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# Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th

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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th [#permalink]
AjiteshArun GMATNinja

Can you please tell me why is answer choice D wrong. My doubt is pertaining to uses of "this".

In other official question provided in below link, I see uses of "this" is correct in pretty much similar situation.

https://gmatclub.com/forum/severely-hin ... 94388.html
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th [#permalink]
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KaranB1 wrote:
AjiteshArun GMATNinja

Can you please tell me why is answer choice D wrong. My doubt is pertaining to uses of "this".

In other official question provided in below link, I see uses of "this" is correct in pretty much similar situation.

https://gmatclub.com/forum/severely-hin ... 94388.html
Hi KaranB1,

The short answer to your question is that, generally, using a this to refer to a clause is not incorrect (this post). It just introduces ambiguity issues that may, or may not, be reason enough to remove an option. The long answer, specific to this question, is that using a pronoun to refer to an entire dependent clause (because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime codethis?) leads to a major drop in meaning clarity.

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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th [#permalink]
GMATNinja generis daagh

For choice (C), the comma + modifier can simply be the result. It doesn't have to refer to subject alone. In a cause-effect situation choice (C) also makes sense ?

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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th [#permalink]
EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one problem at a time, and narrow it down to the right choice! First, here is the original question, with the major difference between the options highlighted in orange:

Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated
(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated
(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating
(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated
(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating

After glancing over the options quickly, there are 2 main things we can focus on:

1. How to handle the clause about maritime code provisions (Modifiers/Subordinate Clauses/Idioms)
2. How each option ends (Pronouns/Meaning)

Let's actually start with #2 on our list because it deals with a pretty easy concepts: Pronouns & Subordinate Clauses. Here are the two things we need to look for:

1. Do the pronouns agree with their antecedents?
2. Can we find the complete sentence/independent clause in the sentence?

Let's see how each option stacks up:

(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated

We need to rule this out as INCORRECT because the pronoun "they" is vague! There are several plural nouns that we could pair this up with: provisions, islets, fisheries, and oil fields. Any time you have a pronoun that could apply to several nouns, get rid of it.

(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated

This is OKAY for now because the pronoun "it" is clearly referring back to the singular "code." Everything else is plural, so it's not likely to refer any of those things. So let's keep this one for later.

(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating

This is OKAY for now because we're not dealing with any pronouns, and there is a clear independent clause here. So let's leave it for later.

(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated

This is INCORRECT because the word "this" is misleading. It's leading us to believe that the thing that has stimulated international disputes is THE ENTIRE PHRASE before the comma, not just the new maritime code provisions. The tiny islets didn't do it, nor did the fisheries or oil fields. So let's toss this one out.

(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating

This is INCORRECT because it's a sentence fragment! The clause before the comma is a subordinate clause, which cannot stand alone - it needs to be attached to a complete sentence to work. Unfortunately, what comes after the comma here is NOT a complete sentence - it's a modifier. While this is a very long fragment, it's still a fragment!

We can eliminate A, D, & E because they either include vague/misleading pronouns or aren't complete sentences.

Now that we have 2 options left, let's look more carefully at each one to see if we spot any other issues:

(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated

This is CORRECT! It's clear that the maritime code is what is causing the international disputes. The subordinating clause also works because the clause that comes after the comma could stand alone as an independent clause.

(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating

This is INCORRECT. It uses an -ing modifier, which modifies THE ENTIRE CLAUSE before the comma, not just the noun directly preceding it. Readers might be misled to thinking that the tiny islets stimulated international disputes, and not the code. We need a modifier that clearly only applies to the maritime code instead, or it needs to be rearranged (like it is in option B) to work.

There you have it - option B is the correct choice!

Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.

In Option B, can't "it" refer back to the singular noun - "basis"?
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th [#permalink]
I agree with B being correct, but since GMAT is quite strict with the meaning of the sentence; in the original sentence, its the "provisions in the new maritime code". But in option, its the "new maritime code". I find it a bit conflicting because in some questions, the options are incorrect just due to this type error only.

Can someone please explain this to me.
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th [#permalink]
shirishgupta77 wrote:
I agree with B being correct, but since GMAT is quite strict with the meaning of the sentence; in the original sentence, its the "provisions in the new maritime code". But in option, its the "new maritime code". I find it a bit conflicting because in some questions, the options are incorrect just due to this type error only.

Can someone please explain this to me.
Hi shirishgupta77,

There is nothing special about the underlined portion of the sentence, so we shouldn't assume that the correct option will use the same structure(s) that option A does.
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th [#permalink]
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GMATNinja generis daagh
For choice (C), the comma + modifier can simply be the result. It doesn't have to refer to subject alone. In a cause-effect situation choice (C) also makes sense ?

Here's (C) again:
Quote:
(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating

You're correct: an "-ing" modifier at the end of the sentence doesn't have to refer to the subject alone, and will often modify the entire previous clause. And in theory, an "-ing" modifier could be the result of a cause that's introduced in the previous clause.

