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Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal was hotly debated at the time it

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Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal was hotly debated at the time it  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 23 Sep 2019, 04:44
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Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal was hotly debated at the time it was instituted, and amazingly, it is still a sensitive topic for ideologues on the left and right today. Whether Roosevelt’s overhauling of the economy brought the U.S. out of the Great Depression or prolonged it, as some believe, there is little disagreement as to the magnifying effect that his policies had on the ability and propensity of the federal government to involve itself in the nation’s economic affairs, by legislative means or by direct expenditures. New Deal emergency relief programs gave the government control over labor laws, transportation regulations, and farming methods, not to mention criminal law and even social welfare. Prior to the New Deal, banks were regulated by the states, though the Federal Reserve Bank, sometimes referred to as a decentralized central bank, was in place by 1913.

Any wartime effort is sure to increase federal power, and World War II solidified the expectation that the executive branch in particular could, for better or worse, have a large hand in controlling economic and business policy. The bond between the military and the industrial sector, which had been so important in winning the war, gave rise to what President Eisenhower called, with some foreboding, the military-industrial complex. When John Kennedy took office during economically promising times, he announced his New Frontier program, now often remembered for its boosterism of the space program, but which also gave the government added powers to negotiate tariff reductions and take part in multinational trade negotiations. Amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act increased both the minimum wage and the number of workers in the retail sector that were to be covered. An ambitious housing bill increased the government’s involvement in authorizing mortgages for home rehabilitation and providing grants for urban renewal.

Though the expansion of federal economic activism has been associated with Democrats since the time of Roosevelt, Republican Richard Nixon did not shy from federal involvement in non-emergency economic issues. It wasn’t until the presidency of Ronald Reagan that an attempt was made to scale back government influence in economic and business affairs so that the famous—and debatable—“invisible hand” of capitalism could guide the economy and promote social good.

1. Which of the following is the most appropriate title of the passage?

(A) How the New Deal Increased Federal Spending
(B) The Economic and Social Impact of Executive Branch Spending
(C) The New Deal’s Legacy of Federal Economic Activism
(D) Government Control of Monetary Policy Since the New Deal
(E) The Path from Government Activism to the Invisible Hand
OA C


2. It can be inferred from the passage that the New Deal _______.

(A) turned regulation of the banks over to the federal government
(B) created the Federal Reserve Bank as a means of gaining more control over economic policy
(C) was responsible for the federal government’s first attempt at directly promoting social welfare programs
(D) came to an end with the start of World War II
(E) was unpopular with labor leaders whose actions were increasingly overseen by the executive branch of the government
OA A


3. According to the passage, which of the following was NOT necessarily true of the New Frontier?

(A) It addressed the need for loans with which to improve housing.
(B) It gave the federal government a larger role to play in some global affairs.
(C) It was enacted during a time when the future of the economy looked bright.
(D) It was instrumental in creating the Fair Labor Standards Act.
(E) It guaranteed wages for a greater number of people.
OA D


4. It can be inferred from the passage that federal involvement in business affairs_______.

(A) became associated with Republicans after Richard Nixon took office
(B) was discouraged by those who believed that the “invisible hand” of capitalism would produce non-economic benefits
(C) was responsible for the creation of a so-called “military-industrial” complex
(D) was never the intent of the New Frontier, though it was essential to the implementation of the New Deal
(E) is most effective when it is reserved for economic emergencies such as those created by the Great Depression
OA B



OE for 3 and 4
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Originally posted by Nevernevergiveup on 29 Oct 2015, 12:55.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 23 Sep 2019, 04:44, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal was hotly debated at the time it  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2015, 14:35
6 mins got CAEC (2incorrect) oh nooo..
Could you kindly provide explanations to last 2 questions?

much appreciated
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Re: Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal was hotly debated at the time it  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Dec 2015, 09:41
1
sylliu wrote:
6 mins got CAEC (2incorrect) oh nooo..
Could you kindly provide explanations to last 2 questions?

much appreciated



Q3)- D ....
"Amendments" were made to fair labor standards act... that means it already existed... so D stands out.....

