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# Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the sa

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Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the sa [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2008, 14:40
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Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place；one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals.

(A) Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place；one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals.

(B) If used repeatedly in the same place，one reason that certain pesticides can become ineffective is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals.

(C) If used repeatedly in the same place，one reason certain pesticides can become ineffective is suggested by the finding that much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes are found in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than those that are free of such chemicals.

(D) The finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals is suggestive of one reason, if used repeatedly in the same place, certain pesticides can become ineffective.

(E) The finding of much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in those that are free of such chemicals suggests one reason certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the sa [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2008, 16:55
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Going with A. Reason: the other ones just flow horribly.

Sorry.
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Re: Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the sa [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2008, 19:23
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perfectstranger wrote:
Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place；one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals．

(A) Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place；one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals．->follows parallelism ,independent clauses rightly used.CORRECT
(B) If used repeatedly in the same place，one reason that certain pesticides can become ineffective is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals．-> if used ...,one reason is wrong sincer if used modifies pesticides
(C) If used repeatedly in the same place，one reason certain pesticides can become ineffective is suggested by the finding that much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes are found in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than those that are free of such chemicals．-> if used ...,one reason is wrong sincer if used modifies pesticides
(D) The finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals is
suggestive of one reasonif used repeatedly in the same place，certain pesticides can become ineffective． -> here one reason ,if used is misleading.

Please explain in a detailed way

Under the limited conditions A is the BEST but where is option (E)?
Kindly post the OA and OE and option (E)

if in A it had been one reason for the same ....is suggested ... it would have been better construction
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Re: Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the sa [#permalink]

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10 May 2012, 21:28
This is the missing option.

(E) THe finding of much larger populations of pesticides-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long historyof pesticide use than in those that are free of such chemicals suggests one reason certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place.

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Re: Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the sa [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2012, 05:58
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205. Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place; one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals.
(A) Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place; one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals.

(B) If used repeatedly in the same place, one reason that certain pesticides can become ineffective is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals.

(C) If used repeatedly in the same place, one reason certain pesticides can become ineffective is suggested by the finding that much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes are found in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than those that are free of such chemicals.

(D) The finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals is suggestive of one reason, if used repeatedly in the same place, certain pesticides can become ineffective.

(E) The finding of much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in those that are free of such chemicals suggests one reason certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place

p.s: plz provide an explanation too
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Re: Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the sa [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2012, 09:49
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(A) Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place; one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals.

(B) If used repeatedly in the same place, one reason (wrong subject for the first phrase) that certain pesticides can become ineffective is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals.

(C) If used repeatedly in the same place, one reason (same as B) certain pesticides can become ineffective is suggested by the finding that much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes are found in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than those that are free of such chemicals.

(D) The finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals is suggestive of one reason, if used repeatedly in the same place, certain pesticides can become ineffective.--there are -(redundant)

(E) The finding of much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in those that are free of such chemicals suggests one reason certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place ---(microbes comparison- Incorrect)

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Re: Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the sa [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2012, 09:49
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(A) Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place; one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals. --- Can not lay hands on this choice. The topic is split with a semicolon, a sensible thing to do in such cases.

(B) If used repeatedly in the same place, one reason that certain pesticides can become ineffective is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals. -----The participial modifier - If used repeatedly- should modify pesticides and not one reason

(C) If used repeatedly in the same place, one reason certain pesticides can become ineffective is suggested by the finding that much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes are found in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than those that are free of such chemicals. -----------The participial modifier - If used repeatedly- should modify pesticides and not one reason

(D) The finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals is suggestive of one reason, if used repeatedly in the same place, certain pesticides can become ineffective.----- The sentence is a run –on. The second part of the topic, going after - if used repeatedly – is dangling loosely without a connector such as that or a semicolon. Hence, wrong

(E) The finding of much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in those that are free of such chemicals suggests one reason certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place---- As in D, a connector as –that- is essential between reason and certain.
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Re: Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the sa [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2012, 09:55
should be much better to underline the phrase properly. thanks
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Re: Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the sa [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2013, 22:57
Rubashov1 wrote:
Going with A. Reason: the other ones just flow horribly.

Sorry.

Agreed!! A is crisp and clear and as the poster above posted, meaning is not clear in other options
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Re: Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the sa [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2014, 11:41
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perfectstranger wrote:
Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place；one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals．

(A) Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place；one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals．
(B) If used repeatedly in the same place，one reason that certain pesticides can become ineffective is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals．
(C) If used repeatedly in the same place，one reason certain pesticides can become ineffective is suggested by the finding that much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes are found in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than those that are free of such chemicals．
(D) The finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals is suggestive of one reason，if used repeatedly in the same place，certain pesticides can become ineffective．
(E) The finding of much larger populations of pesticides-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in those that are free of such chemicals suggests one reason certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place.
Please explain in a detailed way
In B/C, "If used repeatedly in the same place" directly refers to "one reason". So straight wrong.
D is run on sentence as part1 "The finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals is suggestive of one reason" and part 2 "if used repeatedly in the same place，certain pesticides can become ineffective" can act as independent sentences.
E needs the linkage(preferably that) between "one reason" and "certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place"
A is fine...... as it is devoid of all these modifier and connector issues.
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OG VR 2nd ED SC 59 [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2014, 07:22
Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place; on reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals.

