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For over 300 years, one of the most enduring beliefs among historians

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For over 300 years, one of the most enduring beliefs among historians  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 21 Aug 2019, 04:52
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For over 300 years, one of the most enduring beliefs among historians of England has been that the character of English society has been shaped by the unique openness of its ruling elite to entry by self-made entrepreneurs (especially newly wealthy merchants) able to buy their way into the ranks of elite society. This upward mobility, historians have argued, allowed England to escape the clash between those with social/political power and those with economic power, a conflict that beset the rest of Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Upward mobility was also used to explain England’s exceptional stability since the late seventeenth century (no revolutions, for example), as well as such major events as the development of the most efficient agricultural system in Europe, the making of the first industrial revolution, and the onset of severe economic decline.

But is the thesis true? Recent work on the supposed consequences of an open elite has already produced some doubts. Little credence, for example, is now accorded the idea that England’s late nineteenth-century economic decline resulted from absentee business owners too distracted by the demands of elite life to manage their firms properly. But, although the importance of an open elite to other major events has been severely questioned, it is only with a new work by Lawrence and Jeanne Stone that the openness itself has been confronted. Eschewing the tack of tracing the careers of successful entrepreneurs to gauge the openness of the elite, the Stones chose the alternative approach of analyzing the elite itself, and proceeded via the ingenious route of investigating country-house ownership.

Arguing that ownership of a country house was seen as essential for membership in the ruling elite, the Stones analyze the nature of country-house ownership in three counties for the period 1540-1880. Their critical findings are provocative: there was strikingly little change in the ownership of such houses throughout the period. Instead, even in the face of a demographic crisis (fewer marriages, declining fertility, rising infant mortality), the old elite was able to maintain itself, and its estates, intact for centuries through recourse to various marriage and inheritance strategies. The popular picture of venerable elite families overcome by debt and selling out to merchants is simply not borne out by the Stones’ findings. Rather, the opportunities for entrepreneurs to buy their way into the elite, the Stones show, were extremely limited. If further studies of country-house ownership attest to the representativeness and accuracy of their data, then the Stones’ conclusion that the open elite thesis cannot be maintained may, indeed, prove true.
1. According to the passage, one of the traditional explanations of England’s late nineteenth-century economic decline has been that it resulted from the
(A) tendency of the ruling elite to pursue conservative rather than innovative economic policies
(B) failure of business entrepreneurs to reduce the power of the ruling elite in English society
(C) investment of large amounts of capital in the purchase and maintenance of country houses
(D) tendency of business owners to attempt to retain control of their firms within their families
(E) failure of leading business entrepreneurs to pay close attention to their firms



2. The author suggests that which of the following was true of most European elites during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries?
(A) The ranks of these elites were generally closed to most business entrepreneurs.
(B) The elites generally dominated industrial development.
(C) Status within these elites was generally determined by the amount of land owned.
(D) These elites generally were able to maintain their power unchallenged.
(E) The power of these elites generally forestalled the development of a large class of self-made entrepreneurs.



3. Traditional historians of England, as they are described in the passage, would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements regarding open elites?
(A) They develop more easily in agricultural rather than industrial societies.
(B) They develop in response to particular sets of economic conditions.
(C) They tend to unite some of the powerful groups in a society.
(D) They tend to reduce class distinctions based on income in a society.
(E) They tend to insure adequate distribution of material goods in a society.



4. The tone of the passage suggests that the author regards the Stones’ methodological approach as
(A) problematic
(B) difficult
(C) controversial
(D) rigorous
(E) clever



5. Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?
(A) Assumptions about the nature of England’s ruling elite can no longer be used with certitude to explain many major economic developments.
(B) The concept of the open elite is of paramount importance in explaining major English political, social, and economic events.
(C) The long-standing belief that England possessed a remarkably open ruling elite has recently been subjected to important and potentially lethal criticism.
(D) Although many possibilities are available, the most reliable means of testing the truth of the ‘open elite’ hypothesis is to analyze changes in the composition of the elite.
(E) An analysis of English country-house ownership in England indicates that there were few opportunities for merchants to buy the estates of old members of the landed elite.



