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In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company

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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2014, 12:36
This SC can be solved by either focusing on some rather specific verb rules OR by focusing on the "intent" of the sentence. I chose the second option, which allowed me to quickly eliminate all 4 wrong answers.

1) Intent: Experiments, by definition, are about cause-and-effect. For example, if you experiment by taking a diet drug, then how much weight will you lose? The experiment is run to investigate the EFFECT. This SC describes a "series of experiments….." There's only one answer that properly phrases this idea.

Final Answer: B

As far as the verb issues involved, we know that we're in the past (the reference to "the mid-1920s" and the verb "was"), so we need a verb that properly describes the action. From the structure of the sentence, it seems that there were experiments that took some time to run. It wasn't one experiment at one point in time, it was multiple experiments that took awhile to run. The verb "investigating" defines the activity that was taking place. These isolated experiments were also likely meant to define what "would" happen to other workers' performances given certain conditions. Each of these verbs appears in the correct answer
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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2014, 11:25
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pqhai wrote:
Hello Raihanuddin

Here is my 2 cents.

In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company was the scene of an intensive series of experiments that would investigate changes in working conditions as to their effects on workers’ performance.

(A) that would investigate changes in working conditions as to their effects on workers’ performance
Wrong.
- Why A uses "would investigate" that implies an intention. In fact, the action - "investigate - happened in the past.
- "as to" does not make any sense.

(B) investigating the effects that changes in working conditions would have on workers’ performance
Correct.
- "investigating" is a verb-ing modifier

(C) for investigating what are the effects in workers’ performance that changes in working conditions would cause
Wrong.
- "for investigating" sounds wrong. To express a purpose, we should use "TO + Verb" not "For + VerbING".
- "that" modifies "performance" incorrectly.

(D) that investigated changes in working conditions’ effects on workers’ performance
Wrong.
- D changes meaning. Because of the possessive form - "working conditions' effects" ==> the ultimate main noun is "effects" NOT "working conditions" ==> a compound noun becomes "changes in effects". Definitely, "change in effects on workers’ performance" is nonsensical in this sentence.
For example: changes of water's colors ==> means "change of colors" NOT "changes of water".

(E) to investigate what the effects changes in working conditions would have on workers’ performance
Wrong.
- "The effects changes" is wrong. The correct meaning is changes in working conditions have effects on workers' performance.

Hope it's clear.


How "that changes" in correct option is correct? Which word is "that" referring?
Verb+ing modifier without comma modifies the preceding noun, according to EGMAT. So I don't know how I will choose the correct option in exam time.

Because for the above reason I will eliminate B in my POE.
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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2015, 16:49
to investigate what the effects changes in working conditions would have on workers’ performance

Whenever to in used it is used for intended purpose in GMAT.

The people went to the crime scene - to investigate the cause

The above statement is a general fact. The purpose wasn't there, so to changes the meaning of the original sentence.
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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2016, 21:35
Option A: The invesitgation has already happened. we need simple past, not "would investigate"
Option C: This here is just too wordy to be given a serious consideration.
Option D: This changes the meaning and makes "working conditions" the main noun. Whereas the main noun should be "effects"
Option E: To investigate what the effects changes in working conditions would have on workers' performance.
The bold portion does not makes sense.

Correct option: B
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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2016, 06:09
What is wrong with answer choice D..? Clearly conveys the same meaning..
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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2016, 12:36
Quote:
In xxxx the H.W.W.E.C. was the scene of xxxxx ____________________.


By looking this way becomes easier to recognize why it is "B"

Quote:
(B) investigating the effects that changes in working conditions would have on workers’ performance
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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Nov 2016, 09:11
why the OA is B??
I 've eliminated it for '....the effects(plural) that changes(singular)...'
though I think it's participle
ok kindly explain it.
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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2016, 12:24
Here is my two cents

To "see" the right answer as the right one it is core to understand three concepts in English Grammar:

1) Complex Sentences
2) Clause reduction of a Progressive Verb
3) Adjectival Clause
http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/clauses-10.html

The relative pronoun (that, who, which) and the be verb in a prepositional phrase may be omitted.

