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Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly

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Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2004, 19:15
1
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A
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D
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Question Stats:

43% (01:15) correct 57% (01:37) wrong based on 432 sessions

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Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly any difference between their psychological capacities. The most reasonable explanation for these results is the inadequacy of the studies.

An unstated premise of the above argument is that:


A) Psychological capacities cannot be assessed objectively.

B) Biased researchers frequently misinterpret the results of their studies.

C) Young humans and chimps have underdeveloped psychological capacities.

D) The psychological capacities of babies and young chimps differ significantly.

E) Examining the central nervous system is a better way to assess psychological capacity than to study behavior.
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New post 06 Sep 2004, 19:36
If babies = young humans, then D is the answer.
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Re: Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2004, 22:08
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Is it that straightforward? I may be misunderstanding this question but it seems to be asking for an assumption, not an inference as hinted by D. D is directly stated by the first sentence but is not an assumption. A is the answer IMO.

Argument: chimps = young humans, as proved by studies --> studies must be inadequate. Why? This is where assumption comes into play: The author is assuming that psychological cannot be assessed objectively. If the assumption is negated and that psychological faculties CAN be assessed, then there is no reason for the author to say that the studies is inadequate in the first place and the argument falls apart.
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Re: Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2004, 00:35
Paul wrote:
Is it that straightforward? I may be misunderstanding this question but it seems to be asking for an assumption, not an inference as hinted by D. D is directly stated by the first sentence but is not an assumption. A is the answer IMO.

Argument: chimps = young humans, as proved by studies --> studies must be inadequate. Why? This is where assumption comes into play: The author is assuming that psychological cannot be assessed objectively. If the assumption is negated and that psychological faculties CAN be assessed, then there is no reason for the author to say that the studies is inadequate in the first place and the argument falls apart.


I too got A and was amazed to see the support for D; I thought I was totally wrong.

In addition to Paul's explanation, the words "most reasonable explanation" also hint the author's assumption that objective study is not possible.

Btw, just to understand, doesn't D contradict the stem? Stem says "reveal hardly any difference"; D says "differ significantly".
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Re: Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2004, 03:59
Paul wrote:
Is it that straightforward? I may be misunderstanding this question but it seems to be asking for an assumption, not an inference as hinted by D. D is directly stated by the first sentence but is not an assumption. A is the answer IMO.

Argument: chimps = young humans, as proved by studies --> studies must be inadequate. Why? This is where assumption comes into play: The author is assuming that psychological cannot be assessed objectively. If the assumption is negated and that psychological faculties CAN be assessed, then there is no reason for the author to say that the studies is inadequate in the first place and the argument falls apart.


I don't think D is stated by the first sentence

"Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly any difference between their psychological capacities"

It is a premise and I think D another one.
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Re: Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2004, 15:17
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Folks
The OA is D ... I also selected A
I am still not getting a hang of why D is correct :(

Anyways here's the explanation provided from source

The unstated premise here refers to a belief which is not specified, but which is basic to the conclusions. Look over the alternatives carefully and see which of these statements must be assumed to be true in order to reach the conclusion.
(A) does not account for the conclusion, and in fact, there is evidence for the opposite assumption (what does this mean?). The fact that the researchers are relying on behavioral studies indicates that they think these differences can be measured. The critics must think so also for their criticism to make sense.
(D) The reason that an explanation of the results is sought indicates that the writer thinks there is a significant difference between chimps and humans, and therefore, the finding of no significant difference must be somehow explained. This is the best alternative.
(E) This is obviously an incorrect alternative. The writers chose to use behavioral methods.
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Re: Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2004, 17:59
I see the point for D and I agree it could be the answer. However, there is an extremely weak job at refuting A
Quote:
The fact that the researchers are relying on behavioral studies indicates that they think these differences can be measured

This is totally not true. The critics could very well conclude that the studies were inadequate because those differences cannot be measured. The given explanation basically says that because researchers conducted the studies, the differences must be measurable: This is totally wrong. What is the source of this question? I'm about to throw in an ad hominem here :)
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New post 13 Feb 2005, 19:31
D.

Establishes the reason why the author could logically come to the conclusion that the studies are inadequate.

A is incorrect as if adequate studies were conducted the assessment can be objective. B, nothing about bias in the stem. C, not true based on the stem. E, out of scope.
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Re: Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Oct 2018, 08:09
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Hi,

Newbie here. I will try to answer this.

The passage says(in my words) :
A study reveals that the difference in the psychological capacities between chimps and human babies are almost zero. But the results of the study are incorrect and not complete

Conclusion:
The results of the studies are inadequate

Pre-think:
What does this mean ? The results are incorrect or maybe there is more that can be researched and arrived at a completely different result

Options
A) Psychological capacities cannot be assessed objectively.
This is a very close one IMO
Lets say you didnt pre-think the assumption, so lets try to negate this
Negation: Psychological capacities(PC) CAN be assessed objectively. --> Does this break the conclusion ? No
If PC can be assessed then the results of the study are adequate and correct so it doesnt break down the conclusion

D) The psychological capacities of babies and young chimps differ significantly.
This is in-line with the pre-thinking assumption.
Negate: the PC of babies and chimps do NOT differ significantly. In that case the conclusion breaks down.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Oct 2018, 08:17
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skorada wrote:
Hi,

Newbie here. I will try to answer this.