6. Which of the following can be inferred from the Stones’ findings about English country-house ownership in the
three counties during the period 1540-1880?
(A) Little change in the number or size of English country houses occurred during this period.
(B) Wealthy business owners constituted a growing percentage of English country-house owners during this period.
(C) Most of the families that owned country houses at the beginning of this period continued to own them at the end.
(D) The most significant changes in English country-house ownership occurred during the second half of this period.
(E) Self-made entrepreneurs were able to enter the ranks of the English country-house owners during this period only through marriage.



7. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) resolve a debate between two schools of thought.
(B) Present research that questions an established view.
(C) Describe and criticize a new approach.
(D) Defend a traditional interpretation against recent criticisms.
(E) Analyze possible approaches to resolving a long-standing controversy.



8. The Stones suggest that major problems facing the English elite during the period 1540-1880 included which of the following?
I. A reduction in the number of their offspring
II. An increase in the amount of their indebtedness
III. A decline in their political and social power
(A) I only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III



9. The author suggests that the Stones’ conclusions about the openness of the English elite would be strengthened by future studies that
(A) pay more attention to other recent historical works
(B) include more data on factors other than country-house ownership
(C) concentrate more on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
(D) expand the area of research to include more counties
(E) focus more on successful business entrepreneurs



Originally posted by seofah on 04 Jun 2009, 07:55.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 21 Aug 2019, 04:52, edited 3 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (249).
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New post 05 Jun 2009, 05:07
5
this is a nice passage, it took me 20 mins to finally answer this passage , answers are:

1. According to the passage, one of the traditional explanations of England’s late nineteenth-century economic decline has been that it resulted from the
(A) tendency of the ruling elite to pursue conservative rather than innovative economic policies
(B) failure of business entrepreneurs to reduce the power of the ruling elite in English society
(C) investment of large amounts of capital in the purchase and maintenance of country houses
(D) tendency of business owners to attempt to retain control of their firms within their families
(E) failure of leading business entrepreneurs to pay close attention to their firms
E. refer second para "England’s late nineteenth-century economic decline resulted from absentee business owners too distracted by the demands of elite life to manage their firms properly. "
2. The author suggests that which of the following was true of most European elites during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries?
(A) The ranks of these elites were generally closed to most business entrepreneurs.
(B) The elites generally dominated industrial development.
(C) Status within these elites was generally determined by the amount of land owned.
(D) These elites generally were able to maintain their power unchallenged.
(E) The power of these elites generally forestalled the development of a large class of self-made entrepreneurs.
D can be inferred from para 1 "allowed England to escape the clash between those with social/political power and those with economic power, a conflict that beset the rest of Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries" this was a tricky question.. it took me 3 mins to go for D. I selected E first but that is never mentioned in or inferred from the passage.

3. Traditional historians of England, as they are described in the passage, would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements regarding open elites?
(A) They develop more easily in agricultural rather than industrial societies.
(B) They develop in response to particular sets of economic conditions.
(C) They tend to unite some of the powerful groups in a society.
(D) They tend to reduce class distinctions based on income in a society.
(E) They tend to insure adequate distribution of material goods in a society.
B.Here i was confused initially between B and C, but when i checked more than twice, then i observed "powerful groups" in C and that is not true, there is only one ruling elite group so i discarded this one.. hence selected B. if someone has other explanation for this one or feels that i am missing something please lemme know..

4. The tone of the passage suggests that the author regards the Stones’ methodological approach as
(A) problematic
(B) difficult
(C) controversial
(D) rigorous
(E) clever
E.Now in this case, i feel that choices are not pretty close and i found it less cumbersome to select the answer but these are the questions where i need explanations too..:) here IMO, refer to this statement "If further studies of country-house ownership attest to the representativeness and accuracy of their data, then the Stones’ conclusion that the open elite thesis cannot be maintained may, indeed, prove true." and it gives an idea that stone's findings might be useful and thus clever.First, i selected A as the answer but then when i read carefully, i selected E coz i thought that i am assuming things that are not mentioned in the passage.
5. Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?
(A) Assumptions about the nature of England’s ruling elite can no longer be used with certitude to explain many major economic developments.
(B) The concept of the open elite is of paramount importance in explaining major English political, social, and economic events.
(C) The long-standing belief that England possessed a remarkably open ruling elite has recently been subjected to important and potentially lethal criticism.
(D) Although many possibilities are available, the most reliable means of testing the truth of the ‘open elite’ hypothesis is to analyze changes in the composition of the elite.
(E) An analysis of English country-house ownership in England indicates that there were few opportunities for merchants to buy the estates of old members of the landed elite.
check question 7 for explanation.. actually it is not the same but here it is asking you about the topic and scope and that is clearly stated in B..

