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Concerned about financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the

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New post 15 Jul 2006, 00:52
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Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Concerned about financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the government of Runagia decided two years ago to increase by 20 percent the government-provided pension paid to all Runagians over 65. Inflation in the intervening period has been negligible, and the increase has been duly received by all eligible Runagians. Nevertheless, many of them are no better off financially than they were before the increase, in large part because ________.

(A) They rely entirely on the government pension for their income

(B) Runagian banks are so inefficient that it can take up to three weeks to cash a pension check

(C) They buy goods whose prices tend to rise especially fast in times of inflation

(D) The pension was increased when the number of elderly Runagians below the poverty level reached an all-time high

(E) In Runagia children typically supplement the income of elderly parents, but only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living

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Re: Concerned about financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2012, 03:37
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Arbitrageur wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the passage?
Concerned about the financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the government of Runagia decided two years ago to increase by 20 percent the government-provided pension paid to all Runagians over 65. Inflation in the intervening period has been negligible, and the increase has been duly received by all eligible Runagians. Nevertheless, many of them are no better off financially than they were before the increase, in large part because __________.
A. they rely entirely on the government pension for their income
B. Runagian banks are so inefficient that it can take up to three weeks to cash a pension check
C. they buy goods whose prices tend to rise especially fast in times of inflation
D. the pension was increased when the number of elderly Runagians below the poverty level reached an all-time high
E. in Runagia children typically supplement the income of elderly parents, but only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living


I missed this one and am curious to hear people's reasonings on this. I will post my own thoughts once a few people have responded.


Since quite a few people got stuck in this question, I would like to give my analysis here.

First of all, complete the passage questions belong to one of your regular question types (strengthen/weaken/inference/paradox etc).
This question is just a 'resolve the paradox' question.
What is the paradox?

The government increased the pension it pays to all elderly by 20 %. Inflation has been 0 and the increase has been received by all eligible Runagians. Still, many of them are no better off financially than they were before.

It's a paradox, right?
If someone was getting $100, he is now getting $120. There is no inflation. Then he must be better off now. But he isn't. He still has the same overall financial position as before.

How will you resolve it?

C. they buy goods whose prices tend to rise especially fast in times of inflation
Doesn't make sense. There has been no inflation. We don't know what happens to the prices in times of no inflation.

D. the pension was increased when the number of elderly Runagians below the poverty level reached an all-time high
Doesn't matter. Everyone is getting more money. Someone who used to get $100 now gets $120.

E. in Runagia children typically supplement the income of elderly parents, but only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living
The pension is probably not enough to ensure a comfortable living. If the elders need $200 to live comfortably, children used to provide the extra $100. Now that elderly get $120, children will probably provide only $80 since they help only by enough to provide them a comfortable living. This does resolve our paradox and is the answer. So the financial situation of the elderly stays the same.

Answer (E)
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New post 15 Jul 2006, 16:06
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answer is E.

children supplement the income of elderly parents by just enough to provide the parents a comfortable living. So, if the pension amount has increased, the amount of money these elderly people receive from their kids would decrease. So, overall they would still be getting the same money.
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New post 15 Jul 2006, 17:36
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I choose E. I almost had to guess on this one but I just had a moment of clarity. As shoonya correctly point out: children only supply enough to provide their parents with a comfortable living...this implies that they will reduce their giving appropriately thereby leaving their parents at the same utility level.
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New post 15 Jul 2006, 19:18
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A. They rely entirely on the government pension for their income

======> If they rely entirely on pension then 20% increase will be helpful, even if its a little help.

B. Runagian banks are so inefficient that it can take up to three weeks to cash a pension check

======> Then the cycle should be same.

C. They buy goods whose prices tend to rise especially fast in times of inflation

======> As stated in passage, inflation is negligible.

D. The pension was increased when the number of elderly Runagians below the poverty level reached an all-time high

======> Even if number of people are more everybody is getting the increased amount. As passage says "...paid to all Runagians over 65"

E. In Runagia children typically supplement the income of elderly parents, but only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living

======> CORRECT. This means children have reduced their support and the increase in pension was offset by decrease in support by children. Why children are decreasing the support? See the bold part in E.
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Re: Concerned about financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2006, 14:29
2
Gauss wrote:
Concerned about financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the government of Runagia

decided two years ago to increase by 20 percent the government-provided pension

paid to all Runagians over 65. Inflation in the intervening period has been negligible,

and the increase has been duly received by all eligible Runagians. Nevertheless,

many of them are no better off financially than they were before the increase, in large

part because ________.

Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

A. They rely entirely on the government pension for their income

B. Runagian banks are so inefficient that it can take up to three weeks to cash a pension check

C. They buy goods whose prices tend to rise especially fast in times of inflation

D. The pension was increased when the number of elderly Runagians below the poverty level reached an all-time high

E. In Runagia children typically supplement the income of elderly parents, but only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living


My choice is E.
A: Even if they rely entirely on the govenrnment, if the pension has increased by 20%, they should be getting 20% more, so they should be better of.
B: Irrelevant. It clearly says that the pension was received.
C: Irrelevant. It clearly says inflation was negligible
D: So what? 20% increase is a 20% increase.
E: In the beginning they received 10 dollars from Government. Children gave them 5 dollars more to live comfortably. Then Government gave them 2 dollars more. Children now gave them 3 dollars to live comfortably. At the end of the day they still had the same, and therefore were no better off than before.
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Re: Concerned about financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2013, 02:04
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fozzzy wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Concerned about the financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the government of Runagia decided two years ago to increase by 20 percent the government-provided pension paid to all Runagians over 65. Inflation in the intervening period has been negligible, and the increase has been duly received by all eligible Runagians. Nevertheless, many of them are no better off financially than they were before the increase, in large part because __________.

A. they rely entirely on the government pension for their income
B. Runagian banks are so inefficient that it can take up to three weeks to cash a pension check
C. they buy goods whose prices tend to rise especially fast in times of inflation
D. the pension was increased when the number of elderly Runagians below the poverty level reached an all-time high
E. in Runagia children typically supplement the income of elderly parents, but only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living


Please provide detailed explanations. Thanks!


Hi fozzy,

For the logical completion, you have to first find what to look for in an answer choice. The last sentence says that many elderly people will be no better off financially i.e. their financial situation will more or less remain the same. So, you have to find an answer choice which provides you a reason as to why these elderly people will not be financially better off even after getting 20% extra in their pensions. The answer choice that will tell us something about their financial status will likely be the correct answer choice.

Assumption: A possible assumption could be that that the current financial status of elderly is not so good and even after an additional 20% their status will remain the same.

A. they rely entirely on the government pension for their income

From A we know that they rely entirely on the government pension but we have no information of the financial status to the people receiving the pension. Is the pension sufficient to provide a living? What percentage of the pension are the elderly saving? are the elderly relying on external help?
A answers none of these answers. So, we do not have an idea about the financial condition of the elderly who receive the pension.


B. Runagian banks are so inefficient that it can take up to three weeks to cash a pension check

It can take up to "three weeks" to cash a pension check but the elderly would still receive their pension. So this choice merely states that most of the elderly receive their pension late. No link between the extra 20% and the financial status.

C. they buy goods whose prices tend to rise especially fast in times of inflation

The stimulus says that the inflation in the given period was negligible so the fact that the elderly buy goods whose prices tend to rise fast in times of inflation becomes irrelevant.

D. the pension was increased when the number of elderly Runagians below the poverty level reached an all-time high

When or under what circumstance the pension increase is irrelevant to the conclusion. This choice does nothing to provide us a reason for the financial status of the elderly over the age of 65.

E. in Runagia children typically supplement the income of elderly parents, but only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living

This choice explains the reason why even after getting the extra 20% the financial state of elderly people will still remain the same. If the elderly are already dependent on their children for a "comfortable living" i.e. a fixed amount comes from their children. This means that their children are paying for the balance of the pension they are currently receiving.

Lets say their pension is $100 but for a comfortable living they require $150 so the difference of $50 is being paid by their children. Now, if the elderly get 20% extra i.e. $20, this will make their pension to $120, but they would still have a deficit of $30, which will again be paid by their children. So, effectively the extra 20% has done no good to their financial status.

Here one can also argue that the elderly are just living on their children's income and are not spending their pension at all. So, the increased 20% of pension will make them better off financially. This will be a far fetched assumption, but, even if we make this assumption, (E) would still be the "most logical" completion of the passage.


Hope this helps,

Vercules
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Re: Concerned about financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2013, 10:34
Vercules wrote:
fozzzy wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Concerned about the financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the government of Runagia decided two years ago to increase by 20 percent the government-provided pension paid to all Runagians over 65. Inflation in the intervening period has been negligible, and the increase has been duly received by all eligible Runagians. Nevertheless, many of them are no better off financially than they were before the increase, in large part because __________.