The passage says(in my words) :
A study reveals that the difference in the psychological capacities between chimps and human babies are almost zero. But the results of the study are incorrect and not complete

Conclusion:
The results of the studies are inadequate

Pre-think:
What does this mean ? The results are incorrect or maybe there is more that can be researched and arrived at a completely different result

Options
A) Psychological capacities cannot be assessed objectively.
This is a very close one IMO
Lets say you didnt pre-think the assumption, so lets try to negate this
Negation: Psychological capacities(PC) CAN be assessed objectively. --> Does this break the conclusion ? No
If PC can be assessed then the results of the study are adequate and correct so it doesnt break down the conclusion

D) The psychological capacities of babies and young chimps differ significantly.
This is in-line with the pre-thinking assumption.
Negate: the PC of babies and chimps do NOT differ significantly. In that case the conclusion breaks down.

Hope this helps.



Perfect.

Just adding up.
option A really uses a strong word CANNOT.Its a red flag
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Re: Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2018, 05:45
prabsahi wrote:
skorada wrote:
Hi,

Newbie here. I will try to answer this.

The passage says(in my words) :
A study reveals that the difference in the psychological capacities between chimps and human babies are almost zero. But the results of the study are incorrect and not complete

Conclusion:
The results of the studies are inadequate

Pre-think:
What does this mean ? The results are incorrect or maybe there is more that can be researched and arrived at a completely different result

Options
A) Psychological capacities cannot be assessed objectively.
This is a very close one IMO
Lets say you didnt pre-think the assumption, so lets try to negate this
Negation: Psychological capacities(PC) CAN be assessed objectively. --> Does this break the conclusion ? No
If PC can be assessed then the results of the study are adequate and correct so it doesnt break down the conclusion

D) The psychological capacities of babies and young chimps differ significantly.
This is in-line with the pre-thinking assumption.
Negate: the PC of babies and chimps do NOT differ significantly. In that case the conclusion breaks down.

Hope this helps.



Perfect.

Just adding up.
option A really uses a strong word CANNOT.Its a red flag



Aah thanks Prabsahi.
I need to get better at spotting those redflags :)
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Re: Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2019, 05:17
srijay007 wrote:
Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly any difference between their psychological capacities. The most reasonable explanation for these results is the inadequacy of the studies.

An unstated premise of the above argument is that:


A) Psychological capacities cannot be assessed objectively.

B) Biased researchers frequently misinterpret the results of their studies.

C) Young humans and chimps have underdeveloped psychological capacities.

D) The psychological capacities of babies and young chimps differ significantly.

E) Examining the central nervous system is a better way to assess psychological capacity than to study behavior.


explanation for these results is the inadequacy of the studies - this statement is so categorical, that it means the unstated premise has to be Counter of it.
D is the only one such option
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Re: Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Feb 2019, 03:54
Experts please help, i can't find any of the explanation reasonable to the answer. please comment why the answer is D .
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Re: Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2019, 23:52
srijay007 wrote:
Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly any difference between their psychological capacities. The most reasonable explanation for these results is the inadequacy of the studies.

An unstated premise of the above argument is that:


A) Psychological capacities cannot be assessed objectively.

B) Biased researchers frequently misinterpret the results of their studies.

C) Young humans and chimps have underdeveloped psychological capacities.

D) The psychological capacities of babies and young chimps differ significantly.

E) Examining the central nervous system is a better way to assess psychological capacity than to study behavior.
Rakeshtewatia wrote:
Experts please help, i can't find any of the explanation reasonable to the answer. please comment why the answer is D.

Premise:
    Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly ANY difference between their psychological capacities.
    Meaning: There is NO difference between their psychological capacities.

Conclusion:
    The most reasonable explanation for these results is the inadequacy of the studies.

Argument-structure:
    Since Studies says NO difference in PC(psychological capacities) --------> Studies ARE inadequate - Read this SLOWLY again

Pre-Think:
    The author is NOT agreeing with the results of the study. He is doubting the results of the study.
    The author assumes that PC(psychological capacities) MUST be having some difference, otherwise, why would the author NEED to call the results of the study as INADEQUATE.

Answer choice analysis:
    A) Psychological capacities cannot be assessed objectively.
      It states we CANNOT measure the PC objectively.
      !A:
        we CAN measure the PC objectively. If we can measure (assess) PC objectively, it does NOT necessarily account whether the results of the study are ADEQUATE or INADEQUATE.
        Look at this way:
          If you do NOT study diligently ----------> You will fail.
          If you DO study diligently ------ not necessarily ----> You will pass. There might be other factors also such as timing, mental state, surroundings, etc.
          The results CAN still sway in either direction, either +ve or -ve.
        Another example:
          Having an equipment for cancer-detection does NOT necessarily imply that the patient is suffering from cancer.
          The patient may or may not.
        Similarly, the assessment of PC(psychological capacities) being done objectively does NOT imply that results are inadequate. It simply states that the measurement was done objectively.
          The results may be either +ve or -ve.

      The negation of an assumption MUST break the conclusion.

    B) Biased researchers frequently misinterpret the results of their studies.
      Great! - However, It does NOT relate with the conclusion at all

    C) Young humans and chimps have underdeveloped psychological capacities.
      !C:
        Young humans and chimps have do NOT have underdeveloped psychological capacities.
        They both DO not have underdeveloped PC(psychological capacities). Great! - However, It does NOT relate with the conclsuion at all

    D) The psychological capacities of babies and young chimps differ significantly.
      Aha! Exactly what we thought.
      Let's negate D:
        !D: The psychological capacities of babies and young chimps do NOT differ significantly.
        If the PC(psychological capacities) do NOT differ, what's the need of all this ruckus because everything GOES in a positive direction and as expected.
        Thus, the results ARE at the expectant( adequate ) level. - Thereby, Breaking the conclusion.

    E) Examining the central nervous system is a better way to assess psychological capacity than to study behavior.
      Something else( central nervous system ) being better does NOT account that the current one( psychological capacity ) is of NO utility.

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Re: Behavioral studies of young chimpanzees and young humans reveal hardly   [#permalink] 17 Apr 2019, 23:52
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