6. Which of the following can be inferred from the Stones’ findings about English country-house ownership in the
three counties during the period 1540-1880?
(A) Little change in the number or size of English country houses occurred during this period.
(B) Wealthy business owners constituted a growing percentage of English country-house owners during this period.
(C) Most of the families that owned country houses at the beginning of this period continued to own them at the end.
(D) The most significant changes in English country-house ownership occurred during the second half of this period.
(E) Self-made entrepreneurs were able to enter the ranks of the English country-house owners during this period only through marriage.
"there was strikingly little change in the ownership of such houses throughout the period. Instead, even in the face of a demographic crisis (fewer marriages, declining fertility, rising infant mortality), the old elite was able to maintain itself, and its estates, intact for centuries through recourse to various marriage and inheritance strategies" this statement indicates that c is the right choice..

7. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) resolve a debate between two schools of thought.
(B) Present research that questions an established view.
(C) Describe and criticize a new approach.
(D) Defend a traditional interpretation against recent criticisms.
(E) Analyze possible approaches to resolving a long-standing controversy.
B. i think it is pretty straight forward.. author presented a established view or a belief by historians(as indicated by "But is the thesis true?" at the beginning of para 2) and then presented a research in para 3.

8. The Stones suggest that major problems facing the English elite during the period 1540-1880 included which of the following?
I. A reduction in the number of their offspring
II. An increase in the amount of their indebtedness
III. A decline in their political and social power
(A) I only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
Here u can refer to para 3. "demographic crisis (fewer marriages, declining fertility, rising infant mortality)" and read it carefully.. only option 1 is correct but not 2 and 3.

9. The author suggests that the Stones’ conclusions about the openness of the English elite would be strengthened by future studies that
(A) pay more attention to other recent historical works
(B) include more data on factors other than country-house ownership
(C) concentrate more on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
(D) expand the area of research to include more counties
(E) focus more on successful business entrepreneurs
In the passage it has been mentioned that ". If further studies of country-house ownership attest to the representativeness and accuracy of their data" so that states that area of research needs to be expanded.
Actually, when i first saw this ques. i selected B as the answer but then i realized that D is more specific to what is asked and B is never mentioned in the passage.
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New post 11 Sep 2013, 01:13
I have a doubt in ques 2 -
2. The author suggests that which of the following was true of most European elites during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries?
(A) The ranks of these elites were generally closed to most business entrepreneurs.
(B) The elites generally dominated industrial development.
(C) Status within these elites was generally determined by the amount of land owned.
(D) These elites generally were able to maintain their power unchallenged.
(E) The power of these elites generally forestalled the development of a large class of self-made entrepreneurs.

I understand that since the old elites were able to escape from selling their properties and there were limited scopr for new merchants to enter into the elite societies. But why cant we say ans is C since the old elite class was reluctant in selling their properties and the author desribes the way to see country house ownership is the ingeniuos way to analyze the elites. hence land pwnership must be important in those days (even today :) )... is this a big leap on my part to assume this ??
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New post 03 Oct 2013, 01:54
atomy wrote:
this is a nice passage, it took me 20 mins to finally answer this passage , answers are:

