laws to limit the type of toxic material that can be disposed of in public landfills, illegal dumping continues to increase.
(C) Although a town’s citizens reduce their individual use of water, the town’s water supplies continue to dwindle because of a steady increase in the total population of the town.
(D) Although a country attempts to increase the sale of domestic goods by adding a tax to the price of imported goods, the sale of imported goods within the country continues to increase.
(E) Although a country reduces the speed limit on its national highways, the number of fatalities caused by automobile accidents continues to increase.

5. ​​​​​​The author describes which of the following as the most appealing feature of methanol?

(A) It is substantially less expensive than ethanol.
(B) It could be provided to consumers through the existing motor fuel distribution system.
(C) It has a higher energy content than other alternative fuels.
(D) Its use would make design improvements in individual vehicles feasible.
(E) Its use would substantially reduce ozone levels.

6. ​​​​​​​​​It can be inferred from the passage that a vehicle specifically designed to use methanol for fuel would

(A) be somewhat lighter in total body weight than a conventional vehicle fueled with gasoline
(B) be more expensive to operate than a conventional vehicle fueled with gasoline
(C) have a larger and more powerful engine than a conventional vehicle fueled with gasoline
(D) have a larger and heavier fuel tank than a “gasoline clone” vehicle fueled with methanol
(E) average more miles per gallon than a “gasoline clone” vehicle fueled with methanol

7. ​​​​​​​It can be inferred that the author of the passage most likely regards the criticism of methanol in the last paragraph as

(A) flawed because of the assumptions on which it is based
(B) inapplicable because of an inconsistency in the critics’ arguments
(C) misguided because of its exclusively technological focus
(D) inaccurate because it ignores consumers’ concerns
(E) invalid because it reflects the personal bias of the critics

1.The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

(A) countering a flawed argument that dismisses a possible solution to a problem
(B) reconciling contradictory points of view about the nature of a problem
(C) identifying the strengths of possible solutions to a problem
(D) discussing a problem and arguing in favor of one solution to it…correct
(E) outlining a plan of action to solve a problem and discussing the obstacles blocking that plan

2. According to the passage, incomplete combustion is more likely to occur with gasoline than with an alternative fuel because

(A) the combustion of gasoline releases photochemically active hydrocarbons
(B) the combustion of gasoline involves an intricate series of reactions…correct

The combustion of larger molecules, which have multiple carbon-carbon bonds, involves a more complex series of reactions.

(C) gasoline molecules have a simple molecular structure
(D) gasoline is composed of small molecules.
(E) gasoline is a carbon-based fuel

3. The passage suggests which of the following about air pollution?

(A) Further attempts to reduce emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles will not help lower urban air-pollution levels…CORRECT

(B) Attempts to reduce the pollutants that an individual gasoline-fueled vehicle emits have been largely unsuccessful….INCORRECT

Q3 is tricky

For (A)&(B),
That’s why researcher turn to cleaner-burning fuels
But its really hard to distinguish between (A) and (B)

the meaning for (B) resembles (A),the only slight difference is on “an individual gasoline-fueled vehicle” vs “gasoline-fueled vehicles”

we can infer from the start of the passage

Although, recent years have seen substantial reductions in noxious pollutants from individual motor vehicles, the number of such vehicles has been steadily increasing consequently, more than 100 cities in the United States still have levels of carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and ozone (generated by photochemical reactions with hydrocarbons from vehicle exhaust) that exceed legally established limits.

Thus
Individual vehicle -pollutant down
The quantitiy of vehicle up

100 cities combine, pollutant up

That’s why (A) is correct and (B) is not correct
(C) Few serious attempts have been made to reduce the amount of pollutants emitted by gasoline-fueled vehicles. ….INCORRECT
(D) Pollutants emitted by gasoline-fueled vehicles are not the most critical source of urban air pollution. ….INCORRECT
(E) Reductions in pollutants emitted by individual vehicles have been offset by increases in pollution from sources other than gasoline-fueled vehicles. ….INCORRECT

4. which of the following most closely parallels the situation described in the first sentence of the passage?
Although, recent years have seen substantial reductions in noxious pollutants from individual motor vehicles, the number of such vehicles has been steadily increasing consequently, more than 100 cities in the United States still have levels of carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and ozone (generated by photochemical reactions with hydrocarbons from vehicle exhaust) that exceed legally established limits.