But in (C), it's not clear what the cause is. In other words, what exactly is stimulating the disputes? The tiny islets? The fact that the islet are the basis of claims? Is it the provisions of the new maritime code? It really isn't clear what causes the disputes in (C).

In choice (B), however, there is no question about it: the "new maritime code" is the thing that has already stimulated disputes.

I hope that helps a bit!
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th [#permalink]
When I go for meaning in Option (B), it does not makes sense. Option (B) says "Because the new maritime code provides. I think that "new maritime code" is some legal agreement that contains a provision. How can a legal agreement provides something?
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th [#permalink]
EMPOWERgmatVerbal Thanks for your excellent explanation.

I understand that option E is fragment, but Is option C also a fragment?
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th [#permalink]
Hi,
I have read the discussions here and most people say this here is trying to reflect the entire clause.
But, i felt this here is referring to the Noun, New Maritime code.
What is the right usage of "this" ?
@Gmatninja- in your videos you said sometimes "it" can refer back to subject of previous clause. how do we know when it is referring to subject of previous clause or some other noun in the sentence.
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th [#permalink]
Sthk94 wrote:
EMPOWERgmatVerbal Thanks for your excellent explanation.

I understand that option E is fragment, but Is option C also a fragment?

Great question, Sthk94!

No, option C is not a fragment. Here is what it would look like if we added in the non-underlined portion:

Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating international disputes over uninhabited islands.

The independent clause is in blue. If you were to leave just the blue portion of the sentence, without the part that comes after, it would be correct. The main problem with this sentence, however, is that the modifier, "already stimulating international disputes over uninhabited lands" isn't paired up closely with its intended antecedent (see our explanation in the comments for more on that).

I hope that helps! Make sure to tag us if you have any more questions!
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th [#permalink]
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KSN27 wrote:
Hi,
I have read the discussions here and most people say this here is trying to reflect the entire clause.
But, i felt this here is referring to the Noun, New Maritime code.
What is the right usage of "this" ?

Hi KSN27, to avoid ambiguity, this (and similarly these) should preferably be followed by a noun that makes the intent very clear.

So, a better construct would be:

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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th [#permalink]
thecoronafever wrote:
When I go for meaning in Option (B), it does not makes sense. Option (B) says "Because the new maritime code provides. I think that "new maritime code" is some legal agreement that contains a provision. How can a legal agreement provides something?

This is a common concern. Check out this post, which explains how it is fairly common to take a little license with what performs an action. Hopefully that answers your question!
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th [#permalink]
Archit143 wrote:
papillon86 wrote:
Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fie lds of large sea areas. they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated
(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated
(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating
(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated
(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fie lds of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating

This is an excellent questions......
here is my POE for the question.

A uses wrong construction "that provides that'....it is clearly mentioned in the official explanation of Q 128 Sc OG 13 answers...... hence the same rule apply here also.

B Appears to be correct.
C Modifier error........."Already Stimulating' appears after comma hence it should modify the whole clause.. Hence it modifies "basis for claims" why because when asked the question what is already stimulating it answers Basis on the claim...It should have modified Maritime code.. If it would have been mentioned without comma than would have been right.
D is also incorrect. The referent of this is incorrect.
E stimulating should be stimulated ..

Moreover

The main problem with the sentence is the construction.... Because mentions a cause for for something so The Provisions of maritme code is the main cause here hence should be placed near to it... All other construction are inverted construction hence cannot be considered correct.

hey AndrewN thanks for yesterdays response

pls see highlighted part.
IMO "Basis " is object, and "tiny islets" is subject, so "Already Stimulating" modifies "tiny islets" and not "Basis s"
is my reasoning correct ?

Also just wondering if I correctly identified prepositional phrases of option C. pls see below.

"for claims"

"to the fisheries and oil fields"

"of large sea areas"

"under provisions"

"of the new maritime code"

many thanks
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th [#permalink]
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dave13 wrote:
Archit143 wrote:
papillon86 wrote:
Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fie lds of large sea areas. they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated
(B) Because the new maritime code provides that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, it has already stimulated
(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating
(D) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, this has already stimulated
(E) Because even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fie lds of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, which is already stimulating

This is an excellent questions......
here is my POE for the question.

A uses wrong construction "that provides that'....it is clearly mentioned in the official explanation of Q 128 Sc OG 13 answers...... hence the same rule apply here also.

B Appears to be correct.
C Modifier error........."Already Stimulating' appears after comma hence it should modify the whole clause.. Hence it modifies "basis for claims" why because when asked the question what is already stimulating it answers Basis on the claim...It should have modified Maritime code.. If it would have been mentioned without comma than would have been right.
D is also incorrect. The referent of this is incorrect.
E stimulating should be stimulated ..

