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# Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal

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Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 16 Jul 2017, 23:14
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Homeostasis, an animal’s maintenance of certain internal variables within an acceptable range, particularly in extreme physical environments, has long interested biologists. The desert rat and the camel in the most water-deprived environments, and marine vertebrates in an all-water environment, encounter the same regulatory problem: maintaining adequate internal fluid balance.

For desert rats and camels, the problem is conservation of water in an environment where standing water is nonexistent, temperature is high, and humidity is low. Despite these handicaps, desert rats are able to maintain the osmotic pressure of their blood, as well as their total body water content, at approximately the same levels as other rats. One countermeasure is behavioral: these rats stay in burrows during the hot part of the day,thus avoiding loss of fluid through panting or sweating, which are regulatory mechanisms for maintaining internal body temperature by evaporative cooling. Also, desert rats’ kidneys can excrete a urine having twice as high a salt content as seawater.

Camels, on the other hand, rely more on simple endurance. They cannot store water, and their reliance on an entirely unexceptional kidney results in a rate of water loss through renal function significantly higher than that of desert rats. As a result, camels must tolerate losses in body water of up to 30 percent of their body weight. Nevertheless, camels do rely on a special mechanism to keep water loss within a tolerable range: by sweating and panting only when their body temperature exceeds that which would kill a human, they conserve internal water.

Marine vertebrates experience difficulty with their water balance because though there is no shortage of seawater to drink, they must drink a lot of it to maintain their internal fluid balance. But the excess salts from the seawater must be discharged somehow, and the kidneys of most marine vertebrates are unable to excrete a urine in which the salts are more concentrated than in seawater. Most of these animals have special salt-secreting organs outside the kidney that enable them to eliminate excess salt.

1. Which of the following most accurately states the purpose of the passage?

(A) To compare two different approaches to the study of homeostasis
(B) To summarize the findings of several studies regarding organisms’ maintenance of internal variables in extreme environments
(C) To argue for a particular hypothesis regarding various organisms’ conservation of water in desert environments
(D) To cite examples of how homeostasis is achieved by various organisms
(E) To defend a new theory regarding the maintenance of adequate fluid balance
OA &OE 24.A Examples of homeostasis are given, but diff erent approaches to studying it are not discussed.
B The passage describes examples, but it does not summarize studies.
C While the passage does discuss two desert animals, it does not present any argument for a particular hypothesis.
D Correct. The passage discusses the examples of desert rats, camels, and marine vertebrates to show how these organisms are able to achieve homeostasis.
E The passage describes how three organisms maintain water balance, but it presents no theory about it.
The correct answer is D.

2. It can be inferred from the passage that some mechanisms that regulate internal body temperature, like sweating and panting, can lead to which of the following?

(A) A rise in the external body temperature
(B) A drop in the body’s internal fluid level
(C) A decrease in the osmotic pressure of the blood
(D) A decrease in the amount of renal water loss
(E) A decrease in the urine’s salt content
OA &OE 25. A Since a contrast is drawn between the kidneys of camels and those of desert rats, the two must function differently; the passage makes no reference to the kidneys of other rats.
B Correct. The camel’s kidney does nothing special to help the camel cope with its difficult environment.
C No comparison between the kidneys of camels and the kidneys of marine vertebrates is made.
D There is no information given about the kidney structure of most mammals in desert environments so this conclusion is not justified.
E Marine vertebrates have other organs that help eliminate extra salt; camels do not.
The correct answer is B.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author characterizes the camel’s kidney as “entirely unexceptional” (line 26) primarily to emphasize that it

(A) functions much as the kidney of a rat functions
(B) does not aid the camel in coping with the exceptional water loss resulting from the extreme conditions of its environment
(C) does not enable the camel to excrete as much salt as do the kidneys of marine vertebrates
(D) is similar in structure to the kidneys of most mammals living in water-deprived environments
(E) requires the help of other organs in eliminating excess salt
OA& OE 26. A Since a contrast is drawn between the kidneys of camels and those of desert rats, the two must function diff erently; the passage makes no reference to the kidneys of other rats.
B Correct. The camel’s kidney does nothing special to help the camel cope with its difficult environment.
C No comparison between the kidneys of camels and the kidneys of marine vertebrates is made.
D There is no information given about the kidney structure of most mammals in desert environments so this conclusion is not justified.
E Marine vertebrates have other organs that help eliminate extra salt; camels do not.
The correct answer is B.

