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Re: High-ranking security officials agree that ideology is no longer the [#permalink]
Thanks for the explaination :)

will you please elaborate a bit or provide an example of the correct idiom for REASON you have included.

thank you

mikemcgarry wrote:
rwj wrote:
High-ranking security officials agree that ideology is no longer the main reason that United States citizens engage in espionage, as it was in the 1940's and 1950's; the chief motive now is money.

(A) that United States citizens engage in espionage, as it was
(B) for United States citizens engaging in espionage, as
(C) for United States citizens who engage in espionage as was so
(D) of United States citizens who engage in espionage, as it was
(E) United States citizens engage in espionage, as

I'm happy to help. :-)

Among other things, this is an Idiom question. Here's a free GMAT Idiom ebook you may find helpful.
https://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-idiom-ebook/
The correct idioms for "reason" include
(a) the reason to do X
(b) the reason for Q
(c) the reason for P to do X
(d) the reason that P does X

Really (A) is the only one that gets the idiom for "reason" correct.

Also, at the end, notice that "as in the 1940's and 1950's" is ambiguous ---- no longer the main reason that citizens engage in espionage as they engage in the 1940's and 1950's???? Because we have another "in" preposition in the text, with a different meaning, just having an "in" preposition after the "as" is not enough. We could say one of two things:
as it was in the 1940's and 1950's
as was so in the 1940's and 1950's

Thus, (A) & (C) & (D) all have correct endings.

Again, the only one that gets the idiom at the beginning correct is (A), so this is the best answer.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: High-ranking security officials agree that ideology is no longer the [#permalink]
mikemcgarry wrote:
crackgmat2013 wrote:
Thanks for the explanation :)
will you please elaborate a bit or provide an example of the correct idiom for REASON you have included.

thank you
mikemcgarry wrote:
The correct idioms for "reason" include
(a) the reason to do X
(b) the reason for Q
(c) the reason for P to do X
(d) the reason that P does X


Dear crackgmat2013,

Here are some examples. For (a) the reason to do X:
(1) A rich man has no reason to do his own laundry.
(2) If I want to smell the flowers, I need no reason to do so.
(3) Winning is not the reason to play the game.


For (b) the reason for Q
(4) The reasons for washing hands frequently have to do with hygiene and public health.
(5) Folks of different cultural values debate the "real" reason for the Christmas season.
(6) Washington established the precedent of a two-term limit, and FDR's departure from this precedent, by winning four consecutive elections, was the principal reason for the Twenty-second Amendment to the US Constitution.


Notice --- in many context, (a) & (b) are interchangeable, and many times, either would be perfectly correct.

For (c) the reason for P to do X
(7) Staying up late doing homework is no reason for the student to be late to school the next day.
(8) The reason for young couples to have a long engagement is to explore how their relationship grows and changes.
(9) I can think of no good reason for the Congressman to hold that position.


For (d) the reason that P does X
(10) A discussion of local sports is not the reason that I called him.
(11) The reason that the Moon does not fall to the Earth is that its angular momentum holds it in orbit away from the Earth.
(12) Nobody knows for sure the reason that Leonardo left The Adoration of the Magi unfinished.


Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Mike,

How do we know that "it' refers to "main reason" or "idealogy"...I mean logically it makes sense to associate "it" with "main reason". How do we eliminate "it" doesnt refer idealogy?

Also, your blogs are very helpful and informative. Do you have any free blog that teaches the tricks in comparison problems? Your help is greatly appreciated.
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Re: High-ranking security officials agree that ideology is no longer the [#permalink]
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maaadhu wrote:
Mike,

How do we know that "it' refers to "main reason" or "idealogy"...I mean logically it makes sense to associate "it" with "main reason". How do we eliminate "it" doesn't refer idealogy?

Also, your blogs are very helpful and informative. Do you have any free blog that teaches the tricks in comparison problems? Your help is greatly appreciated.

Dear maaadhu,
I'm happy to respond. :-) What you are asking, the antecedent of "it", is in some sense an unanswerable question. Here's version (A), the OA:
High-ranking security officials agree that ideology is no longer the main reason that United States citizens engage in espionage, as it was in the 1940's and 1950's; the chief motive now is money.
You see, what the sentence is telling us, in the 1940's and 1950's, ideology WAS the main reason --- those two are one and the same, so the "it" could refer perfectly well to either of them.

As for blogs on comparisons, this blog is very informative and has links to several other blogs:
https://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-idioms-of-comparison/

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: High-ranking security officials agree that ideology is no longer the [#permalink]
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mikemcgarry wrote:
rwj wrote:
High-ranking security officials agree that ideology is no longer the main reason that United States citizens engage in espionage, as it was in the 1940's and 1950's; the chief motive now is money.

(A) that United States citizens engage in espionage, as it was
(B) for United States citizens engaging in espionage, as
(C) for United States citizens who engage in espionage as was so
(D) of United States citizens who engage in espionage, as it was
(E) United States citizens engage in espionage, as

I'm happy to help. :-)

Among other things, this is an Idiom question. Here's a free GMAT Idiom ebook you may find helpful.
https://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-idiom-ebook/
The correct idioms for "reason" include
(a) the reason to do X
(b) the reason for Q
(c) the reason for P to do X
(d) the reason that P does X

Really (A) is the only one that gets the idiom for "reason" correct.

Also, at the end, notice that "as in the 1940's and 1950's" is ambiguous ---- no longer the main reason that citizens engage in espionage as they engage in the 1940's and 1950's???? Because we have another "in" preposition in the text, with a different meaning, just having an "in" preposition after the "as" is not enough. We could say one of two things:
as it was in the 1940's and 1950's
as was so in the 1940's and 1950's

Thus, (A) & (C) & (D) all have correct endings.

Again, the only one that gets the idiom at the beginning correct is (A), so this is the best answer.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)



Hi Mike,

In above question both "A" and "C" seem to be correct. Both have correct idiom, ending and meaning.

But still if you can shed some light, it will be great help.
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