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The internal temperatures of an animal that uses a variety of

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New post Updated on: 13 Oct 2018, 22:06
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The internal temperatures of an animal that uses a variety of physiological and behavioral mechanisms to regulate its body temperature do not vary by more than a few degrees centigrade over the animal’s lifespan. At temperatures below which such an endotherm loses heat to the environment, an endotherm requires heat production, and therefore metabolism, increases and, obversely, at temperatures above which it gains heat from the environment, an endotherm requires heat dissipation. However, these processes are not achieved in an equally effective manner; the responses used by an endotherm to decrease its body temperature contribute to the situation the animal is attempting to surmount.

Even though such thermo-regulation allows endotherms to maintain an internal temperature not equal to the temperature of the air, the temperature of the air is not an insignificant factor in determining the animal’s metabolic functioning, which is directly correlated with the amount of resources the animal needs. Moreover, an endotherm does not have an infinite capability to dissipate or produce heat, and enough exposure to extreme temperatures can ultimately lead to the animal’s death. However, the effects of temperature on endotherms far exceed in scope those which directly affect the animals themselves, as temperature is a vital factor in determining the amount of energy available in any given ecosystem and all the biotic elements, which all interact with one another, are subjected to the same conditions.

During the Paleocene-Eocene maximum, when the overall temperature of the planet increased between four to seven degrees centigrade over 20,000 years, almost half of the benthic foraminifera disappeared while several modern endothermic species appeared. Data collected in the modern era, however, between the beginnings of the industrial revolution and the present day, show that climate change has had even more drastic and detrimental results. Because the time span covered by these studies is relatively short, scientists cannot discriminate with certainty between naturally occurring phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary responses to climate or even determine which results occur in reaction to climate change and which occur from any number of other factors that vary over time such as habitat succession, density-dependence or predation.

1. What is the function of the second paragraph in relation to the passage as a whole?

A. It discusses how a process described in the first paragraph occurs when an additional factor is considered, a factor which, when altered, creates negative effects on certain creatures.

B. It explains the mechanisms which creatures mentioned in the first paragraph have at their disposal to cope with the process mentioned in the third paragraph.

C. It clarifies a possible misconception that could be deduced from the information in the first paragraph and explains why the results presented in the third paragraph occur.

D. It presents facts that allow the author to argue that a biological theory presented in the first paragraph is refuted by the events described in the third paragraph.

E. It provides more details about an argument about the relative efficiencies of two mechanisms presented in the first paragraph, facts which clarify the processes that allow the events described in the third paragraph to occur.
Answer Choice B: The first paragraph describes how endotherms regulate their own body temperature so that it does not match the temperature of the air. However, this might lead some to think that air temperature is irrelevant to endotherms (i.e. that an endotherm can regulate its internal body temperature to adapt to any environment), a misconception clarified in the second paragraph. The third paragraph tells us that climate change has had and continues to have an effect on endotherms. This happens because endotherms are sensitive to the temperature of the air, a fact presented in the second paragraph.


2. Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?

A. The metabolic functioning and resource consumption of an endotherm, which regulates its own body temperature, are determined by air temperature which, when altered, creates drastic effects on those animals.

B. Although, in the past, changes in climate had both negative and positive effects, today climate change lacks any positive effects on animals who regulate their own internal temperatures by dissipating and producing heat.

C. Climate change in the past and present has influenced the life course of animals because their metabolic functioning and overall resource consumption are affected by the temperature of the air surrounding them.

D. Since animals who regulate their own body temperature are still affected by the air temperature in their environments, significant changes in that air temperature have affected those animals in the past.

E. Because an animal which regulates its own body temperature by producing or dissipating heat is still susceptible to the surrounding air temperature, modern changes in climate have proved damaging to those animals.

Anser Choice E:
This answer choice correctly summarizes the main points of each paragraph. The first paragraph discusses how an endotherm (i.e. an animal which regulates its own body temperature) produces or dissipates heat to regulate its internal temperature. The second paragraph discusses endotherms' vulnerability to air temperature. The third paragraph tells us that modern climate change has proved detrimental to endotherms.

Contrast to Answer D:
We need not go beyond our Initial Reading to answer this Main Idea question. Our Initial Reading should look something like this:

Paragraph I: How endotherms self-regulate their body temperature

Paragraph II: Despite this self-regulation, endotherms are still affected by the outside temperature

Paragraph III: Many species disappeared and endotherms appeared because of climate change in the past. However, modern climate change also has a negative effect on endotherms

The third paragraph may be slightly confusing, as it appears to be about climate changes in the past. However, if we continue past the first sentence, we find that the topic of the paragraph is really modern climate change.

Although this answer choice correctly conveys the information in the passage, the third paragraph (which begins with a discussion of past effects of climate change) focuses on the effects of modern climate change, not climate change in the Paleocene-Eocene maximum.