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Regards, S

Originally posted by saurya_s on 26 Jan 2005, 04:22.
Last edited by hazelnut on 16 Jul 2017, 23:14, edited 8 times in total.
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Re: Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal  [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2005, 05:33
Is this the complete passage?, I think there is a missing part talking about the Camel

Anyways, I think the answers are
B, E, B, D

Will give explanation if they are right
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Re: Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal  [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2005, 05:52
oa is d b b b
Can somebody explain.
S
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Re: Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal  [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2005, 08:58
Question 1, 3 is D and B
Question 2, 4 is unanswerable, becuase there's definitely a missing paragraph.
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Re: Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal  [#permalink]

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05 Dec 2013, 23:33
Can someone explain question 25? I think the posted OE is for question 26.
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Re: Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal  [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2015, 18:55
D,B,B All correct
Time =3 minutes.
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Re: Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal  [#permalink]

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18 Jun 2016, 16:19
For question 26, why is a not the correct answer?
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Re: Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal  [#permalink]

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03 Jul 2016, 06:04
Top Contributor
7 mins, All correct.
3 mins on Para.
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Re: Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal  [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2016, 08:39
tanad wrote:
For question 26, why is a not the correct answer?

Rat's kidney is awesome. It helps maintain water level by reducing water in urine.
Camel's kidney is "unexceptional" (read X). It lose water more than those of Rats. Hence functions differently than that of rat.

Hence A is wrong which says Camel's kidney functions much as kidney of Rats.
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Re: Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal  [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2016, 18:12
All correct in 4.45secs!
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Re: Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal  [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2017, 11:23
Took 6 mins 45 seconds, including almost 4 mins to read the passage. All correct
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Re: Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal  [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2018, 05:06
saurya_s wrote:
Homeostasis, an animal’s maintenance of certain internal variables within an acceptable range, particularly in extreme physical environments, has long interested biologists. The desert rat and the camel in the most water-deprived environments, and marine vertebrates in an all-water environment, encounter the same regulatory problem: maintaining adequate internal fluid balance.

For desert rats and camels, the problem is conservation of water in an environment where standing water is nonexistent, temperature is high, and humidity is low. Despite these handicaps, desert rats are able to maintain the osmotic pressure of their blood, as well as their total body water content, at approximately the same levels as other rats. One countermeasure is behavioral: these rats stay in burrows during the hot part of the day,thus avoiding loss of fluid through panting or sweating, which are regulatory mechanisms for maintaining internal body temperature by evaporative cooling. Also, desert rats’ kidneys can excrete a urine having twice as high a salt content as seawater.

Camels, on the other hand, rely more on simple endurance. They cannot store water, and their reliance on an entirely unexceptional kidney results in a rate of water loss through renal function significantly higher than that of desert rats. As a result, camels must tolerate losses in body water of up to 30 percent of their body weight. Nevertheless, camels do rely on a special mechanism to keep water loss within a tolerable range: by sweating and panting only when their body temperature exceeds that which would kill a human, they conserve internal water.

Marine vertebrates experience difficulty with their water balance because though there is no shortage of seawater to drink, they must drink a lot of it to maintain their internal fluid balance. But the excess salts from the seawater must be discharged somehow, and the kidneys of most marine vertebrates are unable to excrete a urine in which the salts are more concentrated than in seawater. Most of these animals have special salt-secreting organs outside the kidney that enable them to eliminate excess salt.