(A) Although a town reduces its public services in order to avoid a tax increase, the town’s tax rate exceeds that of other towns in the surrounding area.
(B) Although a state passes strict laws to limit the type of toxic material that can be disposed of in public landfills, illegal dumping continues to increase.
(C) Although a town’s citizens reduce their individual use of water, the town’s water supplies continue to dwindle because of a steady increase in the total population of the town. …CORRECT

Individual vehicle -pollutant: down

The quantitiy of vehicle: up (steady)

100 cities combine, pollutant: up

parallel
Individual use of water: down

Town water supplies: down

(D) Although a country attempts to increase the sale of domestic goods by adding a tax to the price of imported goods, the sale of imported goods within the country continues to increase.
(E) Although a country reduces the speed limit on its national highways, the number of fatalities caused by automobile accidents continues to increase.

5. The author describes which of the following as the most appealing feature of methanol?

(A) It is substantially less expensive than ethanol.
(B) It could be provided to consumers through the existing motor fuel distribution system.
(C) It has a higher energy content than other alternative fuels.
(D) Its use would make design improvements in individual vehicles feasible.
(E) Its use would substantially reduce ozone levels. …correct

Methanol’s most attractive feature, however, is that it can reduce by about 90 percent the vehicle emissions that form ozone, the most serious urban air pollutant.

6. It can be inferred from the passage that a vehicle specifically designed to use methanol for fuel would
Like any alternative fuel, methanol has its critics. Yet much of the criticism is based on the use of “gasoline clone” vehicles that do not incorporate even the simplest design improvements that are made possible with the use of methanol. It is true, for example, that a given volume of methanol provides only about one-half of the energy that gasoline and diesel fuel do; other things being equal, the fuel tank would have to be somewhat larger and heavier. However, since methanol-fueled vehicles could be designed to be much more efficient than “gasoline clone” vehicles fueled with methanol, they would need comparatively less fuel. Vehicles incorporating only the simplest of the engine improvements that methanol makes feasible would still contribute to an immediate lessening of urban air pollution.

(A) be somewhat lighter in total body weight than a conventional vehicle fueled with gasoline
(B) be more expensive to operate than a conventional vehicle fueled with gasoline
(C) have a larger and more powerful engine than a conventional vehicle fueled with gasoline

(D) have a larger and heavier fuel tank than a “gasoline clone” vehicle fueled with methanol

other things being equal, the fuel tank would have to be somewhat
larger and heavier, not compare with “gasoline clone vehicle”

(E) average more miles per gallon than a “gasoline clone” vehicle fueled with methanol…correct

since methanol-fueled vehicles could be designed to be much more efficient than “gasoline clone” vehicles fueled with methanol, they

7. It can be inferred that the author of the passage most likely regards the criticism of methanol in the last paragraph as

Like any alternative fuel, methanol has its critics. Yet much of the criticism is based on the use of “gasoline clone” vehicles that do not incorporate even the simplest design improvements that are made possible with the use of methanol. It is true, for example, that a given volume of methanol provides only about one-half of the energy that gasoline and diesel fuel do; other things being equal, the fuel tank would have to be somewhat larger and heavier. However, since methanol-fueled vehicles could be designed to be much more efficient than “gasoline clone” vehicles fueled with methanol, they would need comparatively less fuel. Vehicles incorporating only the simplest of the engine improvements that methanol makes feasible would still contribute to an immediate lessening of urban air pollution.

(A) flawed because of the assumptions on which it is based…correct

Yet much of the criticism is based on the use of “gasoline clone” vehicles…

(B) inapplicable because of an inconsistency in the critics’ arguments
(C) misguided because of its exclusively technological focus
(D) inaccurate because it ignores consumers’ concerns
(E) invalid because it reflects the personal bias of the critics
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Posts: 10
Location: India
Re: Although, recent years have seen substantial reductions in noxious  [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2020, 08:00
mimishyu - Thanks for your solution
Senior Manager
Joined: 31 Jan 2019
Posts: 391
Location: Switzerland
Concentration: General Management
GPA: 3.9
Although, recent years have seen substantial reductions in noxious  [#permalink]

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24 Feb 2020, 00:33
Hi everyone,
Took 18 minutes and got 7/8 correct.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

P1

In this paragraph the author gives us context: emissions are increasing because of several reasons (more cars, lack of adherence to standards.....) and the only solution possible is to use clearer burning fuels.