A. they rely entirely on the government pension for their income
B. Runagian banks are so inefficient that it can take up to three weeks to cash a pension check
C. they buy goods whose prices tend to rise especially fast in times of inflation
D. the pension was increased when the number of elderly Runagians below the poverty level reached an all-time high
E. in Runagia children typically supplement the income of elderly parents, but only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living


Please provide detailed explanations. Thanks!


Hi fozzy,

For the logical completion, you have to first find what to look for in an answer choice. The last sentence says that many elderly people will be no better off financially i.e. their financial situation will more or less remain the same. So, you have to find an answer choice which provides you a reason as to why these elderly people will not be financially better off even after getting 20% extra in their pensions. The answer choice that will tell us something about their financial status will likely be the correct answer choice.

Assumption: A possible assumption could be that that the current financial status of elderly is not so good and even after an additional 20% their status will remain the same.

A. they rely entirely on the government pension for their income

From A we know that they rely entirely on the government pension but we have no information of the financial status to the people receiving the pension. Is the pension sufficient to provide a living? What percentage of the pension are the elderly saving? are the elderly relying on external help?
A answers none of these answers. So, we do not have an idea about the financial condition of the elderly who receive the pension.


B. Runagian banks are so inefficient that it can take up to three weeks to cash a pension check

It can take up to "three weeks" to cash a pension check but the elderly would still receive their pension. So this choice merely states that most of the elderly receive their pension late. No link between the extra 20% and the financial status.

C. they buy goods whose prices tend to rise especially fast in times of inflation

The stimulus says that the inflation in the given period was negligible so the fact that the elderly buy goods whose prices tend to rise fast in times of inflation becomes irrelevant.

D. the pension was increased when the number of elderly Runagians below the poverty level reached an all-time high

When or under what circumstance the pension increase is irrelevant to the conclusion. This choice does nothing to provide us a reason for the financial status of the elderly over the age of 65.

E. in Runagia children typically supplement the income of elderly parents, but only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living

This choice explains the reason why even after getting the extra 20% the financial state of elderly people will still remain the same. If the elderly are already dependent on their children for a "comfortable living" i.e. a fixed amount comes from their children. This means that their children are paying for the balance of the pension they are currently receiving.

Lets say their pension is $100 but for a comfortable living they require $150 so the difference of $50 is being paid by their children. Now, if the elderly get 20% extra i.e. $20, this will make their pension to $120, but they would still have a deficit of $30, which will again be paid by their children. So, effectively the extra 20% has done no good to their financial status.

Here one can also argue that the elderly are just living on their children's income and are not spending their pension at all. So, the increased 20% of pension will make them better off financially. This will be a far fetched assumption, but, even if we make this assumption, (E) would still be the "most logical" conclusion of the passage.


Hope this helps,

Vercules



But when we have in the stimulus SINCE or BECAUSE is always a strengthen question not a conclusion question. We have inference with that or it should be expected that (most rare)
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Re: Concerned about financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2013, 12:13
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Hi there,

a "best completes the passage" question stem can be strengthen, weaken or inference, depending on what the statement is asking. I would categorize this as a weaken question because the stimulus indicates that the program was duly implemented but didn't reach the stated goals. A wouldn't make any sense (180), B creates a three week lag but after that everything is running smoothly so it doesn't explain the problem, C is irrelevent given no inflation and D again looks like a strengthener to the plan, not a weakener. E gives a logical alternative as to why the plan isn't working: in essence, it's benefiting the children and not the original elderly recipients.

Hope this helps!
-Ron
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New post 27 Feb 2013, 13:17
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VeritasPrepRon wrote:
Hi there,

a "best completes the passage" question stem can be strengthen, weaken or inference, depending on what the statement is asking. I would categorize this as a weaken question because the stimulus indicates that the program was duly implemented but didn't reach the stated goals. A wouldn't make any sense (180), B creates a three week lag but after that everything is running smoothly so it doesn't explain the problem, C is irrelevent given no inflation and D again looks like a strengthener to the plan, not a weakener. E gives a logical alternative as to why the plan isn't working: in essence, it's benefiting the children and not the original elderly recipients.

