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# Although the United States steel industry faces widely publicized econ

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Although the United States steel industry faces widely publicized econ  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 08 Oct 2019, 03:17
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 122, Date : 02-APR-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

Although the United States steel industry faces widely publicized economic problems that have eroded its steel production capacity, not all branches of the industry have been equally affected. The steel industry is not monolithic: it includes integrated producers, minimills, and specialty-steel mills. The integrated producers start with iron ore and coal and produce a wide assortment of shaped steels. The minimills reprocess scrap steel into a limited range of low-quality products, such as reinforcing rods for concrete. The specialty-steel mills are similar to minimills in that they tend to be smaller than the integrated producers and are based on scrap, but they manufacture much more expensive products than minimills do and commonly have an active in-house research-and-development effort.

Both minimills and specialty-steel mills have succeeded in avoiding the worst of the economic difficulties that are afflicting integrated steel producers, and some of the mills are quite profitable. Both take advantage of new technology for refining and casting steel, such as continuous casting, as soon as it becomes available. The minimills concentrate on producing a narrow range of products for sale in their immediate geographic area, whereas specialty-steel mills preserve flexibility in their operations in order to fulfill a customer’s particular specifications.

Among the factors that constrain the competitiveness of integrated producers are excessive labor, energy, and capital costs, as well as manufacturing inflexibility. Their equipment is old and less automated, and does not incorporate many of the latest refinement in steelmaking technology. (For example, only about half of the United States integrated producers have continuous casters, which combine pouring and rolling into one operation and thus save the cost of separate rolling equipment.) One might conclude that the older labor-intensive machinery still operating in United States integrated plants is at fault for the poor performance of the United States industry, but this cannot explain why Japanese integrated producers, who produce a higher-quality product using less energy and labor, are also experiencing economic trouble. The fact is that the common technological denominator of integrated producers is an inherently inefficient process that is still rooted in the nineteenth century.

Integrated producers have been unable to compete successfully with minimills because the minimills, like specialty-steel mills, have dispensed almost entirely with the archaic energy and capital-intensive front end of integrated steelmaking: the iron-smelting process, including the mining and preparation of the raw materials and the blast-furnace operation. In addition, minimills have found a profitable way to market steel products: as indicated above, they sell their finished products locally, thereby reducing transportation costs, and concentrate on a limited range of shapes and sizes within a narrow group of products that can be manufactured economically. For these reasons, minimills have been able to avoid the economic decline affecting integrated steel producers.
1. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

(A) United States steel producers face economic problems that are shared by producers in other nations.
(B) Minimills are the most successful steel producers because they best meet market demands for cheap steel.
(C) Minimills and specialty-steel mills are more economically competitive than integrated producers because they use new technology and avoid the costs of the iron smelting process.
(D) United States steel producers are experiencing an economic decline that can be traced back to the nineteenth century.
(E) New steelmaking technologies such as continuous casting will replace blast-furnace operations to reverse the decline in United States steel production.

2. The author mentions all of the following as features of minimills EXCEPT

(A) flexibility in their operations
(B) local sale of their products
(C) avoidance of mining operations
(D) use of new steel-refining technology
(E) a limited range of low-quality products

3. The author of the passage refers to “Japanese integrated producers” (Highlighted) primarily in order to support the view that

(A) different economic difficulties face the steel industries of different nations
(B) not all integrated producers share a common technological denominator
(C) labor-intensive machinery cannot be blamed for the economic condition of United States integrated steel producers
(D) modern steelmaking technology is generally labor-and energy-efficient
(E) labor-intensive machinery is an economic burden on United States integrated steel producers

4. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the third paragraph?

(A) A hypothesis is proposed and supported; then an opposing view is presented and criticized.
(B) A debate is described and illustrated: then a contrast is made and the debate is resolved.
(C) A dilemma is described and cited as evidence for a broader criticism.
(D) A proposition is stated and argued, then rejected in favor of a more general statement, which is supported with additional evidence.
(E) General statements are made and details given; then an explanation is proposed and rejected, and an alternative is offered.