1. According to the passage, one of the traditional explanations of England’s late nineteenth-century economic decline has been that it resulted from the
(A) tendency of the ruling elite to pursue conservative rather than innovative economic policies
(B) failure of business entrepreneurs to reduce the power of the ruling elite in English society
(C) investment of large amounts of capital in the purchase and maintenance of country houses
(D) tendency of business owners to attempt to retain control of their firms within their families
(E) failure of leading business entrepreneurs to pay close attention to their firms
E. refer second para "England’s late nineteenth-century economic decline resulted from absentee business owners too distracted by the demands of elite life to manage their firms properly. "
2. The author suggests that which of the following was true of most European elites during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries?
(A) The ranks of these elites were generally closed to most business entrepreneurs.
(B) The elites generally dominated industrial development.
(C) Status within these elites was generally determined by the amount of land owned.
(D) These elites generally were able to maintain their power unchallenged.
(E) The power of these elites generally forestalled the development of a large class of self-made entrepreneurs.
D can be inferred from para 1 "allowed England to escape the clash between those with social/political power and those with economic power, a conflict that beset the rest of Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries" this was a tricky question.. it took me 3 mins to go for D. I selected E first but that is never mentioned in or inferred from the passage.

3. Traditional historians of England, as they are described in the passage, would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements regarding open elites?
(A) They develop more easily in agricultural rather than industrial societies.
(B) They develop in response to particular sets of economic conditions.
(C) They tend to unite some of the powerful groups in a society.
(D) They tend to reduce class distinctions based on income in a society.
(E) They tend to insure adequate distribution of material goods in a society.
B.Here i was confused initially between B and C, but when i checked more than twice, then i observed "powerful groups" in C and that is not true, there is only one ruling elite group so i discarded this one.. hence selected B. if someone has other explanation for this one or feels that i am missing something please lemme know..

4. The tone of the passage suggests that the author regards the Stones’ methodological approach as
(A) problematic
(B) difficult
(C) controversial
(D) rigorous
(E) clever
E.Now in this case, i feel that choices are not pretty close and i found it less cumbersome to select the answer but these are the questions where i need explanations too..:) here IMO, refer to this statement "If further studies of country-house ownership attest to the representativeness and accuracy of their data, then the Stones’ conclusion that the open elite thesis cannot be maintained may, indeed, prove true." and it gives an idea that stone's findings might be useful and thus clever.First, i selected A as the answer but then when i read carefully, i selected E coz i thought that i am assuming things that are not mentioned in the passage.
5. Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?
(A) Assumptions about the nature of England’s ruling elite can no longer be used with certitude to explain many major economic developments.
(B) The concept of the open elite is of paramount importance in explaining major English political, social, and economic events.
(C) The long-standing belief that England possessed a remarkably open ruling elite has recently been subjected to important and potentially lethal criticism.
(D) Although many possibilities are available, the most reliable means of testing the truth of the ‘open elite’ hypothesis is to analyze changes in the composition of the elite.
(E) An analysis of English country-house ownership in England indicates that there were few opportunities for merchants to buy the estates of old members of the landed elite.
check question 7 for explanation.. actually it is not the same but here it is asking you about the topic and scope and that is clearly stated in B..

6. Which of the following can be inferred from the Stones’ findings about English country-house ownership in the
three counties during the period 1540-1880?
(A) Little change in the number or size of English country houses occurred during this period.
(B) Wealthy business owners constituted a growing percentage of English country-house owners during this period.
(C) Most of the families that owned country houses at the beginning of this period continued to own them at the end.
(D) The most significant changes in English country-house ownership occurred during the second half of this period.
(E) Self-made entrepreneurs were able to enter the ranks of the English country-house owners during this period only through marriage.
"there was strikingly little change in the ownership of such houses throughout the period. Instead, even in the face of a demographic crisis (fewer marriages, declining fertility, rising infant mortality), the old elite was able to maintain itself, and its estates, intact for centuries through recourse to various marriage and inheritance strategies" this statement indicates that c is the right choice..

7. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) resolve a debate between two schools of thought.
(B) Present research that questions an established view.
(C) Describe and criticize a new approach.
(D) Defend a traditional interpretation against recent criticisms.
(E) Analyze possible approaches to resolving a long-standing controversy.
B. i think it is pretty straight forward.. author presented a established view or a belief by historians(as indicated by "But is the thesis true?" at the beginning of para 2) and then presented a research in para 3.