Purpose: The purpose of this paragraph is to present a situation and claim that a possible solution to it exists

P2

In this paragraph the author explains why the alternative fuels considered produce fewer emissions (smaller molecules, less production of ozone....) and then the author proceeds by mentioning some drawbacks that such alternative fuels have (need of a bigger and heavier tank....).

Purpose: The purpose of this paragraph is to explain why alternative fuels produce fewer emissions and to enumerate some drawbacks of such fuels

P3

In this paragraph we are given that M&E are even better than the alternative fuels previously discussed. The the author proceeds by explaining the advantages of methanol over ethanol (costs, emission reduction....)

Purpose: The purpose of this paragraph is to present ethanol and methanol as the best alternatives and to suggest that among the two methanol is the best candidate.

P4

In this paragraph we are given the sort of critics related to the use of methanol. The author stresses the fact that such critics are based since they consider a gasoline clone instead of a vehicle that is built in order to accommodate methanol. Lastly the author claims that the introduction of methanol will anyway help with the emission problem.

Purpose: The purpose of this paragraph is to present the critics to methanol, show that such critics are biased and conclude that the usage of methanol will be anyhow beneficial to the problem of emissions.

Main point

The main point of this passage is to investigate among the possible alternative fuels that should be used to reduce emissions and select methanol as the best candidate.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.​The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

Pre-thinking

Main point question

The main point of this passage is to investigate among the possible alternative fuels that should be used to reduce emissions and select methanol as the best candidate.

(A) countering a flawed argument that dismisses a possible solution to a problem
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) reconciling contradictory points of view about the nature of a problem
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) identifying the strengths of possible solutions to a problem
Not in line with pre-thinking. Partial scope

(D) discussing a problem and arguing in favor of one solution to it
In line with pre-thinking

(E) outlining a plan of action to solve a problem and discussing the obstacles blocking that plan
Not in line with pre-thinking

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. ​According to the passage, incomplete combustion is more likely to occur with gasoline than with an alternative fuel because

Pre-thinking

Detail question

From Paragraph 2 here is what we are looking for: "These molecules burn more cleanly than gasoline, in part because they have fewer, if and, carbon-carbon bonds, and the hydrocarbons they do emit are less likely to generate ozone. The combustion of larger molecules, which have multiple carbon-carbon bonds, involves a more complex series of reactions. These reactions increase the probability of incomplete combustion and are more likely to release uncombusted and photochemically active hydrocarbon compounds into the atmosphere. "

P.S. It is very important in detail questions to know where to look for details. Here is where we can see the importance of creating little summaries of the paragraphs either on a paper or in our head.

(A) the combustion of gasoline releases photochemically active hydrocarbons
Tricky. This option represents a consequence of incomplete combustion and not the cause

(B) the combustion of gasoline involves an intricate series of reactions
In line with pre-thinking

(C) gasoline molecules have a simple molecular structure
Opposite

(D) gasoline is composed of small molecules.
Incorrect

(E) gasoline is a carbon-based fuel
Incorrect

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3. ​​​​The passage suggests which of the following about air pollution?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

Air pollution is mainly discussed in P1. So let's keep this in mind while we analyze the answer choices.
[/b]

(A) Further attempts to reduce emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles will not help lower urban air-pollution levels.
This option is a good candidate. As a matter of fact it is said in the passage that the only viable way to reduce emissions seems to be considering an alternate fuel. Hence we can infer that trying to reduce the emission from gasoline fueled vehicles won't be enough

(B) Attempts to reduce the pollutants that an individual gasoline-fueled vehicle emits have been largely unsuccessful.
[b]Cannot be inferred

(C) Few serious attempts have been made to reduce the amount of pollutants emitted by gasoline-fueled vehicles.
Cannot be inferred. Few or many we don't know

(D) Pollutants emitted by gasoline-fueled vehicles are not the most critical source of urban air pollution.
Cannot be inferred

(E) Reductions in pollutants emitted by individual vehicles have been offset by increases in pollution from sources other than gasoline-fueled vehicles.
Cannot be inferred

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. ​​​​​​​​​which of the following most closely parallels the situation described in the first sentence of the passage?