Hope this helps!
-Ron


Aristotle prep CR Guide 3th edition


Quote:
The answer is by looking at the word that leads to the blank. This is the word that comes immediately
before the blank. If the word is since or because (like in the above argument) then you will definitely be
required to strengthen the author’s argument. Also the author’s conclusion will be in the sentence that
leads up to this word.
If the leading word/phrase is that or it should be expected that, then you will be required to make an
inference from the information provided in the stimulus. In these questions remember to avoid
extreme options and go with vaguely worded ones.
If the leading word is assuming that, then obviously you need to point out the assumption in the
argument and the conclusion will again be the last sentence that leads up to the blank.
If the OG13 is anything to go by, most Logical Conclusion questions will have a since or because at the
end and hence will require you to strengthen the argument.


MGMAT CR 5th edition

Quote:
Several question types can be written using a Complete the Argument structure, though most CA ques­
tions come in the Strengthen or Assumption formats. The CA format will always present an underlined
blank in the argument, and there will not be a question stem following the argument.
Our first task is to figure out what kind of question we really have. The presence of the words “since” or
“because” immediately before the blank indicate a Strengthen / Assumption-type question. On these,
our task will be to find something that supports the argument in some way. Alternatively, if the lan­
guage before the blank says something similar to “it should be expected that,” then we are looking at
an Inference-type CA. Finally, we might be asked to “illustrate” or “provide an example of” something
that was discussed in the argument




find an agreement...................
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Re: Concerned about financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2013, 13:55
carcass wrote:


But when we have in the stimulus SINCE or BECAUSE is always a strengthen question not a conclusion question. We have inference with that or it should be expected that (most rare)



Hi Carcass,

For sure and it is extremely clear that it is not a conclusion question. Please don't go by just one word, please read the complete explanation, in the last line there was a typo. Read it as "the most logical completion" instead of "most logical conclusion". In the whole detailed explanation I have explained as to why one choice is a reason or not a reason to for the conclusion to be true. Nowhere I have said that we require a conclusion. The conclusion is "many of them are no better off financially" and we have to find a reason why this conclusion is possible.

The given question is a strengthening question and yes almost always the since/ because ask for a strengthener. However, the logical completion can be made into any CR question type (except boldface).

For example

In order to evaluate the editor's plan one must question that........ --> Evaluate

The government's new policy will not achieve its result because/ since.... ---> Weaken/ Strengthen

The government's new policy will achieve its result because/ since.... ---> Strengthen/ Weaken

Based on the Mayor's proposal it must be true that.... ---> Inference

For the newly implemented trade embargo to achieve its goals it must be true that.... ---> Assumption



I hope it clears your doubt,

Vercules
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Re: Concerned about financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2013, 13:57
carcass wrote:
VeritasPrepRon wrote:
Hi there,

a "best completes the passage" question stem can be strengthen, weaken or inference, depending on what the statement is asking. I would categorize this as a weaken question because the stimulus indicates that the program was duly implemented but didn't reach the stated goals. A wouldn't make any sense (180), B creates a three week lag but after that everything is running smoothly so it doesn't explain the problem, C is irrelevent given no inflation and D again looks like a strengthener to the plan, not a weakener. E gives a logical alternative as to why the plan isn't working: in essence, it's benefiting the children and not the original elderly recipients.

Hope this helps!
-Ron


Aristotle prep CR Guide 3th edition


Quote:
The answer is by looking at the word that leads to the blank. This is the word that comes immediately
before the blank. If the word is since or because (like in the above argument) then you will definitely be
required to strengthen the author’s argument. Also the author’s conclusion will be in the sentence that
leads up to this word.
If the leading word/phrase is that or it should be expected that, then you will be required to make an
inference from the information provided in the stimulus. In these questions remember to avoid
extreme options and go with vaguely worded ones.
If the leading word is assuming that, then obviously you need to point out the assumption in the
argument and the conclusion will again be the last sentence that leads up to the blank.
If the OG13 is anything to go by, most Logical Conclusion questions will have a since or because at the
end and hence will require you to strengthen the argument.


MGMAT CR 5th edition

Quote:
Several question types can be written using a Complete the Argument structure, though most CA ques­
tions come in the Strengthen or Assumption formats. The CA format will always present an underlined
blank in the argument, and there will not be a question stem following the argument.
Our first task is to figure out what kind of question we really have. The presence of the words “since” or
“because” immediately before the blank indicate a Strengthen / Assumption-type question. On these,
our task will be to find something that supports the argument in some way. Alternatively, if the lan­
guage before the blank says something similar to “it should be expected that,” then we are looking at
an Inference-type CA. Finally, we might be asked to “illustrate” or “provide an example of” something
that was discussed in the argument




find an agreement...................