The man who is writing the book researched Ian Fleming. (Full modifying clause)
The man writing the book researched Ian Fleming. (REDUCED MODIFYING CLAUSE)

Exactly same meaning, but different wording.

Back to the stem

In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company was the scene of an intensive series of experiments investigating the effects that changes in working conditions would have on workers’ performance.

the (...) Company was the scene of an intensive series of experiments that was investigating the effects that changes in working conditions would have on workers’ performance


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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2016, 13:28
413. In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company was the scene of an intensive series of experiments that would investigate changes in working conditions as to their effects on workers’ performance.

(A) that would investigate changes in working conditions as to their effects on workers’ performance

This happened in the 1920s--would doesn't make sense b/c it happened in the past
(B) investigating the effects that changes in working conditions would have on workers’ performance


(C) for investigating what are the effects in workers’ performance that changes in working conditions would cause
for investigating is wrong, so is effects in should be effects on

(D) that investigated changes in working conditions’ effects on workers’ performance
this doens't make sense. This implies that the CHANGES themselves effect the work's performance but it was really the working conditions

(E) to investigate what the effects changes in working conditions would have on workers’ performance
using "the" doens't make sense
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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Dec 2016, 05:24
soumya170293 wrote:
why the OA is B??
I 've eliminated it for '....the effects(plural) that changes(singular)...'
though I think it's participle
ok kindly explain it.


"Changes" is noun - it is the subject of the "that" clause. Here "that" is the object of the clause and "would have" is the verb:

Changes in working conditions would have effects (that) on workers’ performance.
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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Dec 2016, 18:57
In A, it is unclear whether their refers to changes or to conditions.
Eliminate A.

C: The Hawthorne Works WAS the scene...for investigating...what the effects...ARE.
Here, the sequence of events is illogical:
It is not possible that the Hawthorne Works WAS the scene (in the past) for investigating what the effects ARE (in the present).
Eliminate C.

D: changes in working conditions' effects
Here, there are changes in the EFFECTS.
The intended meaning of the original sentence is that there were changes in the WORKING CONDITIONS THEMSELVES.
Since D does not convey the intended meaning, eliminate D.

Construction: what + the + NOUN.
In this construction, what generally serves as the DIRECT OBJECT of a subsequent verb, while the + NOUN serves as the SUBJECT of this verb.
The director does not understand what the author of the graphic novel intended.
Here, what serves as the direct object of intended, while the author serves as the subject of this verb.
Conveyed meaning:
The author intended WHAT.

E: what the effects changes in working conditions would have on workers' performance
Implication of the portions in red:
The effects would have WHAT.
Not the intended meaning.
Eliminate E.


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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jan 2017, 00:17
Runner2 wrote:
guys clearly B
changes NOT in effects of working conditions BUT changes in working conditions


Could you please elaborate.
What about option D? How did you eliminate the rest of the option? It seems every other option has few error.
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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2017, 00:58
SANGEET77 wrote:
Could you please elaborate.
What about option D? How did you eliminate the rest of the option? It seems every other option has few error.


D has an awkward construction. Actually, D doesn't tell the correct meaning. experiments that investigated changes in conditions'effects on something.

It tells one conditions effect on something while the original sentence means the effect of one change in X to corresponding change in Y.

While B clearly tells that these experiments investigates the effect of one change on another. Hence, clear and concise.
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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2017, 08:58
In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company was the scene of an intensive series of experiments that would investigate changes in working conditions as to their effects on workers’ performance.

(A) that would investigate changes in working conditions as to their effects on workers’ performance
(B) investigating the effects that changes in working conditions would have on workers’ performance
(C) for investigating what are the effects in workers’ performance that changes in working conditions would cause
very complex.
was < > for
(D) that investigated changes in working conditions’ effects on workers’ performance
it should be 'effects'
(E) to investigate what the effects changes in working conditions would have on workers’ performance
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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2017, 18:59
Hey guys, apologies to dig up an old question again. Can someone help me quickly with B vs D? I read other comments and am still a little lost.

