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For years, Scientists have believed that a certain hormone produced by

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For years, Scientists have believed that a certain hormone produced by  [#permalink]

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For years, Scientists have believed that a certain hormone produced by the human liver was triggered by enzyme U, which is released in the pancreas. Recently, however, researchers in Belgium discovered that Enzyme U is always preceded by the release of Enzyme W in the brain. Based on this, these researchers hypothesize that Enzyme W, not Enzyme U, triggers the production of the liver hormone.

If a second research project were set up to verify the findings of the Belgium researchers, which of the following test results most seriously weakens their hypothesis?


(A) Enzyme W is released, but not followed by the release of Enzyme U, although the liver hormone is produced.

(B) Enzyme U is released, but neither preceded by the release of Enzyme W, nor followed by the production of the liver hormone.

(C) Neither Enzyme W nor Enzyme U is released and the liver hormone is not produced.

(D) Enzyme W is released followed by the release of Enzyme U and the production of the liver hormone.

(E) Enzyme U is released and followed by the production of the liver hormone, although Enzyme W is not released.

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Originally posted by Tagger on 25 Apr 2013, 07:06.
Last edited by Bunuel on 01 Aug 2018, 03:08, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: For years, Scientists have believed that a certain hormone produced by  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2013, 07:35
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E seems best
Enzyme U is released and followed by the production of the liver hormone, although Enzyme W is not released.


kindly confirm the OA
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Re: For years, Scientists have believed that a certain hormone produced by  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2013, 07:45
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Before: enzyme U => hormone
Research: Enzime W precedes U
Research conclusion: W triggers the hormone

If a second research project were set up to verify the findings of the Belgium researchers, which of the following test results most seriously weakens their hypothesis?

We have to weaken the point that "W triggers the hormone", so we have to prove that there is no correlation between the hormone and W

( A ) Enzyme W is released, but not followed by the release of Enzyme U, although the liver hormone is produced.
This actually says that after W there is hormone. it strengthen the theory
( B) Enzyme U is released, but neither preceded by the release of Enzyme W, nor followed by the production of the liver hormone.
So U doesn't trigger the hormone. Out
( C ) Neither Enzyme W nor Enzyme U is released and the liver hormone is not produced.
With this one we can observe that without BOTH enzyme there is no hormone, but is not enough to say which one triggers its production
( D ) Enzyme W is released followed by the release of Enzyme U and the production of the liver hormone.
W=>U=>hormone. It's what we are trying to prove wrong. Out
( E ) Enzyme U is released and followed by the production of the liver hormone, although Enzyme W is not released.
IMO CORRECT. As you can see only U is released ( without W) and we have the hormone

IMO E
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Re: For years, Scientists have believed that a certain hormone produced by  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2013, 08:05
I also think, E is the correct answer choice.
For years, Scientists have believed that a certain hormone produced by the human liver was triggered by enzyme U, which is released in the pancreas. Recently, however, researchers in Belgium discovered that Enzyme U is always preceded by the release of Enzyme W in the brain. Based on this, these researchers hypothesize that Enzyme W, not Enzyme U, triggers the production of the liver hormone.
Scientists:-
Liver Hormone precedes by enzyme U.
E(U)=>LH.............(1)
Researchers in Belgium:-
Enzyme U is always preceded by Enzyme W.
E(W)=>E(U) ...................(2)
These Researcher concluded from 1 & 2 that..
E(W)==>LH ..................(3)
They also said that Production of Liver Hormone is independent of Enzyme U.

To weaken the hypothesis i.e. (3), We need to find something that will show that Enzyme U is required and sufficient to produce Liver Hormone AND Enzyme W may not be required.
That is, We need to break the link between (1) and (2).

Only Option (E) does this.
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Re: For years, Scientists have believed that a certain hormone produced by  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2013, 22:58
Tagger wrote:
For years, Scientists have believed that a certain hormone produced by the human liver was triggered by enzyme U, which is released in the pancreas. Recently, however, researchers in Belgium discovered that Enzyme U is always preceded by the release of Enzyme W in the brain. Based on this, these researchers hypothesize that Enzyme W, not Enzyme U, triggers the production of the liver hormone.

If a second research project were set up to verify the findings of the Belgium researchers, which of the following test results most seriously weakens their hypothesis?

( A ) Enzyme W is released, but not followed by the release of Enzyme U, although the liver hormone is produced.

( B) Enzyme U is released, but neither preceded by the release of Enzyme W, nor followed by the production of the liver hormone.

( C ) Neither Enzyme W nor Enzyme U is released and the liver hormone is not produced.

( D ) Enzyme W is released followed by the release of Enzyme U and the production of the liver hormone.


( E ) Enzyme U is released and followed by the production of the liver hormone, although Enzyme W is not released.


This is the kind of questions that makes hope I was a Doctor.

Let's discuss this question than I'll post the OA

OA :
Soon


Premise: Enzyme U is preceded by the release of Enzyme W
Conclusion: Enzyme W, not Enzyme U, triggers the production of the liver hormone
What if No enzyme W released, but liver hormone is still produced? ==> E says exactly the same ==> E is correct.
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Re: For years, Scientists have believed that a certain hormone produced by  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2013, 07:31
I have this doubt.

We are given this FACT: Researchers in Belgium discovered that Enzyme U is always preceded by the release of Enzyme W in
the brain.

In CR questions we are not allowed to play with the facts.

But in answer choice E this fact is exploited to weaken the conclusion.
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Re: For years, Scientists have believed that a certain hormone produced by  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2013, 11:36
Tagger wrote:
For years, Scientists have believed that a certain hormone produced by the human liver was triggered by enzyme U, which is released in the pancreas. Recently, however, researchers in Belgium discovered that Enzyme U is always preceded by the release of Enzyme W in the brain. Based on this, these researchers hypothesize that Enzyme W, not Enzyme U, triggers the production of the liver hormone.