8. The Stones suggest that major problems facing the English elite during the period 1540-1880 included which of the following?
I. A reduction in the number of their offspring
II. An increase in the amount of their indebtedness
III. A decline in their political and social power
(A) I only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
Here u can refer to para 3. "demographic crisis (fewer marriages, declining fertility, rising infant mortality)" and read it carefully.. only option 1 is correct but not 2 and 3.

9. The author suggests that the Stones’ conclusions about the openness of the English elite would be strengthened by future studies that
(A) pay more attention to other recent historical works
(B) include more data on factors other than country-house ownership
(C) concentrate more on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
(D) expand the area of research to include more counties
(E) focus more on successful business entrepreneurs
In the passage it has been mentioned that ". If further studies of country-house ownership attest to the representativeness and accuracy of their data" so that states that area of research needs to be expanded.
Actually, when i first saw this ques. i selected B as the answer but then i realized that D is more specific to what is asked and B is never mentioned in the passage.






can anyone explain question 6?
i think the colored part is authors view of the stones study.
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New post 11 Oct 2013, 16:49
ThorianHulk24 wrote:
Hello!
Why is Q9. D and not B?


Because at the end the author states "If further studies of country-house ownership attest to the representativeness..." this implies that the findings would be bolstered by expanding the sample size to see if their original data pool is representative of the larger one as well.
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New post 24 Oct 2013, 23:08
Nice passage i have doubts regarding question 3 and question 5.

3. Traditional historians of England, as they are described in the passage, would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements regarding open elites?

(B) They develop in response to particular sets of economic conditions. where is development of open elites discussed and what economic conditions is meant by these words ?

5. Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?

are there two correct answers A and C if not please anyone help to eliminate one

(A) Assumptions about the nature of England’s ruling elite can no longer be used with certitude to explain many major economic developments. (assumptions regarding their openness but after stone's work we are not certain about it . )

(C) The long-standing belief that England possessed a remarkably open ruling elite has recently been subjected to important and potentially lethal criticism. (a bit harsh in wording potentially lethal but same is supported by last para )


Now i help some to clear doubts

@AccipiterQ and @ThorianHulk24 9 th question

(B) include more data on factors other than country-house ownership ( from last para ............If further studies of country-house ownership attest to the representativeness and accuracy of their data, . . .. ............... its all about country house ownership not about other factors , so eliminate)

(D) expand the area of research to include more counties ( yes more counties will attest to representativeness)

@ saggii27

its about inference from stone's findings . we have to infer ourselves, not directly stated in passage.
............Their critical findings are provocative: ......................... rest whole para states stone's findings only except for last line which states authors views. plz ask if theres still any doubt.
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New post 15 Apr 2016, 11:13
I have doubts about two questions: Q2 and Q3

Q2 ask for what was "true of most European elite during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries?" since it is a "suggestion" question, we should be able to get the answer direct from the text. However, in the whole passage, there was only two places mentioned "European", one is: "a conflict that beset the rest of Europe during the eighteenth", another is completely irrelevant. there is absolutely no indication that we could hold their power unchallenged. in fact, the first paragraph talked about "conflicts" and "revolution" that beset European countries (excluding England). I am not sure there is a correct answer, but obviously the OA is wrong.

Q3. Traditional historians of England, as they are described in the passage, would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements regarding open elites?
(A) They develop more easily in agricultural rather than industrial societies.
(B) They develop in response to particular sets of economic conditions.
(C) They tend to unite some of the powerful groups in a society.
(D) They tend to reduce class distinctions based on income in a society.
(E) They tend to insure adequate distribution of material goods in a society.

This is a reference question. however we still have to find the hidden source. The passage did not mention anything about the "development" of the open elite, only that they took advantage of upperward mobility. We do not have any idea as to how open elite develop in response to particular sets of economic condition.
Rather, the text might indicate that the open elite had to unite other powerful groups ( existential elites, for example).

otherwise, I suggest we dismiss the question as irrelevant.
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New post 12 Jan 2017, 13:01
1
Hi Expert,

Request your help specifically for question 2; 3 & 4.

-> how to approach these kind of questions - i generally look for occurrences of either the idea OR the keyword mentioned in the question to pin down where to look for the answers. In some of these questions this approach does not help and I am forced to look for references of say 18th and 19th centuries in multiple paras. This easts up a lot of time.