B) My problem with B is that I believe it is modifying "scene", which doesn't make sense. Both "of an intensive series" and "of experiments" are prepositional phrases and thus modifiers in their own right.

D) Some of the people above were saying that the reason D is wrong is because "that" shows the clause that follows is modifying experiment.How is modifying experiment any less logical than modifying scene?

I guess what I am getting stuck on is how some can argue that the present participle "investigating" is modifying the entire clause in front of it. I thought only adverbial modifiers do that, and in that case you would need a comma -ing, right?

Kudos to whoever helps me out. Thanks in advance.
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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2017, 07:04
Can someone help me quickly with B vs D? I read other comments and am still a little lost.

B) My problem with B is that I believe it is modifying "scene", which doesn't make sense. Both "of an intensive series" and "of experiments" are prepositional phrases and thus modifiers in their own right.

D) Some of the people above were saying that the reason D is wrong is because "that" shows the clause that follows is modifying experiment.How is modifying experiment any less logical than modifying scene?

I guess what I am getting stuck on is how some can argue that the present participle "investigating" is modifying the entire clause in front of it. I thought only adverbial modifiers do that, and in that case you would need a comma -ing, right?
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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2017, 07:38
leeye84 wrote:
413. In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company was the scene of an intensive series of experiments that would investigate changes in working conditions as to their effects on workers’ performance.

(A) that would investigate changes in working conditions as to their effects on workers’ performance
(B) investigating the effects that changes in working conditions would have on workers’ performance
(C) for investigating what are the effects in workers’ performance that changes in working conditions would cause
(D) that investigated changes in working conditions’ effects on workers’ performance
(E) to investigate what the effects changes in working conditions would have on workers’ performance



Error Analysis:
Option A: the usage as is incorrect.
Option B:Correct
Option C: Inappropriate sentence formation and poor structure.
Option D: Ambiguous and unclear
Option E:usage of what is incorrect and to investigate changes the meaning.
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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2017, 14:03
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GMATNinja wrote:
pafrompa wrote:
Can someone help me quickly with B vs D? I read other comments and am still a little lost.

B) My problem with B is that I believe it is modifying "scene", which doesn't make sense. Both "of an intensive series" and "of experiments" are prepositional phrases and thus modifiers in their own right.

D) Some of the people above were saying that the reason D is wrong is because "that" shows the clause that follows is modifying experiment.How is modifying experiment any less logical than modifying scene?

I guess what I am getting stuck on is how some can argue that the present participle "investigating" is modifying the entire clause in front of it. I thought only adverbial modifiers do that, and in that case you would need a comma -ing, right?


Yeah, this is a tricky little question. It's true that "investigating" (or any other "-ing" modifier) will often modify an entire clause, but I don't actually think it's true in this case.

In (B), I'm comfortable saying that "investigating" is just an adjective that modifies "series of experiments." There's some finesse involved here, to be fair: sure, a modifier can "reach back" through a bunch of prepositional phrases, but in general, the modifier is going to be as close as possible to thing it's modifying. So with any noun modifier -- that, which, "-ing", or anything else -- your first thought should be that it modifies the preceding noun. If that doesn't make sense, see if there's something else "behind" a prepositional phrase that would make sense. But don't assume that the modifier is always reaching way back across several prepositions. That can happen, but it shouldn't be your first thought.

(D) isn't all that different from (B) in terms of the meaning of the modifier: "that investigated changes" modifies the nearest noun, "series of experiments" or just "experiments." That seems OK.

The trickier thing is the meaning difference between (B) and (D). In (D), what, exactly, is the thing that changes? The effects (of working conditions) change -- not the working conditions themselves. In (B), the working conditions actually change -- and the researchers are figuring out the effects of those changes on workers' performance.

Does that help at all?



