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Concerned about the dangers posed to civil aviation by migratory birds

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Concerned about the dangers posed to civil aviation by migratory birds  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2020, 01:45
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A
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  15% (low)

Question Stats:

76% (01:48) correct 24% (02:03) wrong based on 246 sessions

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Concerned about the dangers posed to civil aviation by migratory birds, the national aviation administration and several wildlife protection societies have collaborated in a project aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert and prevent collisions.


A. aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert

B. aiming to monitor flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert

C. aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and training pilots to avert

D. aiming to monitor flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightly coordinating when commercial air traffic is to take off and land, and to train pilots to avoid

E. to aim at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, to coordinate tight landing and take-off times for commercial air traffic, but to train pilots to avert



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Re: Concerned about the dangers posed to civil aviation by migratory birds  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2020, 00:06
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OFFICIAL EXPLANATION



Concerned about the dangers posed to civil aviation by migratory birds, the national aviation administration and several wildlife protection societies have collaborated in a project aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert and prevent collisions.


A. aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. The first two items in the list of the sentence are unconjugated verbs (monitoring, tightening), but the last item is a noun (the training). What is tricky about this list is that the noun the training has the same form as the verbs, but because of the article the (training), the V+ing form functions as a noun, and violates the parallelism.

What helps us identify this question as a Parallelism question as well as identify the mistake is the following Stop Sign: A list of 3 items or more, separated by commas and and/or before the last item.

In a list of 3 or more items, all the items should be the same part of speech (all nouns, all verbs, or all adjectives).



B. aiming to monitor flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert

Incorrect.

This answer choice repeats the Parallelism mistake in the original question, and even creates another Parallelism mistake mistake, resulting in an illogical sentence.

In the corrected sentence, the modifier aimed is changed to a V+ing form aiming and the first verb in the list is changed to a to V form to monitor. As a result, the already faulty parallelism of the original list of the project's aims is damaged even more because the second and third items (tightening, the training of) are still in Ving form and are different parts of speech (tightening = verb; the monitoring of = noun)

Even if aiming (and not to monitor) is seen as the first item in the parallelism, logical or grammatical problems remain. The original sentence presents a list of the aims of the collaborative project. Therefore it is not logical for aiming to be included as one of the items in the list. The resulting sentence is also grammatically incorrect: one cannot say aiming tightening coordination...and aiming the training of pilots.



C. aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and training pilots to avert

This answer choice corrects the Parallelism mistake in the original question, by changing the noun the training to a non-conjugated verb training, to match the previous items in the list (monitoring, tightening coordination).

What's tricky about this list is that the noun the training has the same form as the verbs, but because of the article the (training), the V+ing form functions as a noun, and violates the parallelism.

Although this answer choice is not stylistically perfect (avert and prevent is a redundancy, as these two words mean approximately the same thing), it is the only answer choice that is grammatical, logical, and has a correct parallel structure.



D. aiming to monitor flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightly coordinating when commercial air traffic is to take off and land, and to train pilots to avoid

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect.

What helps us identify this question as a Parallelism question as well as identify the mistake is the following Stop Sign: A list of 3 items or more, separated by commas and and/or before the last item.

In a list of 3 or more items, all the items should be the same part of speech (all nouns, all verbs, or all adjectives).

The original sentence has a list of three non-parallel items: monitoring (V+ing verb), tightening (V+ing verb), the training (V+ing noun).

In the corrected sentence, the modifier aimed is changed to a V+ing form aiming and the first and third items in the list are changed to a to V form to monitor//to train. However, the second item tightening (V+ing) is not parallel to them.

Reading the sentence as if aiming (and not to monitor) were the first item in the parallelism doesn't solve the problem, either logically or grammatically. The original sentence presents a list of the aims of the collaborative project. Therefore it is not logical for aiming to be included as one of the items in the list. The resulting sentence is also grammatically incorrect: one cannot say aiming tightly coordinating.

In addition, changing the noun phrase landing and take-off times to a clause when commercial air traffic is to take off and land is awkward and wordy.



E. to aim at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, to coordinate tight landing and take-off times for commercial air traffic, but to train pilots to avert

Incorrect.

This answer choice is illogical, and it doesn't fit into the original sentence.

This answer choice appears to correct the Parallelism mistake in the original question, but the three actions are not logically parallel. The original sentence presents a list of the aims of the collaborative project. Therefore it is not logical for to aim to be included as one of the items in the list. The three logically parallel actions in this sentence are: monitoring, coordinating, training. To aim at only serves as the introduction to the three items which should be parallel.

In addition, the addition of the word but makes little sense because but usually shows an opposition or negation to something previously stated. In this case the three items in the list are meant to be aims of the project and no opposition exists among the aims stated.