1. Which of the following most accurately states the purpose of the passage?

(A) To compare two different approaches to the study of homeostasis
(B) To summarize the findings of several studies regarding organisms’ maintenance of internal variables in extreme environments
(C) To argue for a particular hypothesis regarding various organisms’ conservation of water in desert environments
(D) To cite examples of how homeostasis is achieved by various organisms
(E) To defend a new theory regarding the maintenance of adequate fluid balance
OA &OE 24.A Examples of homeostasis are given, but diff erent approaches to studying it are not discussed.
B The passage describes examples, but it does not summarize studies.
C While the passage does discuss two desert animals, it does not present any argument for a particular hypothesis.
D Correct. The passage discusses the examples of desert rats, camels, and marine vertebrates to show how these organisms are able to achieve homeostasis.
E The passage describes how three organisms maintain water balance, but it presents no theory about it.
The correct answer is D.

2. It can be inferred from the passage that some mechanisms that regulate internal body temperature, like sweating and panting, can lead to which of the following?

(A) A rise in the external body temperature
(B) A drop in the body’s internal fluid level
(C) A decrease in the osmotic pressure of the blood
(D) A decrease in the amount of renal water loss
(E) A decrease in the urine’s salt content
OA &OE 25. A Since a contrast is drawn between the kidneys of camels and those of desert rats, the two must function differently; the passage makes no reference to the kidneys of other rats.
B Correct. The camel’s kidney does nothing special to help the camel cope with its difficult environment.
C No comparison between the kidneys of camels and the kidneys of marine vertebrates is made.
D There is no information given about the kidney structure of most mammals in desert environments so this conclusion is not justified.
E Marine vertebrates have other organs that help eliminate extra salt; camels do not.
The correct answer is B.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author characterizes the camel’s kidney as “entirely unexceptional” (line 26) primarily to emphasize that it

(A) functions much as the kidney of a rat functions
(B) does not aid the camel in coping with the exceptional water loss resulting from the extreme conditions of its environment
(C) does not enable the camel to excrete as much salt as do the kidneys of marine vertebrates
(D) is similar in structure to the kidneys of most mammals living in water-deprived environments
(E) requires the help of other organs in eliminating excess salt
OA& OE 26. A Since a contrast is drawn between the kidneys of camels and those of desert rats, the two must function diff erently; the passage makes no reference to the kidneys of other rats.
B Correct. The camel’s kidney does nothing special to help the camel cope with its difficult environment.
C No comparison between the kidneys of camels and the kidneys of marine vertebrates is made.
D There is no information given about the kidney structure of most mammals in desert environments so this conclusion is not justified.
E Marine vertebrates have other organs that help eliminate extra salt; camels do not.
The correct answer is B.

Hi Everyone

regarding the first question: How did you guys got it that purpose of the passage is to CITE examples and not SUMMARIZE FINDINGS ?

thanks!
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Re: Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal  [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2018, 19:10
In Q1 though option D is a better choice but what is wrong with option B??

Please explain !!
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Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal  [#permalink]

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24 Jan 2018, 09:25
1
dave13 wrote:
saurya_s wrote:
Homeostasis, an animal’s maintenance of certain internal variables within an acceptable range, particularly in extreme physical environments, has long interested biologists. The desert rat and the camel in the most water-deprived environments, and marine vertebrates in an all-water environment, encounter the same regulatory problem: maintaining adequate internal fluid balance.

For desert rats and camels, the problem is conservation of water in an environment where standing water is nonexistent, temperature is high, and humidity is low. Despite these handicaps, desert rats are able to maintain the osmotic pressure of their blood, as well as their total body water content, at approximately the same levels as other rats. One countermeasure is behavioral: these rats stay in burrows during the hot part of the day,thus avoiding loss of fluid through panting or sweating, which are regulatory mechanisms for maintaining internal body temperature by evaporative cooling. Also, desert rats’ kidneys can excrete a urine having twice as high a salt content as seawater.

