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Can any research be found to validate the contention that

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Can any research be found to validate the contention that  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2012, 23:40
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Can any research be found to validate the contention that those who spend time plucking out their gray hairs have more negative attitudes toward the elderly than those who shrug their shoulders about their gray hairs? Unless a person’s psychopathology leads him or her to overgeneralize, there is no necessary connection. Certainly it is reasonable to like the elderly yet dislike the idea of impaired eyesight and hearing. Furthermore, holding negative attitudes toward older people merely because they are old is immoral, according to nearly universally accepted ethical standards. But there is nothing immoral about disliking some concomitants of the aging process.

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) It cannot be assumed that people who dislike some of the physical concomitants of growing old necessarily have negative feelings toward the elderly.
(B) To dislike some of the physical concomitants growing old is reasonable, while to dislike the elderly is immoral.
(C) Since no one likes the physical concomitants of growing old, it is wrong to dislike the elderly merely because of their physical characteristics.
(D) Being elderly is fine, but the process of becoming elderly is not; and people need to understand the distinction between the two.
(E) To dislike the elderly is immoral, and to do so just because one dislikes some of the physical concomitants of growing old is unreasonable.

2. In order to advance her point of view, the author does all of the following EXCEPT

(A) dismiss an assertion as unfounded
(B) appeal to reason
(C) appeal to a general principle
(D) discredit a common stereotype about the elderly
(E) make a distinction about attitudes


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Can any research be found to validate the contention that  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Dec 2018, 22:45
1. (A)

When the test makers give you a question that can be decoded quickly with Keywords and structural clues, thank them, get the right answer, and move on. We’re asked for the main point of the passage, and so you’ll want to key in whenever the author expresses her opinion. The first sentence merely asks if there is a necessary relationship between negative feelings toward the elderly and plucking out gray hairs. The second sentence begins with the Keyword “unless,” signaling an exception, followed by the strong statement of opinion “there is no necessary connection.” The third sentence makes a distinction between attitudes that supports the notion that there is no necessary connection. The fourth sentence begins with the Keyword “furthermore,” signaling additional supporting evidence, and the fifth sentence begins with the Keyword “but,” signaling a contrast to the supporting evidence in the previous sentence. Neither of these sentences can be the main point. So where are the expressions of opinion? The second sentence is the only qualifier. It claims that it would be premature to conclude that there is a necessary connection between hair plucking and having negative attitudes about the elderly, which is paraphrased by choice (A).

(B) is a statement with which the author would agree, but the differing evaluations of these attitudes are used to support the author’s argument that there is no necessary connection between them. (B) is a step along the way, but not the final destination.

(C) The two claims mentioned in (C) are not linked to each other by the passage. They are both used to support a further point, the view that there is no necessary connection between disliking aging and disliking the elderly.

(D) brings in a new term, “fine,” without support from the stimulus. Furthermore, “being elderly” is not part of the distinction drawn in the stimulus—that distinction is between people’s attitude toward the elderly and their feelings about the process of getting old themselves.

(E), like (B), is a view with which the author would agree, but as discussed above, the author’s moral arguments are used to support the main point that there is no necessary connection between these two attitudes.

• Use Keywords and structural signals to help you navigate through Reasoning stimuli and Reading Comprehension passages. To find the main point, watch out whenever the author expresses an opinion, and pay less attention to supporting evidence.
• Many Main Point answer choices mention elements that were present in the stimulus, but were only a step along the way to the author’s real conclusion. So don’t just choose the first choice that contains something you recognize. Ask yourself if that information was itself used as evidence to bolster another larger point.

2.(D)

Next we’re asked to find the one method of argument out of five the author does not use. While the author does criticize those who hold negative attitudes about the elderly, the author does not “discredit a common stereotype about the elderly,” choice (D). The author does imply that aging is associated with impaired eyesight and hearing, but far from discrediting this information, the author uses it in showing why disliking those features may not be associated with disliking the elderly.

(A) In the first sentence, the author points to the lack of research to support the assertion that plucking gray hairs and harboring negative attitudes toward the elderly are connected.

(B) In pointing to a lack of evidence, applying general principles, and in making a distinction, the author could fairly be described as appealing to reason. Further, it’s hard to imagine what this stimulus would have to look like for (B) to be the right answer. Only a very sketchy (perhaps even circular) argument doesn’t appeal to reason in some way or another.

(C) In the fourth sentence, the author cites the general principle that having negative attitudes toward the old because they are old is immoral.

(E) In the third sentence, disliking the elderly is distinguished from disliking conditions associated with the aging process.
• While working on Method of Argument questions, get to know the “usual suspects,” the choices that appear in many questions. Pointing to the lack of evidence on the other side (A), appealing to general principles (C), and making distinctions (E), are common argumentative techniques.
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Re: Can any research be found to validate the contention that  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Dec 2018, 12:36
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Old habits die hard :-)

Small passage but brutal questions with very close answer.
2 mins 11 sec and got the main point question wrong.

I'll take a shot at answering both ..

Summary:
The author takes good effort to point out that disliking the effects of old-age does not imply that the person dislikes the old. And there is no research that can establish this. Further the author says that it is immoral to dislike the elderly just because they are old and it is reasonable to dislike the idea of being old.


tricky due to the close options. Need to focus on what the author says at the start of the passage

1. Which one of the following best expresses the main point of the passage?

(A) It cannot be assumed that people who dislike some of the physical concomitants of growing old necessarily have negative feelings toward the elderly. Bingo - this is the first three lines of the passage
(B) To dislike some of the physical concomitants growing old is reasonable, while to dislike the elderly is immoral.Too detailed to be the main point . Discard
(C) Since no one likes the physical concomitants of growing old, it is wrong to dislike the elderly merely because of their physical characteristics. Wrong. The author does not give any reasoning to why is it immoral to dislike the elderly.
(D) Being elderly is fine, but the process of becoming elderly is not; and people need to understand the distinction between the two. Bs option. Discard.
(E) To dislike the elderly is immoral, and to do so just because one dislikes some of the physical concomitants of growing old is unreasonable. TRAP! This could be a real world trap but it is essential to notice that the author does not justify his claim just states them. Also it is too detailed.


An annoying detail question which has an easy correct option. However it is difficult to eliminate the wrong options s..better go for the obvious correct option .
2. In order to advance her point of view, the author does all of the following EXCEPT

(A) dismiss an assertion as unfounded
(B) appeal to reason
(C) appeal to a general principle
(D) discredit a common stereotype about the elderly Bingo - the author never discredits the stereotype of elderly.. infact gives into it. And goes about claiming things around it.
(E) make a distinction about attitudes

Happy new year!

Regards,
Gladi
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Gladi



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Re: Can any research be found to validate the contention that   [#permalink] 31 Dec 2018, 12:36
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