5. It can be inferred from the passage that United States specialty-steel mills generally differ from integrated steel producers in that the specialty-steel mills

(A) sell products in a restricted geographical area
(B) share the economic troubles of the minimills
(C) resemble specialty-steel mills found in Japan
(D) concentrate on producing a narrow range of products
(E) do not operate blast furnaces

6. Each of the following describes an industry facing a problem also experienced by United Stated integrated steel producers EXCEPT

(A) a paper-manufacturing company that experiences difficulty in obtaining enough timber and other raw materials to meet its orders
(B) a food-canning plant whose canning machines must constantly be tended by human operators
(C) a textile firm that spends heavily on capital equipment and energy to process raw cotton before it is turned into fabric
(D) a window-glass manufacturer that is unable to produce quickly different varieties of glass with special features required by certain customers
(E) a leather-goods company whose hand-operated cutting and stitching machines were manufactured in Italy in the 1920s

7. Which one of the following, if true, would best serve as supporting evidence for the author’s explanation of the economic condition of integrated steel producers?

(A) Those nations that derive a larger percentage of their annual steel production from minimills than the United States does also have a smaller per capita trade deficit.
(B) Many integrated steel producers are as adept as the specialty-steel mills at producing high-quality products to meet customer specifications.
(C) Integrated steel producers in the United States are rapidly adopting the production methods of Japanese integrated producers.
(D) Integrated steel producers in the United States are now attempting to develop a worldwide market by advertising heavily.
(E) Those nations in which iron-smelting operations are carried out independently of steel production must heavily subsidize those operations in order to make them profitable.

• Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 6 (October 1992)
• Difficulty Level: 650

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Originally posted by nitya34 on 30 Mar 2009, 08:26.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 08 Oct 2019, 03:17, edited 5 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (857).
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Re: Although the United States steel industry faces widely publicized econ  [#permalink]

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30 Mar 2009, 09:24
B,D,A,E,E,A,D

I am taking too much time to read passages and understand them. I want to ask you guys whether I should try to answer correct (no matter how much time it takes) or I should try to answer all quetions (and let them be right or wrong) within some allotted time.
Just want to know what do you guys think.

I may be wrong on most of my answers above.
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Re: Although the United States steel industry faces widely publicized econ  [#permalink]

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30 Mar 2009, 11:26
Easy passage
few Qs were tricky
24 and 26(particularly 26)

my take is cacbede
time taken:16 mins
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Re: Although the United States steel industry faces widely publicized econ  [#permalink]

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30 Mar 2009, 20:44
nitya34 wrote:
Easy passage
few Qs were tricky
24 and 26(particularly 26)

my take is cacbede
time taken:16 mins

C A C E E A D/E

Actually I found 24/26 easy and found 27 tough

I felt it was D because author says IP has high costs and D says so as well. How ever, I did not understand E at all. What is E saying?

Let me take a shot at 24 and 26

24. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the third paragraph?

(A) A hypothesis is proposed and supported; then an opposing view is presented and criticized.
(B) A debate is described and illustrated: then a contrast is made and the debate is resolved.
(C) A dilemma is described and cited as evidence for a broader criticism.
(D) A proposition is stated and argued, then rejected in favor of a more general statement, which is supported with additional evidence.
(E) General statements are made and details given; then an explanation is proposed and rejected, and an alternative is offered.

We can easily rule out A B C.

I was not sure about the preposition but clearly in the end there is no more evidence. Author just says what he thinks is the cause. He does not explain. Look at E. Perfect

Explains why IP are screwed. Offers that possibly antiquated equipment and methods, compares with J and rules it out. offers another cause.

26. Each of the following describes an industry facing a problem also experienced by United Stated integrated steel producers EXCEPT

(A) a paper-manufacturing company that experiences difficulty in obtaining enough timber and other raw materials to meet its orders

Lack of raw materials was never issue of IP

(B) a food-canning plant whose canning machines must constantly be tended by human operators Excessive labor
(C) a textile firm that spends heavily on capital equipment and energy to process raw cotton before it is turned into fabric

High amounts of capital

(D) a window-glass manufacturer that is unable to produce quickly different varieties of glass with special features required by certain customers

Inflexibility

(E) a leather-goods company whose hand-operated cutting and stitching machines were manufactured in Italy in the 1920s

Again lack of good labor
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Re: Although the United States steel industry faces widely publicized econ  [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2017, 04:34
1
Can somebody Help with Question number 24??

24. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the third paragraph?

(A) A hypothesis is proposed and supported; then an opposing view is presented and criticized.
(B) A debate is described and illustrated: then a contrast is made and the debate is resolved.
(C) A dilemma is described and cited as evidence for a broader criticism.
(D) A proposition is stated and argued, then rejected in favor of a more general statement, which is supported with additional evidence.
(E) General statements are made and details given; then an explanation is proposed and rejected, and an alternative is offered.

I understand that option A is wrong because of use of word Hypothesis. But OA - E doesn't seems to fit either.
Ok- general statement about the reason of failure of Integrated producers
Ok- Details are given regarding, why they fail- because of using old, labour intensive, and costly machinery.
NOT OK- Which explanation is proposed and rejected??? No alternative is offered.... ( I would say that an opposing view is presented and criticized)

In option A first word is wrong but rest is ok.....

Posted from my mobile device

egmat Can you help??
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Re: Although the United States steel industry faces widely publicized econ  [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2017, 06:30
26. Each of the following describes an industry facing a problem also experienced by United Stated integrated steel producers EXCEPT

(A) a paper-manufacturing company that experiences difficulty in obtaining enough timber and other raw materials to meet its orders ~correct not matching with US integrated steel
(B) a food-canning plant whose canning machines must constantly be tended by human operators ~under line matching with US integ steel
(C) a textile firm that spends heavily on capital equipment and energy to process raw cotton before it is turned into fabric
(D) a window-glass manufacturer that is unable to produce quickly different varieties of glass with special features required by certain customers
(E) a leather-goods company whose hand-operated cutting and stitching machines were manufactured in Italy in the 1920s
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Re: Although the United States steel industry faces widely publicized econ  [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2019, 14:21
1
1. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?
(A) United States steel producers face economic problems that are shared by producers in other nations. the discussion is focused on the US steel industry
(B) Minimills are the most successful steel producers because they best meet market demands for cheap steel.
(C) Minimills and specialty-steel mills are more economically competitive than integrated producers because they use new technology and avoid the costs of the iron smelting process. correct
(D) United States steel producers are experiencing an economic decline that can be traced back to the nineteenth century. the MP is not about tracing something to XIX c.
(E) New steelmaking technologies such as continuous casting will replace blast-furnace operations to reverse the decline in United States steel production.

2. The author mentions all of the following as features of minimills EXCEPT
Relevant text: The minimills reprocess scrap steel into a limited range of low-quality products <...>. Both take advantage of new technology for refining and casting steel <...> The minimills concentrate on producing a narrow range of products for sale in their immediate geographic area, whereas specialty-steel mills preserve flexibility in their operations in order to fulfill a customer’s particular specifications. <...> the minimills, like specialty-steel mills, have dispensed <...> the iron-smelting process, including the mining and preparation of the raw materials and the blast-furnace operation.
(A) flexibility in their operations correct
(B) local sale of their products
(C) avoidance of mining operations
(D) use of new steel-refining technology
(E) a limited range of low-quality products

3. The author of the passage refers to “Japanese integrated producers” (Highlighted) primarily in order to support the view that
Relevant text: One might conclude that the older labor-intensive machinery <...> is at fault for the poor performance of the United States industry, [b]but this cannot explain why <...>[/b]
(A) different economic difficulties face the steel industries of different nations
(B) not all integrated producers share a common technological denominator the idea about denominator is given as introduction to a more nuanced explanation of the poor performance and has nothing to do with the highlighted part
(C) labor-intensive machinery cannot be blamed for the economic condition of United States integrated steel producers correct
(D) modern steelmaking technology is generally labor-and energy-efficient
(E) labor-intensive machinery is an economic burden on United States integrated steel producers on the contrary as suggested by the relevant portoion of the passage

4. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the third paragraph?
(A) A hypothesis is proposed and supported; then an opposing view is presented and criticized.
(B) A debate is described and illustrated: then a contrast is made and the debate is resolved.
(C) A dilemma is described and cited as evidence for a broader criticism.
(D) A proposition is stated and argued, then rejected in favor of a more general statement, which is supported with additional evidence.
(E) General statements are made and details given; then an explanation is proposed and rejected, and an alternative is offered. the first sentence and the example stand for general statements are made and details given; then the idea that one may conclude BUT ... stand for the proposed explanation and its rejection lastly, idea about tech denominator serves as an introduction to the alternative