Q4) - B .....
not very sure about the reasoning though, but "invisible hand" was debatable that made me choose B ..... (as i said, not sure.....)
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Re: Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal was hotly debated at the time it  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jan 2019, 00:26
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Easy Passage All correct
How I grasped Important INfo
Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Dealwas hotly debated at the time it was instituted, and amazingly, it is still a sensitive topic for ideologues on the left and right today. Whether Roosevelt’s overhauling of the economy brought the U.S. out of the Great Depression or prolonged it, as some believe, there is little disagreement as to the magnifying effect that his policies had on the ability and propensity of the federal government to involve itself in the nation’s economic affairs, by legislative means or by direct expenditures. New Deal emergency relief programs gave the government control over labor laws, transportation regulations, and farming methods, not to mention criminal law and even social welfare. Prior to the New Deal, banks were regulated by the states, though the Federal Reserve Bank, sometimes referred to as a decentralized central bank, was in place by 1913.

Any wartime effort is sure to increase federal power, and World War II solidified the expectation that the executive branch in particular could, for better or worse, have a large hand in controlling economic and business policy. The bond between the military and the industrial sector, which had been so important in winning the war, gave rise to what President Eisenhower called, with some foreboding, the military-industrial complex. When John Kennedy took office during economically promising times, he announced his New Frontier program, now often remembered for its boosterism of the space program, but which also gave the government added powers to negotiate tariff reductions and take part in multinational trade negotiations. Amendments to the Fair Labor Standards Act increased both the minimum wage and the number of workers in the retail sector that were to be covered. An ambitious housing bill increased the government’s involvement in authorizing mortgages for home rehabilitation and providing grants for urban renewal.

Though the expansion of federal economic activism has been associated with Democrats since the time of Roosevelt, Republican Richard Nixon did not shy from federal involvement in non-emergency economic issues. It wasn’t until the presidency of Ronald Reagan that an attempt was made to scale back government influence in economic and business affairs so that the famous—and debatable—“invisible hand” of capitalism could guide the economy and promote social good.

Q1.Which of the following is the most appropriate title of the passage?

(A) How the New Deal Increased Federal Spending
(B) The Economic and Social Impact of Executive Branch Spending
(C) The New Deal’s Legacy of Federal Economic Activism , Read First Line of para 1 and first line of 3rd para
(D) Government Control of Monetary Policy Since the New Deal
(E) The Path from Government Activism to the Invisible Hand

Q2. It can be inferred from the passage that the New Deal _______.

(A) turned regulation of the banks over to the federal government para 1 last 2 lines
(B) created the Federal Reserve Bank as a means of gaining more control over economic policy
(C) was responsible for the federal government’s first attempt at directly promoting social welfare programs
(D) came to an end with the start of World War II
(E) was unpopular with labor leaders whose actions were increasingly overseen by the executive branch of the government

Q3.According to the passage, which of the following was NOT necessarily true of the New Frontier?

(A) It addressed the need for loans with which to improve housing.
(B) It gave the federal government a larger role to play in some global affairs.
(C) It was enacted during a time when the future of the economy looked bright.
(D) It was instrumental in creating the Fair Labor Standards Act.Para 2 everything is mentioned except this point
(E) It guaranteed wages for a greater number of people


Question 4 was tricky , but lets see how to do this with POE

Q4. It can be inferred from the passage that federal involvement in business affairs_______.
Question is related with para 3

(A) became associated with Republicans after Richard Nixon took office . not after but before , eliminated
(B) was discouraged by those who believed that the “invisible hand” of capitalism would produce non-economic benefits
(C) was responsible for the creation of a so-called “military-industrial” complex.nothing discussed in para 3 eliminated
(D) was never the intent of the New Frontier, though it was essential to the implementation of the New Deal. use of extreme word NEVER
(E) is most effective when it is reserved for economic emergencies such as those created by the Great Depression. nothing about Great Depression

:heart :heart Hope You all liked my explanation :please
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Re: Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal was hotly debated at the time it  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jan 2019, 04:47
2
6 mins 39 secs and got 3 out of 4. Challenging passage with good questions to complement it.

