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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2018, 00:27
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dave13 wrote:
What does "it" refer to in B ? what if instead of "it" would be "this" in B ? :?

isn't it whole sentence construction ambiguous - be it "it' or "this"

what does "it" refer to ? isn't it better to use a specific noun instead of "it" :?

B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, this initiative has already
stimulated


Hey dave13 ,

"It" in B is referring to the new maritime code.

You need to understand the following construction:

Because Clause 1, Independent Clause 2

Here the Subject of the independent clause 2 refers to the subject of the Clause 1.

In the given question,

Clause 1 : Because the new maritime code(Subject) provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas

Independent Clause 2: It(Subject) has already stimulated

Therefore, "It" is referring back to the code.

Does that make sense?
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New post 17 May 2018, 09:05
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abhimahna wrote:
dave13 wrote:
What does "it" refer to in B ? what if instead of "it" would be "this" in B ? :?

isn't it whole sentence construction ambiguous - be it "it' or "this"

what does "it" refer to ? isn't it better to use a specific noun instead of "it" :?

B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, this initiative has already
stimulated


Hey dave13 ,

"It" in B is referring to the new maritime code.

You need to understand the following construction:

Because Clause 1, Independent Clause 2

Here the Subject of the independent clause 2 refers to the subject of the Clause 1.

In the given question,

Clause 1 : Because the new maritime code(Subject) provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas

Independent Clause 2: It(Subject) has already stimulated

Therefore, "It" is referring back to the code.

Does that make sense?


Maybe that's the part that am not clear on the new maritime code(Subject). I thought the new maritime code can't the be the subject because its part of a prepositional phrase. just like this example:

Without the judge knowing how to resolve the issue, he had no way to solve the case.
Even though John is tall, he is not good at basketball.

In both examples above are"Judge" and "John" subjects? or are they simply part of a prepositional phrase they can't be subjects?

This is what I am not clear on.
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New post 17 May 2018, 09:21
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oasis90 wrote:
Maybe that's the part that am not clear on the new maritime code(Subject). I thought the new maritime code can't the be the subject because its part of a prepositional phrase. just like this example:

Without the judge knowing how to resolve the issue, he had no way to solve the case.
Even though John is tall, he is not good at basketball.

In both examples above are"Judge" and "John" subjects? or are they simply part of a prepositional phrase they can't be subjects?

This is what I am not clear on.


Hey oasis90 ,

In both the examples you presented, Judge" and "John" are the subjects.

Also, I somehow feel you are not very clear on the difference between a phrase and a clause.

A phrase is either only subject but no verb OR only verb but no verb.

If you are unsure whether a group of words is a clause or phrase, break down the words into the parts of speech to help you decide. If there is a subject and a verb with a predicate, it is a clause. If there is a noun but no verb or a verb but no noun and does not have a predicate, it is a phrase.

Without the judge knowing how to resolve the issue ==> No Verb -- Hence a phrase.
Even though John is tall ==> Both Subject and a Verb -- Hence a clause (To be specific Independent Clause)

Does that make sense?
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New post 17 May 2018, 12:04
abhimahna wrote:
oasis90 wrote:
Maybe that's the part that am not clear on the new maritime code(Subject). I thought the new maritime code can't the be the subject because its part of a prepositional phrase. just like this example:

Without the judge knowing how to resolve the issue, he had no way to solve the case.
Even though John is tall, he is not good at basketball.

In both examples above are"Judge" and "John" subjects? or are they simply part of a prepositional phrase they can't be subjects?

This is what I am not clear on.


Hey oasis90 ,

In both the examples you presented, Judge" and "John" are the subjects.

Also, I somehow feel you are not very clear on the difference between a phrase and a clause.

A phrase is either only subject but no verb OR only verb but no verb.

If you are unsure whether a group of words is a clause or phrase, break down the words into the parts of speech to help you decide. If there is a subject and a verb with a predicate, it is a clause. If there is a noun but no verb or a verb but no noun and does not have a predicate, it is a phrase.

Without the judge knowing how to resolve the issue ==> No Verb -- Hence a phrase.
Even though John is tall ==> Both Subject and a Verb -- Hence a clause (To be specific Independent Clause)

Does that make sense?


Hey ya thanks this is great. it makes more sense now.

I have another question that I posted here:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/sentence-cor ... s#p2062345
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New post 24 Jun 2018, 23:37
sayantanc2k wrote:
sdlife wrote:
Hi Experts, I think in A "that" could refer back to "provisions", so I don't think that's enough to mark A wrong. Could you please tell what other errors are in A? Thanks.


1. The pronoun "they" is ambiguous.
2. The usage "there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide" is wordy - the structure in B "the new maritime code provides" is more concise.


