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# An international study recently examined the effects of second hand sm

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An international study recently examined the effects of second hand sm  [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2011, 08:53
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65% (hard)

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61% (02:12) correct 39% (02:22) wrong based on 393 sessions

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An international study recently examined the effects of second hand smoke on health. surprisingly, although the dosages of harmful chemicals form second hand smoke are so small that their effect should be negligible, the study found that nonsmoking spouses of smokers displayed an incidence of heart disease that was significantly greater than that of nonsmokers who were not as regularly exposed to second hand smoke.

Each of the following if true could contribute to an explanation of the unexpectedly high incidence of heart disease in smoker's spouses EXCEPT:

A. A disproportionately high number of people married to smokers are among the older segment of the married population, a group that inherently has a higher than average risk of heart disease

B. on average, more alcohol and coffee both of which have been linked to heart disease, are consumed in the homes of smokers than in the homes of nonsmokers.

C. A disproportionately high number of smokers are married to other smokers and the risk of heart disease increases in proportion to the number of smokers living in a household.

D. Smokers generally tend to live in higher stress environments than do non smokers and stress is a factor associated with above average incidence of heart disease.

E.A disproportionately high number of smokers live in areas with a high level of industrial pollutants, which have been shown to be a factor in increased risk of heart disease

Can't really figure out how D is not a right choice.

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Re: An international study recently examined the effects of second hand sm  [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2011, 09:42
An international study recently examined the effects of second hand smoke on health. surprisingly, although the dosages of harmful chemicals form second hand smoke are so small that their effect should be negligible, the study found that nonsmoking spouses of smokers displayed an incidence of heart disease that was significantly greater than that of nonsmokers who were not as regularly exposed to second hand smoke.

Each of the following if true could contribute to an explanation of the unexpectedly high incidence of heart disease in smoker's spouses EXCEPT:

A. A disproportionately high number of people married to smokers are among the older segment of the married population, a group that inherently has a higher than average risk of heart disease

B. on average, more alcohol and coffee both of which have been linked to heart disease, are consumed in the homes of smokers than in the homes of nonsmokers.

C. A disproportionately high number of smokers are married to other smokers and the risk of heart disease increases in proportion to the number of smokers living in a household.

D. Smokers generally tend to live in higher stress environments than do non smokers and stress is a factor associated with above average incidence of heart disease.

E.A disproportionately high number of smokers live in areas with a high level of industrial pollutants, which have been shown to be a factor in increased risk of heart disease

Can't really figure out how D is not a right choice.

Both D and E are similar in structure. If smokers are living in higher stress environment or highly polluted areas, their spouses are too. Reason for the heart disease can thus be the environment in which the spouses live and not necessarily the second hand smoke.

"C" doesn't not even explicitly associate non-smokers with smokers. Out of scope.

Ans: "C"
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Re: An international study recently examined the effects of second hand sm  [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2011, 18:11
+1 for C. Choice D does not apply to the argument as it talks about spouses who smoke, while the argument talks about non smoker spouses.

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Re: An international study recently examined the effects of second hand sm  [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2011, 15:42
the options A and B provide a possible explanation for the phenomena.
C talks about couples where both spouses smoke(not relevant)
D and E talks about smokers ONLY and does not mention anything about spouses( not relevant again)

i could have picked anyone from c,d,e..went with D though
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Re: An international study recently examined the effects of second hand sm  [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2018, 02:34
An international study recently examined the effects of second hand smoke on health. surprisingly, although the dosages of harmful chemicals form second hand smoke are so small that their effect should be negligible, the study found that nonsmoking spouses of smokers displayed an incidence of heart disease that was significantly greater than that of nonsmokers who were not as regularly exposed to second hand smoke.

Each of the following if true could contribute to an explanation of the unexpectedly high incidence of heart disease in smoker's spouses EXCEPT:

A. A disproportionately high number of people married to smokers are among the older segment of the married population, a group that inherently has a higher than average risk of heart disease

B. on average, more alcohol and coffee both of which have been linked to heart disease, are consumed in the homes of smokers than in the homes of nonsmokers.

C. A disproportionately high number of smokers are married to other smokers and the risk of heart disease increases in proportion to the number of smokers living in a household.

D. Smokers generally tend to live in higher stress environments than do non smokers and stress is a factor associated with above average incidence of heart disease.

E.A disproportionately high number of smokers live in areas with a high level of industrial pollutants, which have been shown to be a factor in increased risk of heart disease

Can't really figure out how D is not a right choice.

KAPLAN OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:

Perusing the list of distinguishing features, you're likely to ask "what's not in this one?"—and the answer is "not much." This one nearly has it all, and we can take the features in order to describe what's going on. First of all, we're dealing with another study, and you should be fairly familiar by now with the kinds of mishaps, misconceptions, and downright mistakes that can arise when researchers get their hands on things. The study involves the nonsmoking spouses of smokers; that is, people who are presumably in contact with a decent amount of second-hand smoke. While the author contends that second-hand smoke shouldn't really have any effect, the study found that the incidence of heart disease in nonsmokers married to smokers is actually much higher than that of nonsmokers not exposed to secondhand smoke. So while there shouldn't be any causal mechanism at work here, the author implies that the study's finding suggests that there is. Now, we're asked to evaluate possible explanations of the unexpectedly high incidence of heart disease in smokers' nonsmoking spouses, and to choose the one that wouldn't contribute to an explanation. So there are the odd-man-out and alternative explanation features—four of the choices will provide plausible alternative explanations for the surprising results, while the right answer will not. And let's jump right to our odd-man-out, since it relates to the final feature mentioned above—scope shift. As difficult as this question may be for a number of reasons, the right answer is actually quite simple if you noticed the shift that takes place between the scope of the study and the scope of choice (C): The study focuses entirely on nonsmokers married to smokers. Cases in which smokers are married to other smokers fall outside of this scope, so (C) has no power to clear up the mystery at hand.

As for the wrong choices—that is, the valid explanations—they all hinge on the causation issue; or, more specifically, breaking down the notion of causality in order to show that the study's finding is not so surprising after all. Remember, the author is surprised at the finding because supposedly, second-hand smoke shouldn't cause a higher incidence of heart disease. Each wrong choice lessens the surprise by suggesting that second-hand smoke is in fact not to blame here, but that some other factor correlated with smoking is actually responsible for the higher incidence of spousal heart disease.

An 800 test taker recognizes the difference between causation and correlation, and is intimately familiar with the ways in which the GMAT tests this distinction.

(A) If the spouses of smokers tend to be older, and older people are more prone to heart disease, this helps explain the findings in a way that would satisfy the author—a way that's consistent with her belief that second-hand smoke, by itself, shouldn't cause the increased incidence of heart disease noted in the study.

(B) Same thing: If smoking homes are generally homes with increased alcohol and coffee intake, and these things are associated with heart disease, then we'd be less surprised by the findings in light of the fact that the effects of second-hand smoke should be negligible.

(D) and (E) Same thing: If smoking is correlated with higher stress and higher pollution levels, both of which are related to heart disease, the mystery would be lessened.
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Re: An international study recently examined the effects of second hand sm &nbs [#permalink] 03 Aug 2018, 02:34
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