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Originally posted by reto on 09 Aug 2015, 06:11.
Last edited by workout on 13 Oct 2018, 22:06, edited 2 times in total.
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New post 13 Oct 2018, 22:07
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+1 kudos to the posts containing answer explanations of all questions


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New post 14 Oct 2018, 11:45
workout wrote:

+1 kudos to the posts containing answer explanations of all questions


Hey workout,

9:30 minutes! All wrong!! :(
Could you please provide a detailed explanation of this?
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New post 14 Oct 2018, 19:31
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According to Explanation written for Q1. Option C should be the answer, right?
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New post 15 Oct 2018, 10:26
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Hi reto ,workout , honneeey , JigarB ,
I will try explaining one question at a time. The options to these questions are pretty length, so it's better to go thro' each one-by-one.

Q2. Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?
---
A. The metabolic functioning and resource consumption of an endotherm, which regulates its own body temperature, are determined by air temperature which, when altered, creates drastic effects on those animals.
My analysis: Incorrect option
Explanation:
According to this option, the metabolic functioning and resource consumption are determined by air temperature. This is an incorrect statement.
According to the passage the temperature of the air is not an insignificant factor in determining the animal’s metabolic functioning.
---
B. Although, in the past, changes in climate had both negative and positive effects, today climate change lacks any positive effects on animals who regulate their own internal temperatures by dissipating and producing heat.
My analysis: Incorrect option
Explanation:
a) The option states that climate change in the PAST bad both negative and positive effects. This can't be concluded from the passage.
In the passage 3:
During the Paleocene-Eocene maximum, when the overall temperature of the planet increased between four to seven degrees centigrade over 20,000 years, almost half of the benthic foraminifera disappeared while several modern endothermic species appeared..........

These sentences refer to past. Author does not conclude POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE.

b) The author continues stating further that -->
Data collected in the modern era, however, between the beginnings of the industrial revolution and the present day, show that climate change has had even more drastic and detrimental results.

As it's clear from above statements, the author certainly says that climate change in modern era till present day definitely had even more drastic and detrimental results.
hence we can conclude that this is incorrect option.
---
[i]C. Climate change in the past and present has influenced the life course of animals because their metabolic functioning and overall resource consumption are affected by the temperature of the air surrounding them.[/i]
My analysis: Incorrect option
Explanation:
a) Again, option states that climate change in the past has influenced the life course of animals. but this is not mentioned in the para.(explained in option B as well)

b) overall resource consumption are affected by the temperature of the air surrounding
Again, as mentioned in Option A as well, above statement is incorrect. As per para 2:
the temperature of the air is not an insignificant factor in determining the animal’s metabolic functioning,

---
D. Since animals who regulate their own body temperature are still affected by the air temperature in their environments, significant changes in that air temperature have affected those animals in the past.
My analysis: Incorrect option
Explanation:
First part of the sentence is correct. Again, the word 'past' is more important. The para doesn't provide any reference of PAST. (as explained in option B)

---
E. Because an animal which regulates its own body temperature by producing or dissipating heat is still susceptible to the surrounding air temperature, modern changes in climate have proved damaging to those animals.
OA: Correct
My analysis: Correct option
Explanation:
Yeah.. :-)
Both the parts are correct and supported by the para 2 & 3.
a) Para 2 suggests that an animal susceptible to the surrounding air temperature (as heat increases, an animal may die)
b) Para 3 also provides clear statement that modern changes in climate have proved detrimental

I hope I was able to explain.
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New post 15 Oct 2018, 10:45
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Hi reto ,workout , honneeey , JigarB ,
let me try question 1.

JigarB - let me explain why Option C can't be the answer.

1. What is the function of the second paragraph in relation to the passage as a whole?

A. It discusses how a process described in the first paragraph occurs when an additional factor is considered, a factor which, when altered, creates negative effects on certain creatures.
My analysis: Incorrect option
Explanation:
I didn't necessarily think that second para introduced 'atm air' as an additional factor. Hence I felt that this is an incorrect option.
When I took notes for para 1, I understood that :
a) body temp doesn't change much during overall lifespan.
b) 2 ways to regular: heat again from env and heat dissipation to env

so Atm air/environment topic is already introduced here. it's not newly introduced in para 2. The relationship/impact of Atmp air is definitely explained in detailed manner in para 2.

B. It explains the mechanisms which creatures mentioned in the first paragraph have at their disposal to cope with the process mentioned in the third paragraph.
OA
My analysis: Look ok - Hold on.
Explanation:

C. It clarifies a possible misconception that could be deduced from the information in the first paragraph and explains why the results presented in the third paragraph occur.
My analysis: Incorrect option
Explanation:
There is no misconception mentioned in para 1. as explained in my note for Para 1 in option A -->
Para 1 says that an animal regulates by gaining heat from atm env and dissipation heat to atm env. Para 2 explain this further.