Hi sayantanc2k ,

Thanks for your response. Regarding the use of 'they' - GMAT usually parallel subjects of the clauses, but since in choice A there is a relative clause with subject "islets", and the main subject of the dependent clause is "there", 'they' in the following clause can't refer to 'provisions'. Is my understanding correct?

While in B, the subjects are parallel and "it" clearly refers to code.

Thanks so much!
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New post 12 Jul 2018, 11:20
gmattokyo wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 13th Edition, 2012

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 115

Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated

(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated




Just one doubt with the meaning of this question
Does the Code Provide that islets.....
Or
The provisions (in the code) that provide that ...........

I thought it was the provisions (in the M Code) and thus ruled A

Also, ...that provide that ....... is wrong? why ?


Can someone please explain
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2018, 22:24
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A - Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated
i) Subject verb agreement - provisions (subject), provide (verb) - agreed
ii) Pronoun - they - ambiguous - thus, choice A is eliminated

B- Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated
i) Subject verb agreement - Maritime Code (subject), provides (verb) - agreed
ii) Pronoun - it - here I am confused - pronoun should refer to subject of the previous clause - thus, logically it should refer to maritime code - if this is the case, meaning conveyed is maritime code has already stimulated disputes. But, I am unsure if provisions of maritime code have resulted in disputes or collection of provision to which we call - Code, has resulted in disputes. Obviously collection of all provisions = code. Apparently, no issue.

C- Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating
here ing modifier - stimulating - i.e. ing modifier after the comma should correctly modify the clause - i.e. subject as well as verb. In this option subject is 'tiny islets' and verb is 'can be basis'. Illogical usage of ing modifier, thus, option C is eliminated

D- Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated
this - refers to entire action - pronoun cannot refer to action. Hence, D is eliminated.

E- Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating
which correctly modifies maritime code, however, sentence begins with 'Because' which shall be followed by some verb for main subject - tiny islets...
Because X is something, Y is something... fullstop - correct
Because X is something, which is....fullstop - absolute wrong!

Hence, B is best answer.
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Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated

(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated

(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating

(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated

(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating

We should not split hairs whether something does something or something else in the something does something.
If we say the hospital provides the best medical care, we cannot ask how a hospital can give the care, but only the people there can give.
If we say that France beat Croatia in the world cup, the French team beat the Croatian side. We cannot ask how France, a country can beat another country.
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We might also note that in A, 'there' is not the subject. It is only an expletive, meaning a meaningless filler word. The real subject is the plural 'provisions' in this inverted clause. But logically speaking, we say for example that ' 'the law will take its course' and not the "provisions in the law" will take their course. We generally say Bible says and not the psalms in the Bible say.
In A, in addition, and more importantly, I feel that 'provisions that provide' is gross redundancy
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New post 12 Dec 2018, 23:40
(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated

that modifies code, which is singular. Hence "provide" is wrong. Plus "that provide that" is a wordy construction

(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated

SV pairs are okay. Do not see errors.

(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating
Are tiny islets stimulating? No. this is wrong.

(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated

This refers to the action is the preceding clause. This is wrong.

(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating

The sentence preceding comma is a dependent clause. Hence, an independent clause must follow for the answer choice to make sense.
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New post 29 Mar 2019, 14:49
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Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one problem at a time, and narrow it down to the right choice! First, here is the original question, with the major difference between the options highlighted in orange:

Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated
(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated
(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating
(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated
(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating

After glancing over the options quickly, there are 2 main things we can focus on:

1. How to handle the clause about maritime code provisions (Modifiers/Subordinate Clauses/Idioms)
2. How each option ends (Pronouns/Meaning)


Let's actually start with #2 on our list because it deals with a pretty easy concepts: Pronouns & Subordinate Clauses. Here are the two things we need to look for:

1. Do the pronouns agree with their antecedents?
2. Can we find the complete sentence/independent clause in the sentence?


Let's see how each option stacks up:

(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated

We need to rule this out as INCORRECT because the pronoun "they" is vague! There are several plural nouns that we could pair this up with: provisions, islets, fisheries, and oil fields. Any time you have a pronoun that could apply to several nouns, get rid of it.

(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated

This is OKAY for now because the pronoun "it" is clearly referring back to the singular "code." Everything else is plural, so it's not likely to refer any of those things. So let's keep this one for later.

(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating

This is OKAY for now because we're not dealing with any pronouns, and there is a clear independent clause here. So let's leave it for later.

(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated

This is INCORRECT because the word "this" is misleading. It's leading us to believe that the thing that has stimulated international disputes is THE ENTIRE PHRASE before the comma, not just the new maritime code provisions. The tiny islets didn't do it, nor did the fisheries or oil fields. So let's toss this one out.