-> I am not convinced with the answers of these questions; my answer to 2/3/4 was A/C/C. I would appreciate you help in clarifying the answers as well as towards helping me understand the trap I have fallen into.

Cheers,
Dhruva
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New post 16 Jan 2017, 12:43
Here are my 2 cents for question 5.

On analyzing the structure of the passage we can see that:

The first paragraph talks about the traditional historians view that states that the english society is shaped by the openness of its ruling elite.
The second pragraph questions this view. and points out that the credibility of the traditional view is questionable.
and the final paragraph begins to suggest that if stone's theory is true then ruling elite was not very open.

in essence the author is conveying that the assumptions about openness of ruling elite cannot be used with gurantee to explain the shaping of english society, by attacking the validity of the assumptions that the elite were open.

This is best summarized in option A.
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New post 30 Jan 2017, 04:32
narmadadhruv wrote:
Hi Expert,

Request your help specifically for question 2; 3 & 4.

-> how to approach these kind of questions - i generally look for occurrences of either the idea OR the keyword mentioned in the question to pin down where to look for the answers. In some of these questions this approach does not help and I am forced to look for references of say 18th and 19th centuries in multiple paras. This easts up a lot of time.

-> I am not convinced with the answers of these questions; my answer to 2/3/4 was A/C/C. I would appreciate you help in clarifying the answers as well as towards helping me understand the trap I have fallen into.

Cheers,
Dhruva


Q.2 The passage states, "....the unique openness of its ruling elite to entry by self-made entrepreneurs (especially newly wealthy merchants) able to buy their way into the ranks of elite society... ". This part implies that SOME of the elite posts were allocated to business enterpreneurs, but option A wrongly indicates that ALL of the posts were allocated ("..were generally closed to most business entrepreneurs.."). Hence option A is wrong.

The part "..to explain England’s exceptional stability since the late seventeenth century (no revolutions, for example),.." indicates that the elite were able to maitain their power unchallenged. Hence D is correct.


Q.3 I do not agree with OA. It is not mentioned in the passage how the open elite was developed. The passage only indicates the results of the same.

Q.4 The part "...and proceeded via the ingenious route of .." indicates that the author considers Stone's approach ingenious, which means "characterized by cleverness or originality". Hence Option E is correct.
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New post 13 Jul 2018, 19:44
2. The author suggests that which of the following was true of most European elites during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries?
(A) The ranks of these elites were generally closed to most business entrepreneurs.
(B) The elites generally dominated industrial development.
(C) Status within these elites was generally determined by the amount of land owned.
(D) These elites generally were able to maintain their power unchallenged.
(E) The power of these elites generally forestalled the development of a large class of self-made entrepreneurs.
D can be inferred from para 1 "allowed England to escape the clash between those with social/political power and those with economic power, a conflict that beset the rest of Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries" this was a tricky question.. it took me 3 mins to go for D. I selected E first but that is never mentioned in or inferred from the passage.

This question is asking about most of the European elites and not just about the elites from England.Hence in para1 line 9 to 11 "a conflict that beset the rest of Europe during eighteenth and nineteenth century" -- Hence the correct answer should be option E
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New post 13 Jul 2018, 22:39
3. Traditional historians of England, as they are described in the passage, would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements regarding open elites?
(A) They develop more easily in agricultural rather than industrial societies.
(B) They develop in response to particular sets of economic conditions.
(C) They tend to unite some of the powerful groups in a society.
(D) They tend to reduce class distinctions based on income in a society.
(E) They tend to insure adequate distribution of material goods in a society.

I chose C but apparently the OA is B and i am not convinced with OA.

"This upward mobility, historians have argued, allowed England to escape the clash between those with social/political power and those with economic power, a conflict that beset the rest of Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries."

These lines from para 1 indicate that social/political powerful groups did not clash with economic power group. So in a way they were united. So I don't understand how OA is B and not C


Please experts kindly reply.
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New post 25 Sep 2019, 22:35
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Re: For over 300 years, one of the most enduring beliefs among historians   [#permalink] 25 Sep 2019, 22:35

For over 300 years, one of the most enduring beliefs among historians

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