Hi carcass, questions that ask you to most logically complete an argument can be asking you to defend the preceding argument (strengthen) or deconstruct it (weaken) fairly easily. Since strengthen and weaken are very much two sides of the same coin, it's not a huge difference if you want to use strengthen uniformly for this category. The Veritas Prep strategy involves distilling these two categories to keep your mission clear and avoid picking trap 180 answer choices.

As an example, Question 21 from the Veritas Advanced Verbal Strategy asks:

Which of the following most logically completes the argument?

When purchasing a new automobile, consumers are generally wary of car salespeople, a group that bears a reputation for dishonesty. To combat this perception, the CEO of Hoffpeck Motors is running an advertising campaign on television and radio in which he personally guarantees that he has certified each of his salespeople as 100% honest. This strategy may fail to achieve its desired results, however, because ______________________

(A) consumers pay less attention to television and radio advertising campaigns than they did before the widespread use of the internet
(B) consumers favor compact cars over full-size SUVs and trucks, and Hoffpeck Motors has failed to align its vehicle offerings with this changing market
(C) consumers are likely to view the CEO of Hoffpeck Motors as dishonest, himself, in light of his presence in a campaign to sell cars
(D) consumers view prominent businesspeople as more trustworthy than salespeople or mechanics
(E) consumers rank affordability and style ahead of showroom experience as the primary factors in their decisions to purchase new cars

If you view this question as a weaken question, the answer should be C. If you see it as a strengthen question, you'll likely pick answer choice D.
OA. C

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Quote:
Hi carcass, questions that ask you to most logically complete an argument can be asking you to defend the preceding argument (strengthen) or deconstruct it (weaken) fairly easily. Since strengthen and weaken are very much two sides of the same coin, it's not a huge difference if you want to use strengthen uniformly for this category. The Veritas Prep strategy involves distilling these two categories to keep your mission clear and avoid picking trap 180 answer choices.

As an example, Question 21 from the Veritas Advanced Verbal Strategy asks:

Which of the following most logically completes the argument?

When purchasing a new automobile, consumers are generally wary of car salespeople, a group that bears a reputation for dishonesty. To combat this perception, the CEO of Hoffpeck Motors is running an advertising campaign on television and radio in which he personally guarantees that he has certified each of his salespeople as 100% honest. This strategy may fail to achieve its desired results, however, because ______________________

(A) consumers pay less attention to television and radio advertising campaigns than they did before the widespread use of the internet
(B) consumers favor compact cars over full-size SUVs and trucks, and Hoffpeck Motors has failed to align its vehicle offerings with this changing market
(C) consumers are likely to view the CEO of Hoffpeck Motors as dishonest, himself, in light of his presence in a campaign to sell cars
(D) consumers view prominent businesspeople as more trustworthy than salespeople or mechanics
(E) consumers rank affordability and style ahead of showroom experience as the primary factors in their decisions to purchase new cars

If you view this question as a weaken question, the answer should be C. If you see it as a strengthen question, you'll likely pick answer choice D.
OA. C



I Ron :) I agree.

In that sense based on your posted question here we have the word because so we would have a strenghten question BUT this question could be seen also as a weaken question.

Because seeing the overall structure of the stimulus we have to find an answer that confirm (strength) that the overall situation is flaw or weak.

Basically we have to find something like: the owner is a thief, he proposes a fraud and we have to find something that helps us to confirm his weakness. C

:)
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Re: Concerned about financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Feb 2013, 07:37
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carcass wrote:


I Ron :) I agree.

In that sense based on your posted question here we have the word because so we would have a strenghten question BUT this question could be seen also as a weaken question.

Because seeing the overall structure of the stimulus we have to find an answer that confirm (strength) that the overall situation is flaw or weak.

Basically we have to find something like: the owner is a thief, he proposes a fraud and we have to find something that helps us to confirm his weakness. C

:)


Hi carcass,
I agree with your strategy, strengthen and weaken are approached in the same way, so you can think of it as strengthening the doubt, or weakening the conclusion. This type of example is classified as a weaken question at Veritas to avoid tempting traps. Of course logically the answer should be C, but if you're going fast trying to save time you might think D is correct if you're stuck on the idea that you must strengthen the passage/plan.

As Vercules pointed out, Completes the Passage question can be virtually any type of question, so the important part is to find the answer that properly addresses all the issues brought up in the passage (and this is the GMAT so there's always at least one!) :)

Thanks!
-Ron
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New post 25 Jul 2015, 02:25
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Answer is E.