(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating

This is INCORRECT because it's a sentence fragment! The clause before the comma is a subordinate clause, which cannot stand alone - it needs to be attached to a complete sentence to work. Unfortunately, what comes after the comma here is NOT a complete sentence - it's a modifier. While this is a very long fragment, it's still a fragment!

We can eliminate A, D, & E because they either include vague/misleading pronouns or aren't complete sentences.

Now that we have 2 options left, let's look more carefully at each one to see if we spot any other issues:

(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated

This is CORRECT! It's clear that the maritime code is what is causing the international disputes. The subordinating clause also works because the clause that comes after the comma could stand alone as an independent clause.

(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating

This is INCORRECT. It uses an -ing modifier, which modifies THE ENTIRE CLAUSE before the comma, not just the noun directly preceding it. Readers might be misled to thinking that the tiny islets stimulated international disputes, and not the code. We need a modifier that clearly only applies to the maritime code instead, or it needs to be rearranged (like it is in option B) to work.


There you have it - option B is the correct choice!


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New post 05 May 2019, 06:51
I need a detailed explanation for this question.
For me, in this question, there is an dependent clause and an independent clause.
I did not choose (B) as ???it??? did not have a clear subject.
Please explain all other options as well.
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New post 16 May 2019, 01:30
guptaaditi994 wrote:
I need a detailed explanation for this question.
For me, in this question, there is an dependent clause and an independent clause.
I did not choose (B) as ???it??? did not have a clear subject.
Please explain all other options as well.

guptaaditi994, have you checked out this post by abhimahna or this one by EMPOWERgmatVerbal?

Both posts address your specific question about (B). If those don't help, please let us know!
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New post 16 May 2019, 08:42
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I did not choose (B) as ???it??? did not have a clear subject.
My reply is not specific to this question, but generally, we shouldn't worry too much about pronoun ambiguity. Look for other "bigger" problems in the options. Start looking for ambiguity errors only once you're sure that there are no major grammar/meaning splits.
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New post 05 Jun 2019, 03:29
GMATNinja, daagh

I want to take this question as an example to get clarity on usage of Noun+noun modifiers with IC, without any conjunctions.

Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

It has already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands. - This portion is considered an independent clause; However, to get complete clarity, we need to know what IT refers to. Are we still good to call this as IC? From above explanations it clearly explains that it is good to use. So by extending similar understanding to the below sentence, please clear my doubt

let us consider the below noun+noun modifier case.
James created a magnificent design by using the latest graphic design tools, an experiment that many feared to do

an experiment that many feared to do is an independent clause - Though we don't know what this experiment is - It clearly can stand as a subject
This joins the first part of the sentence that is an IC as well, without any of the FANBOYS.
Can we generalize the cases like where an IC acts as a modifier of another clause, it can be connected without any conjunction?
Please help!
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2019, 12:48
bharatmvs wrote:
GMATNinja, daagh

I want to take this question as an example to get clarity on usage of Noun+noun modifiers with IC, without any conjunctions.

Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

It has already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands. - This portion is considered an independent clause; However, to get complete clarity, we need to know what IT refers to. Are we still good to call this as IC? From above explanations it clearly explains that it is good to use. So by extending similar understanding to the below sentence, please clear my doubt

let us consider the below noun+noun modifier case.
James created a magnificent design by using the latest graphic design tools, an experiment that many feared to do

an experiment that many feared to do is an independent clause - Though we don't know what this experiment is - It clearly can stand as a subject
This joins the first part of the sentence that is an IC as well, without any of the FANBOYS.
Can we generalize the cases like where an IC acts as a modifier of another clause, it can be connected without any conjunction?
Please help!

bharatmvs, "an experiment that many feared to do" is NOT an independent clause... it is just a noun ("experiment") and a noun modifier ("that many feared to do"). There is no verb to pair with "experiment".

Does that change your question at all?
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2019, 13:01
Doesn’t the correct answer have to have the word “provisions” in it?

Even I narrowed it down to A and B

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New post 16 Jun 2019, 18:06
aditliverpoolfc wrote:
Doesn’t the correct answer have to have the word “provisions” in it?

Even I narrowed it down to A and B

AjiteshArun
There are a couple of things we should keep in mind here:

1. The provides that even islets can be... gives us a very similar meaning, without the extra word (provisions). This is because provide that actually means "stipulate" (and not "give"). Provisions that provide that... just ends up being wordy. For example:

i. The law provides that X can be fined if ABC.
is more efficient than
ii. There are provisions of the law that provide that X can be fined if ABC.

2. You should check whether you were looking for provisions just because option A used that word. We need to keep in mind that option A is just as likely to be correct (or incorrect :)) as the other options. In fact. in some questions, the correct option is the only one that uses a particular word or construction. On the other hand, if you're already aware that option A is not "special", then we'll just go with point (1).
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th   [#permalink] 16 Jun 2019, 18:06

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