Summary: Author stays neutral throughout.
The passage talks about government intervention into economic matters affecting business and agriculture etc. How it started with the new deal ( which opened the floodgates for govt intervention in the future). Then goes on to talk about how WW2 bolstered this further with the military-industrial complex and the New Frontiers of JF Kennedy & Nixon (despite being a Republican) was all for govt intervention into economic matters even without emergency situation. Finally ends with Reagan's attempt to rollback the intervention and go back to the invisible hand of the free market.


Postulate the title of the passage question. Need to get a grasp on the main point of the passage to be able to answer this.
1. Which of the following is the most appropriate title of the passage?

(A) How the New Deal Increased Federal Spending Too detailed to be the answer. Discard
(B) The Economic and Social Impact of Executive Branch Spending Detailed to be the main point. Discard
(C) The New Deal’s Legacy of Federal Economic Activism Bingo - the passage talks about how the new deal ushered in a new era of government intervention into economic and business affairs
(D) Government Control of Monetary Policy Since the New Deal TRAP - since it was not only monitory policy that the government interfered in but a host of other issues economic and business issues
(E) The Path from Government Activism to the Invisible Hand This links the start of the passage to the ending line but this is not the main point what the author is trying to convey.

Inference type - so this is a detail question and one which needs 100% support from the passage
2. It can be inferred from the passage that the New Deal _______.

(A) turned regulation of the banks over to the federal government Bingo! The passage states "prior to the new deal the regulation of the banks was with the states" and goes on to confuse the reader by mentioning that Federal bank was present since 1913.. but the prior to new deal statement seals the deal.
(B) created the Federal Reserve Bank as a means of gaining more control over economic policy Opposite. Fed bank was already present since 1913
(C) was responsible for the federal government’s first attempt at directly promoting social welfare programs Wrong. Not mentioned anywhere in the passage
(D) came to an end with the start of World War II TRAP - real-world problem. This could be true as a fact but this is not mentioned in the passage and is hence not inferred from it.
(E) was unpopular with labor leaders whose actions were increasingly overseen by the executive branch of the government Irrelevant and not mentioned in the passage

Except type - detail question straightforward from the second para
3. According to the passage, which of the following was NOT necessarily true of the New Frontier?

(A) It addressed the need for loans with which to improve housing. Mentioned in the last line. Discard.
(B) It gave the federal government a larger role to play in some global affairs. Mentioned (multinational trade) discard.
(C) It was enacted during a time when the future of the economy looked bright. Discard. Mentioned - during good economic times
(D) It was instrumental in creating the Fair Labor Standards Act. Bingo - the Fair labor standards act is mentioned alongside the new frontier but it is not mentioned whether the latter was instrumental in creating the former.
(E) It guaranteed wages for a greater number of people. Mentioned. Discard

Q4 - I do not agree 100% with the OA. But here is an explanation nonetheless.

Again, this is an inference type and hence we need an option that is 100% supported by the passage.
4. It can be inferred from the passage that federal involvement in business affairs_______.

(A) became associated with Republicans after Richard Nixon took office Discard. We cannot be sure that Nixon was the first Republican to push federal involvement. The passage merely states that even Republicans along with Democrats pushed for it.
(B) was discouraged by those who believed that the “invisible hand” of capitalism would produce non-economic benefits Very obtuse way to put it as those who believed in "invisible hand" believed that capitalism would produce both economic and non-economic ( read social ) benefits according to the last line. Also nothing about ""being discouraged" can be inferred. Weird OA.
(C) was responsible for the creation of a so-called “military-industrial” complex Discard. WW2 was not federal involvement.
(D) was never the intent of the New Frontier, though it was essential to the implementation of the New Deal This is my choice. The new frontiers never intended to push federal involvement as it's major thrust was into space research and multinational trade along with social welfare ( the minimum wage improvement etc.) maybe new frontiers did not intend to do it and federal involvement was just a consequence. Also, it was essential to the implementation of the New deal as this was post-Great depression when the banks were taken over by the federal government. Why is this incorrect?
(E) is most effective when it is reserved for economic emergencies such as those created by the Great Depression. TRAP - Nothing about most effect can be inferred as it is not mentioned. Discard.

Let me know if these explanations helped. Also, your thoughts on Q4.

Regards,
Gladi
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Re: Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s New Deal was hotly debated at the time it   [#permalink] 02 Jan 2019, 04:47
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