Pre-thinking

Analogous statement question

Here is the sentence: "Although, recent years have seen substantial reductions in noxious pollutants from individual motor vehicles, the number of such vehicles has been steadily increasing consequently, more than 100 cities in the United States still have levels of carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and ozone (generated by photochemical reactions with hydrocarbons from vehicle exhaust) that exceed legally established limits."

What we have here is a situation in which attempts to reduce the singular rates of individuals have been successful but now there are many more elements than before. Plus some elements don't adhere to new requirements.

(A) Although a town reduces its public services in order to avoid a tax increase, the town’s tax rate exceeds that of other towns in the surrounding area.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(B) Although a state passes strict laws to limit the type of toxic material that can be disposed of in public landfills, illegal dumping continues to increase.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) Although a town’s citizens reduce their individual use of water, the town’s water supplies continue to dwindle because of a steady increase in the total population of the town.
Correct as here we find the individual rates which are decreasing and the increase of elements that offset the benefits reached by the decrease in individual rates.

(D) Although a country attempts to increase the sale of domestic goods by adding a tax to the price of imported goods, the sale of imported goods within the country continues to increase.
[b]Not in line with pre-thinking[/b]

(E) Although a country reduces the speed limit on its national highways, the number of fatalities caused by automobile accidents continues to increase.
Not in line with pre-thinking

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5. ​​​​​​The author describes which of the following as the most appealing feature of methanol?

Pre-thinking

Detail question

From P3 here is the portion of the paragraph containing both the right solution and the incorrect one by which many people were tricked into selecting it.
"Ethanol is commonly used as a gasoline supplement, but it is currently about twice as expensive as methanol, the low cost of which is one of its attractive features. Methanol’s most attractive feature, however, is that it can reduce by about 90 percent the vehicle emissions that form ozone, the most serious urban air pollutant."

(A) It is substantially less expensive than ethanol.
Tricky but wrong for the above mentioned reasons

(B) It could be provided to consumers through the existing motor fuel distribution system.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(C) It has a higher energy content than other alternative fuels.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(D) Its use would make design improvements in individual vehicles feasible.
Not in line with pre-thinking

(E) Its use would substantially reduce ozone levels.
In line with pre-thinking

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. ​​​​​​​​​It can be inferred from the passage that a vehicle specifically designed to use methanol for fuel would

Pre-thinking

Inference question

This information is present in the last paragraph.
"However, since methanol-fueled vehicles could be designed to be much more efficient than “gasoline clone” vehicles fueled with methanol, they would need comparatively less fuel."

(A) be somewhat lighter in total body weight than a conventional vehicle fueled with gasoline
Weight is not discussed for the methanol fueled vehicle

(B) be more expensive to operate than a conventional vehicle fueled with gasoline
cannot be inferred

(C) have a larger and more powerful engine than a conventional vehicle fueled with gasoline
engine is not described

(D) have a larger and heavier fuel tank than a “gasoline clone” vehicle fueled with methanol
opposite

(E) average more miles per gallon than a “gasoline clone” vehicle fueled with methanol
Yes. The methanol based vehicle has a lighter tank and is more efficient than the clone.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7. ​​​​​​​It can be inferred that the author of the passage most likely regards the criticism of methanol in the last paragraph as

Pre-thinking

Inference question

From last paragraph: "Yet much of the criticism is based on the use of “gasoline clone” vehicles that do not incorporate even the simplest design improvements that are made possible with the use of methanol."

Clearly the author thinks that such criticism is biased because the gasoline clone that has been considered could be either improved or changed to a methanol fuel vehicle that would not present the drawbacks highlighted from the critic.

(A) flawed because of the assumptions on which it is based
We can say that the critics is assuming the usage of the gasoline clone. Hence correct

(B) inapplicable because of an inconsistency in the critics’ arguments
The critics is not inconsistent.

(C) misguided because of its exclusively technological focus
Incorrect

(D) inaccurate because it ignores consumers’ concerns
out of scope

(E) invalid because it reflects the personal bias of the critics
personal biased not present

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

It is a good day to be alive!
Although, recent years have seen substantial reductions in noxious   [#permalink] 24 Feb 2020, 00:33