[i]D. It presents facts that allow the author to argue that a biological theory presented in the first paragraph is refuted by the events described in the third paragraph.
My analysis: Incorrect option
Explanation:
Author is not trying to refute the theory here.

[i]E. It provides more details about an argument about the relative efficiencies of two mechanisms presented in the first paragraph, facts which clarify the processes that allow the events described in the third paragraph to occur.
My analysis: Incorrect option
Explanation:
In the third para, author clearly calls out that scientists cannot discriminate with certainty about the events mentioned in para 3. hence option E is incorrect.
=======
With above POE method, we can conclude that Option B is correct.

I hope it's clear now.

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New post 05 Nov 2018, 10:33
C. Climate change in the past and present has influenced the life course of animals because their metabolic functioning and overall resource consumption are affected by the temperature of the air surrounding them.
My analysis: Incorrect option
Explanation:
a) Again, option states that climate change in the past has influenced the life course of animals. but this is not mentioned in the para.(explained in option B as well)

b) overall resource consumption are affected by the temperature of the air surrounding
Again, as mentioned in Option A as well, above statement is incorrect. As per para 2:
the temperature of the air is not an insignificant factor in determining the animal’s metabolic functioning,
....
For question 2. No matter how significant the factor (temp of air) is, it can still affect. How did you conclude that it cannot affect.
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New post 06 Nov 2018, 10:29
Cinematiccuisine for Q1 please justify option B..

It explains the mechanisms which creatures mentioned in the first paragraph have at their disposal to cope with the process mentioned in the third paragraph.
- there is no mechanishm explained in para 2

para 2 summary -
1) Surrounding temp is as important as other factors for endotherm process
2) Endos dont have bla bla bla in excess
3)effects of X are greater than effects of Y ..all conditions kept same ...

where is the MECHANISM?? .. moreover , there is no info as to what endos have so that they use something to COPE bla bla bla...

I agree with the MAIN IDEA but I am highly suspicious of Q1 ... mikemcgarry DmitryFarber GMATNinja chetan2u VeritasKarishma
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New post 07 Nov 2018, 22:47
AdityaHongunti wrote:
Cinematiccuisine for Q1 please justify option B..

It explains the mechanisms which creatures mentioned in the first paragraph have at their disposal to cope with the process mentioned in the third paragraph.
- there is no mechanishm explained in para 2

para 2 summary -
1) Surrounding temp is as important as other factors for endotherm process
2) Endos dont have bla bla bla in excess
3)effects of X are greater than effects of Y ..all conditions kept same ...

where is the MECHANISM?? .. moreover , there is no info as to what endos have so that they use something to COPE bla bla bla...

I agree with the MAIN IDEA but I am highly suspicious of Q1 ... mikemcgarry DmitryFarber GMATNinja chetan2u VeritasKarishma


AdityaHongunti:
according to you, what is the correct answer for Q1?

BTW, your blah, blhad are fantastic! I guess, answer lies within those Blah Blahs.. :-) If you agree with summary Or the key idea, then according to you, what is it?

As i explained earlier, using Elimination method, option B seems to be most logical answer. Let me try another way,

Summary:
Para 1: Premise OR Mechanism: A Concept of maintaining internal temperatures by heat production OR heat dissipation is explained.
Para 3: Conclusion: climate change has had even more drastic and detrimental results. (author states blah blah ...(that scientists cannot discriminate with certainty )...)

if you read conclusion and premise, we would certainly want to understand what are the underlying assumptions / theories / thoughts, right? for example, even without reading the para again, few questions popped into my head --> "Is there a limit to this concept of heat dissipition / heat production? Can that animal continue to do this act life long? etc.

That's where the para 2 comes in handy, here are the key explanations / reasons / assumptions given in para 2 (for better readability, map the colors):
1) the temperature of the air is a significant factor.
2) metabolic functioning corelates to amount of resources
3) an animal doesn't have infinite capability (this also answers one of my questions)
4) extreme temp -> death (this also relates to the conclusion mentioned in para 3)
5) Animal can't just dissipate or consume heat. Atm temp determines how much energy is available for consumption as everyone is subjected to same source.

The actual text from para 2:
Even though such thermo-regulation allows endotherms to maintain an internal temperature not equal to the temperature of the air, the temperature of the air is not an insignificant factor in determining the animal’s metabolic functioning, which is directly correlated with the amount of resources the animal needs. Moreover, an endotherm does not have an infinite capability to dissipate or produce heat, and enough exposure to extreme temperatures can ultimately lead to the animal’s death. However, the effects of temperature on endotherms far exceed in scope those which directly affect the animals themselves, as temperature is a vital factor in determining the amount of energy available in any given ecosystem and all the biotic elements, which all interact with one another, are subjected to the same conditions

in short,
Conclusion (modern changes in climate have proved damaging to those animals)
has
a premise (animal regulates its own body temperature by producing or dissipating heat )
Key assumptions: para 2 joins the premise & conclusion by providing more details about surrounding air temperature (explained the 4-5 points above)

i hope this is clear.