5. It can be inferred from the passage that United States specialty-steel mills generally differ from integrated steel producers in that the specialty-steel mills
Relevant text: the minimills, like specialty-steel mills, have dispensed <...> and the blast-furnace operation.
(A) sell products in a restricted geographical area
(B) share the economic troubles of the minimills
(C) resemble specialty-steel mills found in Japan
(D) concentrate on producing a narrow range of products
(E) do not operate blast furnaces correct

6. Each of the following describes an industry facing a problem also experienced by United Stated integrated steel producers EXCEPT
(A) a paper-manufacturing company that experiences difficulty in obtaining enough timber and other raw materials to meet its orders supply is not mentioned as one of the reasons for the poor performance of integrated producers
(B) a food-canning plant whose canning machines must constantly be tended by human operators human operators relate to excessive labour (3 para)
(C) a textile firm that spends heavily on capital equipment and energy to process raw cotton before it is turned into fabric capital requirement and energy relate to energy and capital costs (para 3)
(D) a window-glass manufacturer that is unable to produce quickly different varieties of glass with special features required by certain customers this relate to manufacturing inflexibility (3 para)
(E) a leather-goods company whose hand-operated cutting and stitching machines were manufactured in Italy in the 1920s this relates to para 4: <...> the common technological denominator of integrated producers is an inherently inefficient process that is still rooted in the nineteenth century.

7. Which one of the following, if true, would best serve as supporting evidence for the author’s explanation of the economic condition of integrated steel producers?
Relevant text: Integrated producers have been unable to compete successfully with minimills because the minimills, like specialty-steel mills, have dispensed almost entirely with the archaic energy and capital-intensive front end of integrated steelmaking: the iron-smelting process, including the mining and preparation of the raw materials and the blast-furnace operation
(A) Those nations that derive a larger percentage of their annual steel production from minimills than the United States does also have a smaller per capita trade deficit. how does this address the author's argument, especially the author's evidence and possible assumptions about integrated producers - uncertain
(B) Many integrated steel producers are as adept as the specialty-steel mills at producing high-quality products to meet customer specifications. if anything, this weakens the argument as it claims that they may not were inflexible, something that the author mentioned to support his or her view
(C) Integrated steel producers in the United States are rapidly adopting the production methods of Japanese integrated producers. but we are told that tech is not the only factor, so this nothing really adds to the argument
(D) Integrated steel producers in the United States are now attempting to develop a worldwide market by advertising heavily.
(E) Those nations in which iron-smelting operations are carried out independently of steel production must heavily subsidize those operations in order to make them profitable. besides the support given by the portion above, the third para in the example talks about how reducing some steps in the process pays off in savings
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Re: Although the United States steel industry faces widely publicized econ  [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2019, 07:56
1
Hi,

took 17.30 minutes considering 5.30 minutes to read the passage and 1.40 minutes on average to answer each question

P1: How the steel industry was affected by an economic situations and different types of mills
P2:Why MM & SM were not affected by the crisis and how/where they work
P3:Why IP does not work
P4:More differences between MM and IP

MP: explaining why MM and SM are not affected by the crisis of steel while IP are.

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

(A) United States steel producers face economic problems that are shared by producers in other nations. -out of context. in P3 there is a comparison with Japan but of course is a detail
(B) Minimills are the most successful steel producers because they best meet market demands for cheap steel. - too extreme by stating most succesful
(C) Minimills and specialty-steel mills are more economically competitive than integrated producers because they use new technology and avoid the costs of the iron smelting process. -correct
(D) United States steel producers are experiencing an economic decline that can be traced back to the nineteenth century. - while it's true that IP crisis can be traced down to that century this statement does not include MM and SM
(E) New steelmaking technologies such as continuous casting will replace blast-furnace operations to reverse the decline in United States steel production. -even if mentioned that is not what the author wants to communicate most

2. The author mentions all of the following as features of minimills EXCEPT

since we cannot make inferences let's read the answer choices and let's refer to P2 and P4

