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# Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular food

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Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular food [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2013, 23:17
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Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular foods reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods could help reverse blockage of coronory aryeries, the blood vessels that feed the heart.

a) Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular foods reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods could

b)Despite no foods having been proved to reverse hardening of the arteries when consumed, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods can

c) Although the consumption of no particular foods have been proved to reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods could

d)Although not proved that the consumption of any foods reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods can

e)Although it has not been proved that the consumption of any particular food will reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods can

what does 'IT' refers to ?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by pqhai on 01 Sep 2013, 09:55, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular food [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2013, 23:24
2013gmat wrote:
what does 'IT' refers to ?

It clearly refers to consumption of any particular food will reverse hardening of the arteries
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Re: Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular food [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2013, 10:17
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2013gmat wrote:
Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular foods reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods could help reverse blockage of coronory aryeries, the blood vessels that feed the heart.

a) Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular foods reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods could

b)Despite no foods having been proved to reverse hardening of the arteries when consumed, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods can

c) Although the consumption of no particular foods have been proved to reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods could

d)Although not proved that the consumption of any foods reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods can

e)Although it has not been proved that the consumption of any particular food will reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods can

what does 'IT' refers to ?

Hi 2013gmat.

This question is about the usage of "placeholder IT".
Some times it would be nice to move an awkward subject or object to the back of the sentence. In these cases, we can put an it in the sentence where the subject or object used to be. We call this use of it "placeholder IT". Do NOT look for a noun antecedent for a Placeholder IT.

There are three situations in which you might can use Placeholder It on the GMAT.

(1) Postpone infinitive subjects:
Awkward: TO RESIST temptation is futile
Better: IT is futile TO RESIST temptation.

(2) Postpone That-clause Subjects.
Awkward: THAT we scored at all gave us encouragement.
Better: It gave use encouragement THAT we scored at all.

(3) Postpone infinitive or That-clause Objects.
Right: She made IT possible for us TO ATTEND the movie.

Source: MGMAT Sentence Correction.

Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular foods reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods could help reverse blockage of coronory aryeries, the blood vessels that feed the heart.

a) Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular foods reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods could
Wrong.
- "Despite no proof that" is barely used. "Despite..." itself often indicates negative contrast, so "despite no proof" seems to be double negative. "Despite the fact that" is CORRECT usage.
- "the consumption" is singular --> "reverse" is wrong. Should be "reverses"

b)Despite no foods having been proved to reverse hardening of the arteries when consumed, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods can
Wrong.
- Meaning problem: "no food....proved to reverse.....when consumed" <== "consumed" is past tense and ACTIVE voice. It means the food proved abc.... when it consumes something? It's illogical. The food should BE consumed (passive voice). To make the sentence clear, we need an auxiliary verb before "consumed" to change the sentence from active voice to passive voice.

c) Although the consumption of no particular foods have been proved to reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods could
Wrong.
- "the consumption" is singular --> "have" is wrong.

d)Although not proved that the consumption of any foods reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods can
Wrong.
- "Although not proved that" is wrong grammar. "Although + clause" is correct.
- "the consumption" is singular --> "reverse" is wrong.

e)Although it has not been proved that the consumption of any particular food will reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods can
Correct.
- "It" is placeholder it. Do not look for its antecedent, because there is NO antecedent of "it" in the sentence. Placeholder IT moves the That-clause to the back, making the sentence better.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular food [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2013, 13:24
The IT used in OPTION E is a " Place Holder IT". It refers to 'consumption of food'

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Re: Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular food [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2015, 04:33
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Re: Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular food [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2017, 03:23
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.

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Re: Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular food [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2017, 03:56
pqhai wrote:
2013gmat wrote:
Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular foods reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods could help reverse blockage of coronory aryeries, the blood vessels that feed the heart.

a) Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular foods reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods could

b)Despite no foods having been proved to reverse hardening of the arteries when consumed, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods can

c) Although the consumption of no particular foods have been proved to reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods could

d)Although not proved that the consumption of any foods reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods can

e)Although it has not been proved that the consumption of any particular food will reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods can

what does 'IT' refers to ?

Hi 2013gmat.

This question is about the usage of "placeholder IT".
Some times it would be nice to move an awkward subject or object to the back of the sentence. In these cases, we can put an it in the sentence where the subject or object used to be. We call this use of it "placeholder IT". Do NOT look for a noun antecedent for a Placeholder IT.

There are three situations in which you might can use Placeholder It on the GMAT.

(1) Postpone infinitive subjects:
Awkward: TO RESIST temptation is futile
Better: IT is futile TO RESIST temptation.

(2) Postpone That-clause Subjects.
Awkward: THAT we scored at all gave us encouragement.
Better: It gave use encouragement THAT we scored at all.

(3) Postpone infinitive or That-clause Objects.
Right: She made IT possible for us TO ATTEND the movie.

Source: MGMAT Sentence Correction.

Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular foods reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods could help reverse blockage of coronory aryeries, the blood vessels that feed the heart.

a) Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular foods reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods could
Wrong.
- "Despite no proof that" is barely used. "Despite..." itself often indicates negative contrast, so "despite no proof" seems to be double negative. "Despite the fact that" is CORRECT usage.
- "the consumption" is singular --> "reverse" is wrong. Should be "reverses"

b)Despite no foods having been proved to reverse hardening of the arteries when consumed, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods can
Wrong.
- Meaning problem: "no food....proved to reverse.....when consumed" <== "consumed" is past tense and ACTIVE voice. It means the food proved abc.... when it consumes something? It's illogical. The food should BE consumed (passive voice). To make the sentence clear, we need an auxiliary verb before "consumed" to change the sentence from active voice to passive voice.

c) Although the consumption of no particular foods have been proved to reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods could
Wrong.
- "the consumption" is singular --> "have" is wrong.

d)Although not proved that the consumption of any foods reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods can
Wrong.
- "Although not proved that" is wrong grammar. "Although + clause" is correct.
- "the consumption" is singular --> "reverse" is wrong.

e)Although it has not been proved that the consumption of any particular food will reverse hardening of the arteries, studies indicate that refraining from eating certain foods can
Correct.
- "It" is placeholder it. Do not look for its antecedent, because there is NO antecedent of "it" in the sentence. Placeholder IT moves the That-clause to the back, making the sentence better.

Hope it helps.

E also has Sub-Verb agreement issue. The consumption - Singular, Reverse - Plural.
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Re: Despite no proof that the consumption of any particular food   [#permalink] 14 Dec 2017, 03:56
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