Hey GMAT Ninja,

Yes that does help a lot. I'll try to not get too hung up on prepositions in the future. I think the "meaning" issue you drove home is what really benefitted me though, I was too concerned with the modifier issue to really take notice of the subtle change in meaning. Thanks a lot!
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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2017, 10:07
Imo B
That is unnecessary here hence it is wrong .
In the original sentence that refers to experiments would suggest , that is illogical .
D also has the same problem as A and awkward use of possessive .
C is wordy and use what is not proper .
E is also wrong to what and the sentence is very convoluted .
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Re: In the mid-1920’s the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2017, 07:38
GMATNinja wrote:
pafrompa wrote:
Can someone help me quickly with B vs D? I read other comments and am still a little lost.

B) My problem with B is that I believe it is modifying "scene", which doesn't make sense. Both "of an intensive series" and "of experiments" are prepositional phrases and thus modifiers in their own right.

D) Some of the people above were saying that the reason D is wrong is because "that" shows the clause that follows is modifying experiment.How is modifying experiment any less logical than modifying scene?

I guess what I am getting stuck on is how some can argue that the present participle "investigating" is modifying the entire clause in front of it. I thought only adverbial modifiers do that, and in that case you would need a comma -ing, right?


Yeah, this is a tricky little question. It's true that "investigating" (or any other "-ing" modifier) will often modify an entire clause, but I don't actually think it's true in this case.

In (B), I'm comfortable saying that "investigating" is just an adjective that modifies "series of experiments." There's some finesse involved here, to be fair: sure, a modifier can "reach back" through a bunch of prepositional phrases, but in general, the modifier is going to be as close as possible to thing it's modifying. So with any noun modifier -- that, which, "-ing", or anything else -- your first thought should be that it modifies the preceding noun. If that doesn't make sense, see if there's something else "behind" a prepositional phrase that would make sense. But don't assume that the modifier is always reaching way back across several prepositions. That can happen, but it shouldn't be your first thought.

(D) isn't all that different from (B) in terms of the meaning of the modifier: "that investigated changes" modifies the nearest noun, "series of experiments" or just "experiments." That seems OK.

The trickier thing is the meaning difference between (B) and (D). In (D), what, exactly, is the thing that changes? The effects (of working conditions) change -- not the working conditions themselves. In (B), the working conditions actually change -- and the researchers are figuring out the effects of those changes on workers' performance.

Does that help at all?


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Hi Gmatninja
how are you :)

This question just occured in my gmat prep exam and i choose E over B. I was confused between E and B , ofcourse all other chocies didn't made any sense to me, and though E was looking a bit awkward i chose E over B because of following Reasoing

First of all, investigating without comma was new to me. Now as you said that investigating is a modifier modifying series of experiments , my confusion is that how can a series of experiments investigate something ? There has to be a living being, an entity, something that can perform a series of experiments . But series of experiments are investigating seems uncanny. I took it as a dangling modifier and this was one reason to choose E over B.
Now, my second point is as you say that a modifier can jump a series of prepositions , then if this " investigating " modifier performs an inevitable jump to the word scene such that " A scene .............. is the noun modified by the word investigating then also this doesn't makes sense to me , as how can a scene start investigating
Again dangling modifier error.
Now my presupposition is that if I take " investigating " to modify the effects then that makes a bit of sense to me .
Now between A partciple and an infinitive a participle is used to show a result and an infinitive shows a purpose or an iintention
therefore. investigating the effects that changes in working conditions would have on workers' performance.
and
to investigate what the effects changes in working conditions would have on workers' performance

Isnt an Infinitive a better usage here. the intent of series of experiments is to investigate what the effects changes are causing
AND, SINCE WE ARE USING A CONDITIONAL , the sentence is pretty sure not convinced that the series of experiments have fulfilled their purpose and the action has been completed.

of course E changes meaning a bit , but whats the flaw in my reasoning please enlighten me
Or should i accept it as a gmat style usage and move on because this is what Ron said ((( not the exact terms )) in his post on manhattan forum

mikemcgarry GMATNinja .Please throw some light on it
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