(A) flexibility in their operations correct, this can be inferred by the end of P2 where it is highlighted a contrast between MM and SM acc to which: "whereas specialty-steel mills preserve flexibility in their operations"
(B) local sale of their products -mentioned in P2
(C) avoidance of mining operations to eliminate this choice refer to P4 and to usage of verb dispense which means to give up
(D) use of new steel-refining technology mentioned
(E) a limited range of low-quality products according to P4 MM found a way to produce in an economic way (economic=low quality)

3. The author of the passage refers to “Japanese integrated producers” (Highlighted) primarily in order to support the view that

refer to the lines before the example: the reasoning is that there is another reason why IP are experiencing crisis than the inability of using efficiently IP

(A) different economic difficulties face the steel industries of different nations this is a too generalized statement and doesn't match the author's purpose
(B) not all integrated producers share a common technological denominator -not in line with the prethinking
(C) labor-intensive machinery cannot be blamed for the economic condition of United States integrated steel producers yes
(D) modern steelmaking technology is generally labor-and energy-efficient not the case here
(E) labor-intensive machinery is an economic burden on United States integrated steel producers not in line with prethinking

4. Which one of the following best describes the organization of the third paragraph?

according to me: constraints of IP-example-hypothesis-confutation of hypothesis

(A) A hypothesis is proposed and supported; then an opposing view is presented and criticized. the H is not supported and there is no critique
(B) A debate is described and illustrated: then a contrast is made and the debate is resolved. no debate here
(C) A dilemma is described and cited as evidence for a broader criticism. no dilemmas here
(D) A proposition is stated and argued, then rejected in favor of a more general statement, which is supported with additional evidence. this is a distortion of P3
(E) General statements are made and details given; then an explanation is proposed and rejected, and an alternative is offered. most in line with prethinking

5. It can be inferred from the passage that United States specialty-steel mills generally differ from integrated steel producers in that the specialty-steel mills

here I would refer to last paragraph

(A) sell products in a restricted geographical area -this is a commonality
(B) share the economic troubles of the minimills -no ec trouble for MM
(C) resemble specialty-steel mills found in Japan -not mentioned
(D) concentrate on producing a narrow range of products -they sell a wide variety of products acc to customer specs
(E) do not operate blast furnaces -Correct, again refer to P4 and to the verb dispense(here I think it means to give up).

6. Each of the following describes an industry facing a problem also experienced by United Stated integrated steel producers EXCEPT

refer to : "Among the factors that constrain the competitiveness of integrated producers are excessive labor, energy, and capital costs, as well as manufacturing inflexibility."

(A) a paper-manufacturing company that experiences difficulty in obtaining enough timber and other raw materials to meet its orders -not mentioned hence correct
(B) a food-canning plant whose canning machines must constantly be tended by human operators - related to the excessive labor problem
(C) a textile firm that spends heavily on capital equipment and energy to process raw cotton before it is turned into fabric related to the capital cost issue
(D) a window-glass manufacturer that is unable to produce quickly different varieties of glass with special features required by certain customers related to the inflexibility problem
(E) a leather-goods company whose hand-operated cutting and stitching machines were manufactured in Italy in the 1920s IP are old technologies so this AC is incorrect

7. Which one of the following, if true, would best serve as supporting evidence for the author’s explanation of the economic condition of integrated steel producers?

Let's find an explanation that talks about the root causes of IP problems

(A) Those nations that derive a larger percentage of their annual steel production from minimills than the United States does also have a smaller per capita trade deficit. - irrelevant to the reasoning
(B) Many integrated steel producers are as adept as the specialty-steel mills at producing high-quality products to meet customer specifications. -this is a weakener
(C) Integrated steel producers in the United States are rapidly adopting the production methods of Japanese integrated producers.this won't solve the problem since also Japanese are experiencing that problem
(D) Integrated steel producers in the United States are now attempting to develop a worldwide market by advertising heavily. advrtising won't be effective for IP since IP's problem is related to the technology itself
(E) Those nations in which iron-smelting operations are carried out independently of steel production must heavily subsidize those operations in order to make them profitable. -correct
Re: Although the United States steel industry faces widely publicized econ   [#permalink] 26 Jul 2019, 07:56
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