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Re: Concerned about the dangers posed to civil aviation by migratory birds  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2020, 02:25
Concerned about the dangers posed to civil aviation by migratory birds, the national aviation administration and several wildlife protection societies have collaborated in a project aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert and prevent collisions.

A. aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert; the training of.. is not parallel to monitoring.., tightening..

B. aiming to monitor flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert; to monitor.., tightening.., and the training is not a parallel list. nothing matches

C. aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and training pilots to avert; aimed at monitoring.., tightening.., and training.. list is parallel.

D. aiming to monitor flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightly coordinating when commercial air traffic is to take off and land, and to train pilots to avoid; to monitor.., coordinating is not parallel

E. to aim at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, to coordinate tight landing and take-off times for commercial air traffic, but to train pilots to avert; change in meaning from option A. option A says they have collaborated in a project- it does A, B and C. This option says they have collaborated in a project to do A, B but C.
Ans: C
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Re: Concerned about the dangers posed to civil aviation by migratory birds  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2020, 03:14
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IMO C

Problem with original sentence: verb + ing (monitoring), verb +ing (tightening) and noun(the training) -> not parallel

A. aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert :WRONG

B. aiming to monitor flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert Worng; retained teh erro rof A and changes teh emaning due to use of "to"

C. aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and training pilots to avert Correct, all are verb + ing foms

D. aiming to monitor flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightly coordinating when commercial air traffic is to take off and land, and to train pilots to avoid WRONG; not parallel

E. to aim at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, to coordinate tight landing and take-off times for commercial air traffic, but to train pilots to avert: WRONG use of "but" changed the context of the sentence
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Re: Concerned about the dangers posed to civil aviation by migratory birds  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2020, 04:14
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Concerned about the dangers posed to civil aviation by migratory birds, the national aviation administration and several wildlife protection societies have collaborated in a project aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert and prevent collisions.

POE:
Parallelism error: Eliminate (A), (B), (D)
'monitoring......tightening....and training'
Eliminate (E) - change of meaning

A. aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert

B. aiming to monitor flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert

C. aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and training pilots to avert - CORRECT

D. aiming to monitor flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightly coordinating when commercial air traffic is to take off and land, and to train pilots to avoid

E. to aim at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, to coordinate tight landing and take-off times for commercial air traffic, but to train pilots to avert
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Re: Concerned about the dangers posed to civil aviation by migratory birds  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2020, 16:39
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Concerned about the dangers posed to civil aviation by migratory birds, the national aviation administration and several wildlife protection societies have collaborated in a project aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert and prevent collisions.


A. aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert

-parallelism error

- Incorrect

B. aiming to monitor flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert

- parallelism error

- Incorrect

C. aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and training pilots to avert

- removes all the error

- Correct

D. aiming to monitor flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightly coordinating when commercial air traffic is to take off and land, and to train pilots to avoid

- parallelism error

- Incorrect

E. to aim at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, to coordinate tight landing and take-off times for commercial air traffic, but to train pilots to avert

1. modifier error
2. parallelism error

- Incorrect

IMO(C)
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Re: Concerned about the dangers posed to civil aviation by migratory birds  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2020, 01:37
As much as I dislike long statements packed with ideas, GMAT loves throwing them at test-takes to test their patience and agility.

One look at the statement and you see that nothing is evidently wrong with the original statement as such. And then you throw a second glance and spot the minor error. The underlined part of the statement lists ideas that civil aviation aims to achieve. The correct usage of idiom would be 'aimed at.' The correct option will also have all the verbs in parallel form with '-ing'

Let's look at the options, shall we ?

A. aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert

(all good, except the use of an article 'the' before 'training' in the latter half of the statement, which is unnecessary)

B. aiming to monitor flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and the training of pilots to avert

('aiming to' and 'the training' - both incorrect)

C. aimed at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightening coordination of landing and take-off times of commercial air traffic, and training pilots to avert

(corrects all errors as seen previously)

D. aiming to monitor flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, tightly coordinating when commercial air traffic is to take off and land, and to train pilots to avoid

('aiming to' is awkward)

E. to aim at monitoring flight patterns of high-flying species such as storks, herons, and geese, to coordinate tight landing and take-off times for commercial air traffic, but to train pilots to avert

('to aim' and the use of 'but.' This is list of things to do. 'but' introduces exception, which is absolutely unnecessary)

OA : C
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Re: Concerned about the dangers posed to civil aviation by migratory birds   [#permalink] 07 Jul 2020, 01:37

Concerned about the dangers posed to civil aviation by migratory birds

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