Please find below the clauses in this sentence :

Certain pesticides can become ineffective --- IC

one reason is suggestedby the finding ----IC

That there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals---IC

Now my doubt is what is 'That' modifying in this sentence. Is it modifying 'findings' or 'reason'. Logically it should modify reason because the reason for the finding is that 'there are much larger......'. Moreover the clause after semicolon is written in passive and we we turn it into active than it will read as- The finding suggests one reason that...-
. Now it is clear that 'that' is modifying reason. Is my analysis correct?

I

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Re: OG VR 2nd ED SC 59 [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2014, 23:46
rahulvv wrote:
Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place; on reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals.

Please find below the clauses in this sentence :

Certain pesticides can become ineffective --- IC

one reason is suggestedby the finding ----IC

That there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals---IC

Now my doubt is what is 'That' modifying in this sentence. Is it modifying 'findings' or 'reason'. Logically it should modify reason because the reason for the finding is that 'there are much larger......'. Moreover the clause after semicolon is written in passive and we we turn it into active than it will read as- The finding suggests one reason that...-
. Now it is clear that 'that' is modifying reason. Is my analysis correct?

I

A semi colon separates two independent clauses. The part before the semi colon and after the semi colon are two independent (but related) clauses.

The last part of the sentence "there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals." is the finding, not the reason. The finding suggests the reason.

Take a generic case: You notice A (A - Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place)
You wonder why A happens. You are looking for a reason.
You notice B. B is something you find by testing. B is a finding. (B - there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals)

B suggests you the reason for A.

So 'that there are ... such chemicals' is an essential modifier of 'finding'.
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Re: OG VR 2nd ED SC 59 [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2014, 11:46
Hi Rahul,

Thank you for posting your doubt here.

Let's break this official sentence in its clauses:

Cl. 1: Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place; (IC)

Cl. 2: one reason is suggested by the finding (IC)

Cl. 3: that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils (DC)

Cl. 4: that are free of such chemicals. (DC)

In this sentence, "that" refers to "finding" as its give detail about what that finding is. So yes, "that" refers to "finding".

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: OG VR 2nd ED SC 59 [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2014, 00:15
[quote="egmat"]Hi Rahul,

Thank you for posting your doubt here.

Let's break this official sentence in its clauses:

Cl. 1: Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place; (IC)

Cl. 2: one reason is suggested by the finding (IC)

Cl. 3: that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils (DC)

Cl. 4: that are free of such chemicals. (DC)

In this sentence, "that" refers to "finding" as its give detail about what that finding is. So yes, "that" refers to "finding".

"Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place； one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals．"

In this sentence, "that" refers to "finding" as its give detail about what that finding is. So yes, "that" refers to "finding".

Now I am bit confused that how that can modify "finding" ,1)Finding is singular subject but the verb used for that is "are" ( since that act as subject here) ,2) logically if I replace that with finding then the clause becomes "finding are free of such chemicals" and 3)how can that jump over a complete clause to modify finding.

Kindly advise me about the above , maybe my understanding of That is completely wrong.

Tks/Brgds
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Re: OG VR 2nd ED SC 59 [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2014, 08:41
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anuragd wrote:

"Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place； one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals．"

In this sentence, "that" refers to "finding" as its give detail about what that finding is. So yes, "that" refers to "finding".

Now I am bit confused that how that can modify "finding" ,1)Finding is singular subject but the verb used for that is "are" ( since that act as subject here) ,2) logically if I replace that with finding then the clause becomes "finding are free of such chemicals" and 3)how can that jump over a complete clause to modify finding.

Kindly advise me about the above , maybe my understanding of That is completely wrong.

Tks/Brgds
Anurag

Hi Anurag,

You ask a good question, and I am sure this question must have confused many of the test-takers. To understand what is happening in this sentence, let's begin with a very simple basic example:

My brother showed me the watch that he found near the lake that is just behind our house.

So here we have two "that". Let's talk about the second one first. It is very clear that the second "that" modifies the preceding noun entity "lake". In this usage, "that" acts a Subject for which the Verb is "is".

Now let's talk about the first "that". Here "that" is acting as a Relative Pronoun because it gives us more information about the preceding noun entity "the watch". However, "that" here is NOT the Subject of the clause that is starts. The Subject of the Dependent Clause started by "that" is "he" and the Verb for this Subject is "found". This usage is not as common on GMAT as the second usage of "that" is.

