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# An increased level of entrepreneurship in the ...

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Senior Manager
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An increased level of entrepreneurship in the ...  [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2013, 20:46
00:00

Difficulty:

15% (low)

Question Stats:

78% (01:24) correct 22% (01:32) wrong based on 110 sessions

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An increased level of entrepreneurship in the metropolitan area was brought about not by immigrants who
arrived in a substantial influx, which was the case in cities several decades ago, but
federal tax code that heavily favor the self-employed.

(A) brought about not by immigrants who arrived in a substantial influx, which was the case in cities

(B) brought about not by a substantial influx of immigrants, the case in cities several decades ago, but

(C) brought about not by a substantial influx of immigrants, as was the case in cities several decades
ago, but by

(D) not brought about by a substantial influx of immigrants, which was the case in cities several

(E) not brought about by immigrants who arrived in a substantial influx, the case in cities several

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Re: An increased level of entrepreneurship in the ...  [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2013, 22:22
1
Idiom: Not X, but Y <== X and Y should be parallel.
In this question, because of the passive voice, the correct idiom is: Not by X, but by Y.

An increased level of entrepreneurship in the metropolitan area was brought about not by immigrants who
arrived in a substantial influx, which was the case in cities several decades ago, but
federal tax code that heavily favor the self-employed.

(A) brought about not by immigrants who arrived in a substantial influx, which was the case in cities
Wrong. Not by X, but Y <== wrong idiom.

(B) brought about not by a substantial influx of immigrants, the case in cities several decades ago, but
Wrong. Not by X, but Y <== wrong idiom.

(C) brought about not by a substantial influx of immigrants, as was the case in cities several decades
ago, but by
Correct. Idiom: Not by X, but by Y.

(D) not brought about by a substantial influx of immigrants, which was the case in cities several
Wrong. Very wordy. We don't need to repeat verb in the second part "but was brought about by.."

(E) not brought about by immigrants who arrived in a substantial influx, the case in cities several
Wrong.
Parallelism problem: not brought about by X, but [...???... ] by Y
Meaning problem: a substantial influx of immigrants (the whole influx) # immigrants who arrived in a substantial influx (some people who arrived in an influx).

Hope it helps.
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WE: Accounting (Accounting)
Re: An increased level of entrepreneurship in the ...  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2013, 11:03
1
Official Explanation

- This question tests a common comparison idiom: "not by...but by...." When the first is present, the second must be, as well. That eliminates (A) and (B), both of which use "but" instead. Purely for style reasons, (C) is preferable to (D) and (E). The latter two choices restate the words "brought about," which is superfluous when compared to the construction used in (C). In addition, (D) is wrong because "as was" (in (C)) is more accurate than "which was." "As was the case" is referring to an action, while "which was" refers to a thing. The substantial influx was an occurrence, not a thing. (E) is wrong because it compares "immigrants" (as opposed to "a substantial influx") to "adjustments to the federal tax code." In (C) and (D), the comparison is between social phenomena.

Hope this helps.
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Re: An increased level of entrepreneurship in the ...  [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2019, 10:29
My approach:

I chose C, besides Idiom approach, [D & E], are written in passive voice. [A] the "which" to describe influx does not make sense and [B] the word "the" does not make sense.

(A) brought about not by immigrants who arrived in a substantial influx, which was the case in cities

(B) brought about not by a substantial influx of immigrants, the case in cities several decades ago, but

(C) brought about not by a substantial influx of immigrants, as was the case in cities several decades
ago, but by

(D) not brought about by a substantial influx of immigrants, which was the case in cities several

(E) not brought about by immigrants who arrived in a substantial influx, the case in cities several
Re: An increased level of entrepreneurship in the ...   [#permalink] 03 Jan 2019, 10:29
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