Moreover

The main problem with the sentence is the construction.... Because mentions a cause for for something so The Provisions of maritme code is the main cause here hence should be placed near to it... All other construction are inverted construction hence cannot be considered correct.

hey AndrewN thanks for yesterdays response

pls see highlighted part.
IMO "Basis " is object, and "tiny islets" is subject, so "Already Stimulating" modifies "tiny islets" and not "Basis s"
is my reasoning correct ?

Also just wondering if I correctly identified prepositional phrases of option C. pls see below.

"for claims"

"to the fisheries and oil fields"

"of large sea areas"

"under provisions"

"of the new maritime code"

many thanks

Of course, dave13. I will almost always respond to a direct mention by a user, even if I merely suggest that that person reread an earlier post. (The exception is when someone tags me to explain every single question to an RC passage, when there might be several, particularly when someone else has already offered an analysis.) As for your queries, you are correct about the object and subject of (C). As for the modifier, an -ing modifier (or participial phrase) after a comma can comment on just about anything up to that comma, whether an object, subject, or entire phase or clause. You can almost picture a thereby following the comma, and sussing out what, exactly, justifies that thereby can get really confusing in this sentence. Consider the full sentence:

(C) Even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas under provisions of the new maritime code, already stimulating international disputes over uninhabited islands.

Now, what, exactly, is stimulating these disputes? Is it

a) that tiny islets can be the basis for claims
b) that the claims pertain to fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas (as opposed to smaller ones)
c) the provisions of the new maritime code
d) all of the above

The answer could be any of the above, and such a lack of clarity is problematic. So, is your reasoning correct? Well, yes and no. It is kind of like you felt the trunk of the elephant while Archit143 had a hand on the tail, and the two of you were calling the shots based on your perception of a larger organism.

Your identification of prepositional phrases is enviable. I doubt you will run into trouble if that pops up in a question.

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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th [#permalink]
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KSN27 wrote:
Hi,
I have read the discussions here and most people say this here is trying to reflect the entire clause.
But, i felt this here is referring to the Noun, New Maritime code.
What is the right usage of "this" ?

If you like jargon, "this" is what's called a "determiner." Usually the jargon isn't terribly helpful, but in this case, it's a pretty apt description. "This" helps the reader determine which noun is discussed. For example:

Tim enjoys eating peanut butter out of mousetraps, and this tendency has led to some fairly serious finger wounds.

Here, "this" provides information about the "tendency," informing the reader that we're not talking about a new tendency, but rather, the one that's already been described. Put another way, we're talking about "this" tendency, rather than "that" one.

Typically, on the GMAT, when "this" appears in a correct answer, it'll come before a noun, so it's crystal clear what "this" is describing. When we see "this" standing on its own, the usage is often problematic, as it can be difficult to figure out what it's referring to. Consider another version of the previous sentence:

Tim enjoys eating peanut butter out of mousetraps, and this has led to some fairly serious finger wounds.

Now it's not so obvious what "this" is doing. This peanut butter? (As opposed to that peanut butter?) It's not clear, so this sentence is less than ideal. Rather than think of it as a strict rule, if you encounter "this" and your first thought is "this what?" you're likely looking at a problematic construction, if not a strict grammatical error.

Quote:
@Gmatninja- in your videos you said sometimes "it" can refer back to subject of previous clause. how do we know when it is referring to subject of previous clause or some other noun in the sentence.

Again, there's no rule here. But if you see "it" as the subject of a clause, the most logical place to look for a referent would be the subject of the previous clause. For example:

Tim's pet mouse ate too much peanut butter, and now it is too slow and chunky to escape the neighborhood's feral cats.

The subject of the first clause is "Tim's pet mouse," and it makes perfect sense for the mouse to be what's slow and chunky in the second clause. Clearly, not a pronoun error.

But just because there's a logical place to look for a referent, doesn't mean it absolutely has to be there. For example:

When Tim fed his pet mouse chocolate, it broke out in a rash.

No reasonable reader would decide that "it" might refer to "Tim." So, even though "it" is the subject of a clause and also refers to an antecedent that isn't the subject, I wouldn't treat this as a definitive error.

Overall, here's how I'd evaluate a subject pronoun: if the subject of the previous clause has a noun that could work as the pronoun's referent, you know that the pronoun is fine. If the referent appears to be elsewhere, don't immediately treat it as an error. Rather, ask yourself: 1) is the pronoun genuinely confusing? and 2) is there another option with a clearer construction. If the answer to both questions is "yes," it's not unreasonable to use the pronoun issue as a tie-breaker between answer choices. If you're not sure, look for other, more concrete issues.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide th [#permalink]
Quote:
Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated international disputes over uninhabited islands.

(A) Because there are provisions of the new maritime code that provide that even tiny islets can be the basis for claims to the fisheries and oil fields of large sea areas, they have already stimulated

HI GMATGuruNY , AndrewN , generis , GMATNinja

In Option A isn't the Construction DC,IC and here the subject(they) of IC should refer to the subject(provisions of the new maritime code) of DC?
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