If a second research project were set up to verify the findings of the Belgium researchers, which of the following test results most seriously weakens their hypothesis?

( A ) Enzyme W is released, but not followed by the release of Enzyme U, although the liver hormone is produced.
( B) Enzyme U is released, but neither preceded by the release of Enzyme W, nor followed by the production of the liver hormone.
( C ) Neither Enzyme W nor Enzyme U is released and the liver hormone is not produced.
( D ) Enzyme W is released followed by the release of Enzyme U and the production of the liver hormone.
( E ) Enzyme U is released and followed by the production of the liver hormone, although Enzyme W is not released.




Image

If you use the GMATPill CR framework for this question, you'll see that it relates to "exclusive conclusion".

"W" is the sole cause for the liver hormone, and nothing else.

How do we weaken? Well, it's the opposite of the methods we could use to strengthen. If you try to strengthen, you'll notice it uses you can use the "exclusive negation" concept -- so apply that pre-thinking in the opposite way. So you can try:
1) Showing that W was not even present at the time the liver hormone was produced
2) Showing that something other than W may have helped cause the liver hormone to be produced.

Here, the correct answer choices uses the first strategy above to weaken the conclusion.


The short-cut to strengthen is:
"W" --> liver hormone
"something else" did NOT affect liver hormone

The short-cut to weaken is:
"W" completely not related to liver hormone
"something else" DID affect liver hormone.

This strategy utilizes GMATPill CR Framework #4 Exclusive Negation.
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Re: For years, Scientists have believed that a certain hormone produced by  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2013, 11:47
2
prinkashar wrote:
I have this doubt.

We are given this FACT: Researchers in Belgium discovered that Enzyme U is always preceded by the release of Enzyme W in
the brain.

In CR questions we are not allowed to play with the facts.

But in answer choice E this fact is exploited to weaken the conclusion.


Hi prinkashar.

There are some fundamental rules for Weakening questions:
(1) Information in the stimulus is suspect.
(2) Answer choices are accepted as given, even if they include "new" information.


Do not assume Fact in the weakening is always true. When you solve a weakening questions, always ask yourself:
- Is the information provided in the stimulus correct?
- Is the information provided in the stimulus comprehensive? (to solve representative questions)
- The comparison in the stimulus correct?
- Will the conditions leading to the conclusion happen or NOT?


Back to the question, there are not any rules that require the fact in the weakening question be ALWAYS true. Don't be confused with "must be true" or "main point" questions that require all answers choices pass the FACT TEST.

Hope it clears your doubt.
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Re: For years, Scientists have believed that a certain hormone produced by  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2018, 03:10
Tagger wrote:
For years, Scientists have believed that a certain hormone produced by the human liver was triggered by enzyme U, which is released in the pancreas. Recently, however, researchers in Belgium discovered that Enzyme U is always preceded by the release of Enzyme W in the brain. Based on this, these researchers hypothesize that Enzyme W, not Enzyme U, triggers the production of the liver hormone.

If a second research project were set up to verify the findings of the Belgium researchers, which of the following test results most seriously weakens their hypothesis?


(A) Enzyme W is released, but not followed by the release of Enzyme U, although the liver hormone is produced.

(B) Enzyme U is released, but neither preceded by the release of Enzyme W, nor followed by the production of the liver hormone.

(C) Neither Enzyme W nor Enzyme U is released and the liver hormone is not produced.

(D) Enzyme W is released followed by the release of Enzyme U and the production of the liver hormone.

(E) Enzyme U is released and followed by the production of the liver hormone, although Enzyme W is not released.


KAPLAN OFFICIAL EXPLANATION:



Here's an example of a typical GMAT-style study. We're asked to find a set of results that would weaken a particular hypothesis, so the first thing to do is to locate and understand the hypothesis. It's tough to know at this point whether the weakener will simply offer some kind of proof against the hypothesis, or whether it will call attention to an assumption necessary for the hypothesis to hold. The Belgian researchers maintain that, since Enzyme U is always preceded by the release of Enzyme W, it must be Enzyme W, as opposed to U, that triggers the release of the liver hormone. Since the researchers argue that Enzyme W triggers the release of the liver hormone, in order to weaken this argument we can look for evidence either of another cause or of a situation in which the liver hormone appears in the presence of Enzyme U without Enzyme W. Choice (E) directly counters the hypothesis by providing an example of the effect without the supposed cause. If the release of Enzyme U is followed by the production of the liver hormone, even though Enzyme W was not released, then that hammers the researchers' conclusion that Enzyme W is responsible for the hormone.

(A) strengthens, rather than weakens, the causal link between Enzyme W and production of the liver hormone. This choice provides an exact confirmation of what the researchers would predict.

(B) strengthens part of the hypothesis—the part that claims that Enzyme U does not trigger the production of the hormone—although it mentions nothing about W. It also contradicts the notion that U is always preceded by W, but does nothing to weaken the major hypothesis that W triggers the liver hormone.

(C) is perfectly consistent with the hypothesis: Without W, the researchers would not expect the liver hormone to be produced.

An 800 test taker can recognize statements that are perfectly consistent with a set of facts.

(D) represents exactly what we'd expect to happen if the hypothesis were true, so it's clearly not the weakener we seek.

No doubt you noticed the element of causation here—the study centers around a fairly textbook case of cause-and-effect. As you'll see, the logical elements presented thus far rarely occur in isolation. So let's take stock of where we are, and then move on to questions that combine the various features highlighted in the previous questions.
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