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New post 07 Nov 2018, 22:59
Thank you for your response...
I completely agree with your explanation and my thought process was along the same lines as yours..

What my point is that the Ans choice B says "mechanism"

Now what is a mechanism? A process by which we can reach somewhere...for eg , an electric fan has a motor mechanism which has components working to give us the result.

You have very well pointed out the premises and stated the assumptions but how they relate to and how one connects to the other is not given...

The main issue I face is with the word "mechanism"... Please address that... My entire previous comment was based on that single word "mechanism"

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New post 07 Nov 2018, 23:04
ShankSouljaBoi wrote:
C. Climate change in the past and present has influenced the life course of animals because their metabolic functioning and overall resource consumption are affected by the temperature of the air surrounding them.
My analysis: Incorrect option
Explanation:
a) Again, option states that climate change in the past has influenced the life course of animals. but this is not mentioned in the para.(explained in option B as well)

b) overall resource consumption are affected by the temperature of the air surrounding
Again, as mentioned in Option A as well, above statement is incorrect. As per para 2:
the temperature of the air is not an insignificant factor in determining the animal’s metabolic functioning,
....
For question 2. No matter how significant the factor (temp of air) is, it can still affect. How did you conclude that it cannot affect.
Cinematiccuisine.


ShankSouljaBoi
Here is the Option C of Q2:
C. Climate change in the past and present has influenced the life course of animals because their metabolic functioning and overall resource consumption are affected by the temperature of the air surrounding them.

The option precisely states that
Climate change
a) in the past
b) and present
has influenced the life...

if we go to para 3:
1) Author starts by saying overall temp increased --> half of (benthic foraminifera) disappeared; many new introduced
2) Data collected in the modern era, however, between the beginnings of the industrial revolution and the present day, show that climate change has had even more drastic and detrimental results
3) Author further states about uncertainity OR other causes such as habitat succession, density-dependence or predation

After reading all these 3 points, in my opinion, author is very clear on present day situation. However, the past may have variety of reasons. hence as i stated earlier as well, I didn't think that author clearly called out climate impact in the past has influenced the life. hence i feel option C is not correct. I hope this is clear now. Please let me know.

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New post 07 Nov 2018, 23:20
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AdityaHongunti wrote:
Thank you for your response...
I completely agree with your explanation and my thought process was along the same lines as yours..

What my point is that the Ans choice B says "mechanism"

Now what is a mechanism? A process by which we can reach somewhere...for eg , an electric fan has a motor mechanism which has components working to give us the result.

You have very well pointed out the premises and stated the assumptions but how they relate to and how one connects to the other is not given...

The main issue I face is with the word "mechanism"... Please address that... My entire previous comment was based on that single word "mechanism"

Posted from my mobile device


AdityaHongunti -- sure, i understand your concern. MECHANISM VS MECHANISMS
Let's try segregating the words:
B. It explains the mechanisms which creatures mentioned in the first paragraph have at their disposal to cope with the process mentioned in the third paragraph.

How i interpreted:
i) It explains the mechanisms : the option says that para 2 explains mechanisms (not just 1 mechanism). here 'mechanisms' are referred to explanations / assumptions / assertions that are called out wrt role of surrounding air temperature. In our mind, word mechanism (without S) might be referring to sigular process / component / feature of animals gaining OR releasing heat. But the option is calling out multiple features that are explained in para 2.
ii) which creatures mentioned in the first paragraph have at their disposal : process of gaining or releasing heat to maintain body temp.
iii) to cope with the process mentioned in the third paragraph : mentioned in para 3 as climate change

If you just want to go with 'mechanism' then think as if Para 1 INTRODUCED a mechanism and para to EXPLAINED that mechanism further so that conclusion in para 3 can be supported.

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New post 08 Nov 2018, 00:04
Thank you for your response..
The mistake I was making - being too liberal about the meaning of the word...
Your patience and explanations sorted that out.
Thank you...kudos to you

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New post 17 Mar 2019, 07:14
In Q1, why is a not right?
Also, I didn't understand the link between para 2 & 3 as mentioned in option b
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New post 17 Mar 2019, 07:18
In Q2, how did we infer that animals are still susceptible to temp as mentioned in option e?
Also why is option c wrong?
The passage mentions that rise in temp in xyz period wiped away flora fauna. And climate change now has worse effects.
Can't we infer that climate change occurred in the past as well as in the present as in option c?
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