Camels, on the other hand, rely more on simple endurance. They cannot store water, and their reliance on an entirely unexceptional kidney results in a rate of water loss through renal function significantly higher than that of desert rats. As a result, camels must tolerate losses in body water of up to 30 percent of their body weight. Nevertheless, camels do rely on a special mechanism to keep water loss within a tolerable range: by sweating and panting only when their body temperature exceeds that which would kill a human, they conserve internal water.

Marine vertebrates experience difficulty with their water balance because though there is no shortage of seawater to drink, they must drink a lot of it to maintain their internal fluid balance. But the excess salts from the seawater must be discharged somehow, and the kidneys of most marine vertebrates are unable to excrete a urine in which the salts are more concentrated than in seawater. Most of these animals have special salt-secreting organs outside the kidney that enable them to eliminate excess salt.

1. Which of the following most accurately states the purpose of the passage?

(A) To compare two different approaches to the study of homeostasis
(B) To summarize the findings of several studies regarding organisms’ maintenance of internal variables in extreme environments
(C) To argue for a particular hypothesis regarding various organisms’ conservation of water in desert environments
(D) To cite examples of how homeostasis is achieved by various organisms
(E) To defend a new theory regarding the maintenance of adequate fluid balance
OA &OE 24.A Examples of homeostasis are given, but diff erent approaches to studying it are not discussed.
B The passage describes examples, but it does not summarize studies.
C While the passage does discuss two desert animals, it does not present any argument for a particular hypothesis.
D Correct. The passage discusses the examples of desert rats, camels, and marine vertebrates to show how these organisms are able to achieve homeostasis.
E The passage describes how three organisms maintain water balance, but it presents no theory about it.
The correct answer is D.

2. It can be inferred from the passage that some mechanisms that regulate internal body temperature, like sweating and panting, can lead to which of the following?

(A) A rise in the external body temperature
(B) A drop in the body’s internal fluid level
(C) A decrease in the osmotic pressure of the blood
(D) A decrease in the amount of renal water loss
(E) A decrease in the urine’s salt content
OA &OE 25. A Since a contrast is drawn between the kidneys of camels and those of desert rats, the two must function differently; the passage makes no reference to the kidneys of other rats.
B Correct. The camel’s kidney does nothing special to help the camel cope with its difficult environment.
C No comparison between the kidneys of camels and the kidneys of marine vertebrates is made.
D There is no information given about the kidney structure of most mammals in desert environments so this conclusion is not justified.
E Marine vertebrates have other organs that help eliminate extra salt; camels do not.
The correct answer is B.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author characterizes the camel’s kidney as “entirely unexceptional” (line 26) primarily to emphasize that it

(A) functions much as the kidney of a rat functions
(B) does not aid the camel in coping with the exceptional water loss resulting from the extreme conditions of its environment
(C) does not enable the camel to excrete as much salt as do the kidneys of marine vertebrates
(D) is similar in structure to the kidneys of most mammals living in water-deprived environments
(E) requires the help of other organs in eliminating excess salt
OA& OE 26. A Since a contrast is drawn between the kidneys of camels and those of desert rats, the two must function diff erently; the passage makes no reference to the kidneys of other rats.
B Correct. The camel’s kidney does nothing special to help the camel cope with its difficult environment.
C No comparison between the kidneys of camels and the kidneys of marine vertebrates is made.
D There is no information given about the kidney structure of most mammals in desert environments so this conclusion is not justified.
E Marine vertebrates have other organs that help eliminate extra salt; camels do not.
The correct answer is B.

Hi Everyone

regarding the first question: How did you guys got it that purpose of the passage is to CITE examples and not SUMMARIZE FINDINGS ?

thanks!

Hi Dave and MSarmah,

The first line of the passage says that biologists are INTERESTED in homeostasis. The author does not talk about any studies. So, option B is incorrect.

Summary of the four paragraphs-

PARAGRAPH 1: What is homeostasis? Examples of three animals that maintain internal fluid balance.

PARAGRAPH 2: Explains how desert rats maintain fluid balance.