In the official sentence in question has the similar usage of "that".

Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place; one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals．

The "that" after "finding" refers back to "finding" only. Now study the following two examples to understand the SV pair in the DC started by this "that".

There is an apple on the table.
There are many fruits on the table.

Now, many would say that in both the sentences, "there" is the Subject. If that is so then why the first sentence uses Singular Verb "is" and the second sentence uses Plural Verb "are"? The reason for this is that the Subject in the first sentence is "an apple" - a Singular noun entity, and the Subject in the second sentence is "many fruits" - a Plural noun entity. "There" in both the sentences actually works as placeholders.

Sp again, in the official sentence, in the clause "there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes...", the Subject is Plural "much larger populations". This is the reason why the clause has the Plural Verb "are". "There" is just a placeholder here.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: OG VR 2nd ED SC 59 [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2014, 21:15
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egmat wrote:
anuragd wrote:

"Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place； one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals．"

In this sentence, "that" refers to "finding" as its give detail about what that finding is. So yes, "that" refers to "finding".

Now I am bit confused that how that can modify "finding" ,1)Finding is singular subject but the verb used for that is "are" ( since that act as subject here) ,2) logically if I replace that with finding then the clause becomes "finding are free of such chemicals" and 3)how can that jump over a complete clause to modify finding.

Kindly advise me about the above , maybe my understanding of That is completely wrong.

Tks/Brgds
Anurag

Hi Anurag,

You ask a good question, and I am sure this question must have confused many of the test-takers. To understand what is happening in this sentence, let's begin with a very simple basic example:

My brother showed me the watch that he found near the lake that is just behind our house.

So here we have two "that". Let's talk about the second one first. It is very clear that the second "that" modifies the preceding noun entity "lake". In this usage, "that" acts a Subject for which the Verb is "is".

Now let's talk about the first "that". Here "that" is acting as a Relative Pronoun because it gives us more information about the preceding noun entity "the watch". However, "that" here is NOT the Subject of the clause that is starts. The Subject of the Dependent Clause started by "that" is "he" and the Verb for this Subject is "found". This usage is not as common on GMAT as the second usage of "that" is.

In the official sentence in question has the similar usage of "that".

Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place; one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals．

The "that" after "finding" refers back to "finding" only. Now study the following two examples to understand the SV pair in the DC started by this "that".

There is an apple on the table.
There are many fruits on the table.

Now, many would say that in both the sentences, "there" is the Subject. If that is so then why the first sentence uses Singular Verb "is" and the second sentence uses Plural Verb "are"? The reason for this is that the Subject in the first sentence is "an apple" - a Singular noun entity, and the Subject in the second sentence is "many fruits" - a Plural noun entity. "There" in both the sentences actually works as placeholders.

Sp again, in the official sentence, in the clause "there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes...", the Subject is Plural "much larger populations". This is the reason why the clause has the Plural Verb "are". "There" is just a placeholder here.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Tks a lot for the detailed explanation. Now my understanding of That has become very very clear.
Once gain tks a lot

Tks
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Re: Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the sa [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2014, 18:31
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(A) Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place；one reason is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals．Correct - structure of sentence is okay; comparison "in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use" + "are much larger populations of X" "than" "in soils that are free of such chemicals"

(B) If used repeatedly in the same place，one reason that certain pesticides can become ineffective is suggested by the finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals．Wrong - "if" clause is frequently used with "then" clause; "one reason...is suggested...by the finding that" is redundant.

(C) If used repeatedly in the same place，one reason certain pesticides can become ineffective is suggested by the finding that much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes are found in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than those that are free of such chemicals．Wrong - "if" clause is frequently used with "then" clause; "one reason...is suggested...by the finding that" is redundant; comparison clause of "in soils..." and "those that" is not structurally similar

(D) The finding that there are much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in soils that are free of such chemicals is suggestive of one reason，if used repeatedly in the same place，certain pesticides can become ineffective．Wrong - comma splice. You cannot combine two dependent clauses with a comma

(E) The finding of much larger populations of pesticide-degrading microbes in soils with a relatively long history of pesticide use than in those that are free of such chemicals suggests one reason certain pesticides can be come ineffective if used repeatedly in the same place. comparison clause of "in soils..." and "those that" is not structurally similar; "one reason certain pesticides" must have a conjunction or the sentence is not grammatical.

IMO A

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Re: Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the sa [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2015, 13:01
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Re: Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the sa [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2016, 05:14
daagh
I fail to understand why Choice E is incorrect.
For me E is better organised than A.

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05 Apr 2016, 08:38
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Re: Certain pesticides can become ineffective if used repeatedly in the sa   [#permalink] 05 Apr 2016, 08:38

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