Before pension,

small X (pension)/ no x + bigger y (fund from children) = threshold Comfortable living

After Pension,

Bigger X (pension) + smaller y (fund from children) = threshold Comfortable living
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New post 26 Aug 2015, 06:54
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eybrj2 wrote:
Concerned about the well-being of its elderly citizens, the government of Runagia decided two years ago to increase by 20 percent the government-provided pension paid to all Runagians over 65. Inflation in the intervening period has been negligible, and the increase has been duly received by all eligible Runagians. Nevertheless, many of them are no better off financially than they were before the increase, in large part because ______________.

a) They rely entirely on the government pension for their income.

b) Runagian banks are so inefficient that it can take up to three weeks to cash a pension check.

c)They buy goods whose prices tend to rise especially fast in times of inflation.

d) The pension was increased when the number of elderly Runagians below the poverty level reached an all-time high.

e) In Runagia children typically supplement the income of elderly parents, but only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living


Hi! All,

The argument states that Govt has increased pension amount for elderly people and inflation is negligible, but still elderly people are not better off.

The possible assumption could be:-
1) Their expenses have increased in other areas in which they never used to expense before
2) They are giving the money to support someone in the family
3) Initially, the pension amount was less and they were asking for money from their children. Now, since they receive more money, their children are not providing them money anymore.
a) They rely entirely on the government pension for their income. If they rely entirely on govt then they should be financially sound because the pension has increased.

b) Runagian banks are so inefficient that it can take up to three weeks to cash a pension check. Getting money three weeks later can also make people financially sound

c)They buy goods whose prices tend to rise especially fast in times of inflation. There is negligible inflation

d) The pension was increased when the number of elderly Runagians below the poverty level reached an all-time high. This doesn’t make sense because even if the poverty was all time high the increased pension would have helped raising the economic status as compare to earlier status.

e) In Runagia children typically supplement the income of elderly parents, but only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living. This is a possibility that old people can live comfortably with revised pension and hence children are not sending them money anymore.

Hope it helps
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Re: Concerned about financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the  [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2017, 04:51
I have come across a similar question from GMAT OG16. :
Plan: Concerned about the welfare of its senior citizens, the government of
Runagia decided two years ago to increase by 20 percent the government-provided
pension paid to all Runagians age sixty-five and older. Result: Many Runagian
senior citizens are no better off financially now than they were before the increase.
Further information: The annual rate of inflation since the pension increase has
been below 5 percent, and the increased pension has been duly received by all
eligible Runagians.
In light of the further information, which of the following, if true, does most to
explain the result that followed implementation of the plan?
(A) The majority of senior citizens whose financial position has not
improved rely entirely on the government pension for their income.
(B) The Runagian banking system is so inefficient that cashing a pension
check can take as much as three weeks.
(C) The prices of goods and services that meet the special needs of many
senior citizens have increased at a rate much higher than the rate of
inflation.
(D) The pension increase occurred at a time when the number of Runagians
age sixty-five and older who were living below the poverty level was at an
all-time high.
(E) The most recent pension increase was only the second such increase in
the last ten years.

For this question, the official answer is "C".
I agree that there is a slight difference in these two questions in terms of inflation rate. Although, the question above states that inflation is below 5%, doesn't the author wants to say that though overall inflation is negligible, but prices of the specific commodities have increased?
Please help me with this question.
Thanks in advance :)
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New post 20 Oct 2017, 22:45
in Runagia children typically supplement the income of elderly parents, but only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living

Here in option E don't we need another assumption that after government pension children have stopped supplemeting the income of elderly parents ?
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Re: Concerned about financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2017, 23:16
kannu44 wrote:
in Runagia children typically supplement the income of elderly parents, but only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living

Here in option E don't we need another assumption that after government pension children have stopped supplemeting the income of elderly parents ?


Option (E) tells us that children supplement the income by just enough to provide a comfortable living. We do not need to assume that they have stopped supplementing. They could still be supplementing but they will provide just enough to be comfortable.

As explained above:


The pension was probably not enough to ensure a comfortable living, say it was $100. If the elders need $200 to live comfortably, children used to provide the extra $100. Now that elderly get $120, children will probably provide only $80 since they help only by enough to provide them a comfortable living. This does resolve our paradox and is the answer. So the financial situation of the elderly stays the same.
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