PARAGRAPH 3: Explains how camels maintain their fluid balance.

PARAGRAPH 4: Talks about water balance in marine vertebrates.

Hence, option D is the correct answer.

I hope this helps.

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Re: Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal  [#permalink]

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27 Mar 2018, 15:10
MSarmah wrote:
In Q1 though option D is a better choice but what is wrong with option B??

Please explain !!

I'll take a stab at this! See below:

Which of the following most accurately states the purpose of the passage?

(A) To compare two different approaches to the study of homeostasis
- Incorrect. What are the two different approaches? Each animal / species has a different way of achieving homeostasis, so if we were to be technical, it should say *multiple* approaches

(B) To summarize the findings of several studies regarding organisms’ maintenance of internal variables in extreme environments
- Incorrect. How do we know there are *SEVERAL* studies whose findings we are summarizing? What if these are just observations that experts have discussed? There is no way we can infer the info in this passage came from studies.

(C) To argue for a particular hypothesis regarding various organisms’ conservation of water in desert environments
- Incorrect. There is no "particular" hypothesis that is favored here. Also, this passage not only talks about desert environments, but aquatic ones as well.

(D) To cite examples of how homeostasis is achieved by various organisms
- Correct. This passage cites several examples of how different organisms achieve homeostasis (i.e. desert rats, camels & marine vertebrates). No flaw here

(E) To defend a new theory regarding the maintenance of adequate fluid balance
- Incorrect. What is this "new theory"? When was this mentioned?

Kudos please if you find this helpful!
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Re: Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal  [#permalink]

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22 Sep 2018, 21:43
P1 - about H, examples are given.
P2 - H in terms of desert rats exemplified.
P3 - H in terms of desert camel exemplified.
P4 - H in terms of Marine vertebrates exemplified.

Main point - about H, examples are given. and each one of them is described.
Tone - informative, modrate

1. Which of the following most accurately states the purpose of the passage?

(A) To compare two different approaches to the study of homeostasis - No
(B) To summarize the findings of several studies regarding organisms’ maintenance of internal variables in extreme environments - Close but no, D is better with use of the word such as example. It is more like p1 only
(C) To argue for a particular hypothesis regarding various organisms’ conservation of water in desert environments - No
(D) To cite examples of how homeostasis is achieved by various organisms - Correct.
(E) To defend a new theory regarding the maintenance of adequate fluid balance - No

-----------------------------------------

2. It can be inferred from the passage that some mechanisms that regulate internal body temperature, like sweating and panting, can lead to which of the following?

lines to read - Nevertheless, camels do rely on a special mechanism to keep water loss within a tolerable range: by sweating and panting only when their body temperature exceeds that which would kill a human, they conserve internal water.

(B) A drop in the body’s internal fluid level - yes

-----------------------------------------

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author characterizes the camel’s kidney as “entirely unexceptional ” (line 26) primarily to emphasize that it

pre-think - Not much helpful for camels.

(A) functions much as the kidney of a rat functions - no
(B) does not aid the camel in coping with the exceptional water loss resulting from the extreme conditions of its environment - yes
(C) does not enable the camel to excrete as much salt as do the kidneys of marine vertebrates - No
(D) is similar in structure to the kidneys of most mammals living in water-deprived environments - NO
(E) requires the help of other organs in eliminating excess salt - no
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Re: Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal  [#permalink]

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28 Dec 2018, 02:08
aragonn:

2. It can be inferred from the passage that some mechanisms that regulate internal body temperature, like sweating and panting, can lead to which of the following?

lines to read - Nevertheless, camels do rely on a special mechanism to keep water loss within a tolerable range: by sweating and panting only when their body temperature exceeds that which would kill a human, they conserve internal water.

However it tells that by "sweating and panting " they conserve water. So sweating and panting " leads to "A drop in the body’s internal fluid level" is just saying the opposite right ?
Re: Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal   [#permalink] 28 Dec 2018, 02:08
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# Homeostasis, an animal's maintenance of certain internal

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