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In a recent experiment, scientists constructed an environment with

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In a recent experiment, scientists constructed an environment with [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2015, 04:07
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In a recent experiment, scientists constructed an environment with certain conditions that would contribute to excessive stress levels in lab rats. The rats were separated into two groups before being subjected to the stressful environment. One group was treated with linaloyl oxide through natural respiration while the other was not. Although it has been believed for centuries by certain medicinal researchers that the plant-based alcohol could be effective as an anxiety reducer, the broader medical community has remained skeptical. This skepticism will clearly change since the published results of the experiment reveal that there was an undeniable link between the administered substance and the moderate and controlled status of the treated rats' neutrophil granulocytes, a central component of the immune system indicative of stress, despite the manipulated, stress-inducing environment.

In the argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A) The first is a theory that is in accordance with the argument's main position; the second is evidence that exposes the refutability of the defence of that position.
B) The first is a speculative statement based on reasoning; the second is an elaboration of certain findings recorded as evidence that agrees with that speculation.
C) The first is a questionable concept; the second develops that concept, forming a more comprehensive hypothesis.
D) The first is an untested proposal of a causal relationship that the argument favors; the second calls that relationship into question.
E) The first is historical evidence leading to the basis of the argument's position; the second is proof of that position

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Re: In a recent experiment, scientists constructed an environment with [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2015, 04:51
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The first bold face(BF1) is believe of certain medical researchers.
so it is a theory or speculative statement.
first is statement it is not a authors main posiiton.

the second bold face(BF2) is research findings .
so it is findings or evidence. second bold face supports first statement .
here premise indicator since is used. it is not a conlcusion or position.

bold face2 supports bold face 1. so option D is out.

In option E BF1 is not evidence, so it is out.

Option c BF2 is not a concept . concept means abstract idea. Bf2 is evidence . so it is out.

we are left out with A and B.

IN option A , BF2, refutability it proves its falsable. so it didnt support BF1. so it is out.


Option B is correct.
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Re: In a recent experiment, scientists constructed an environment with [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2015, 07:44
B it is. again problem with time taken 3 mins :(
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In a recent experiment, scientists constructed an environment with [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2015, 11:12
eliminated choices C,D and E just as Psiva00734 did

But got confused between A and B.

especially with the word speculation and did not understand the reasoning behind the second statement of option A
"the second is evidence that exposes the refutability of the defense of that position." properly.

selected A by mistake.(Hurried in the last minute) :(
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In a recent experiment, scientists constructed an environment with [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2015, 19:11
Psiva00734 wrote:
Option c BF2 is not a concept . concept means abstract idea. Bf2 is evidence . so it is out.


Option B is correct.


Have a question in your analysis of C.
C) The first is a questionable concept; the second develops that concept, forming a more comprehensive hypothesis.

It says that BF1 is a concept and not BF2.
and BF2 <is something> that develops that concept (BF1).

Now, BF2 actually develops that concept, in that BF2 provides evidence for BF1. Therefore i thought C was correct.

Further, i have a doubt in B
B) The first is a speculative statement based on reasoning; the second is an elaboration of certain findings recorded as evidence that agrees with that speculation.

Which reasoning does the red-highlighted text above refer to? The passage only says that BF1 was a belief.

Harley1980,
Can you please provide the OE? I believe the answer should be C and not B (Pl correct me).

Can someone please help?

-Thanks
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Re: In a recent experiment, scientists constructed an environment with [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2015, 19:27
arhumsid wrote:
Psiva00734 wrote:
Option c BF2 is not a concept . concept means abstract idea. Bf2 is evidence . so it is out.


Option B is correct.


Have a question in your analysis of C.
C) The first is a questionable concept; the second develops that concept, forming a more comprehensive hypothesis.

It says that BF1 is a concept and not BF2.
and BF2 <is something> that develops that concept (BF1).

Now, BF2 actually develops that concept, in that BF2 provides evidence for BF1. Therefore i thought C was correct.

Further, i have a doubt in B

B) The first is a speculative statement based on reasoning; the second is an elaboration of certain findings recorded as evidence that agrees with that speculation.

Which reasoning does the red-highlighted text above refer to? The passage only says that BF1 was a belief.

Can someone please help?

-Thanks

Hi arhumsid
In option C, BF2 devleops that concept means it is also concept. BF2 is a research findings.
concept means abstract idea means it is not practically proven it is only by assumptions. or theoretical. or hypothesis.
final sentence also mentions forming comprehensive hypothesis.
Hypothesis means is not practically proven , only accepted by theoretically. so BF2 is a finding not a concept. so it is not correct.


In option B
speculative statement means conjecture. conjecture forms a opinion on incomplete information.
based on reasoning means action of thinking or believeing in logical way but it is not proven.
In above argument it mentions, although it has been believed by certain resarchers. it is believe only not proven.
so B is correct.
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In a recent experiment, scientists constructed an environment with [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2015, 07:28
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arhumsid wrote:
Harley1980,
Can you please provide the OE? I believe the answer should be C and not B (Pl correct me).

Can someone please help?

-Thanks


Hello arhumsid

Here is the OE:

Sentence 1-3 are premises because they simply describe the process of the experiment in a purely factual manner.
Sentence 4 contains the first boldface portion which is introduced by the phrase has been believed and uses the word could. Therefore, it is not a premise, but merely a hypothesis.
The first part of Sentence 5, uses the conclusion word clearly so it's the conclusion.
The conclusion is followed by the reason conjunction since, and then the second boldface portion, another premise providing data about findings (the published results of the experiment).

A) The first is a theory that is in accordance with the argument's main position; the second is evidence that exposes the refutability of the defence of that position.
Incorrect. Although this answer choice's first definition is right, its second is not. The phrase exposes the refutability basically means undermines, i.e., it means the second boldface portion undermines the conclusion. However, the second boldface portion completely agrees with the argument's position since it directly supports it.
B) The first is a speculative statement based on reasoning; the second is an elaboration of certain findings recorded as evidence that agrees with that speculation.
Correct. The first boldface portion cites an old belief which has not been proven, only speculated; the second validates this speculation with scientific findings.
C) The first is a questionable concept; the second develops that concept, forming a more comprehensive hypothesis.
Incorrect. The second boldface portion does not develop the concept, but rather provides evidence that the concept is true. Also, describing the first boldface as questionable goes too far - the concept is questioned (i.e. under examination), but questionable is taken in this context as "probably wrong", and that goes against the argument's position.
D) The first is an untested proposal of a causal relationship that the argument favors; the second calls that relationship into question.
Incorrect. While this answer choice correctly defines the first boldface portion, it is incorrect regarding the definition of the second. The second boldface portion validates the relationship described in the first rather than calls it into question.
E) The first is historical evidence leading to the basis of the argument's position; the second is proof of that position
Incorrect. The first boldface portion cannot be referred to as evidence since it is worded as an old belief, that had not been verified objectively. You can immediately eliminate answer choices that incorrectly define the first boldface part; do not waste time reading the rest.
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In a recent experiment, scientists constructed an environment with [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2015, 11:13
Harley1980 wrote:
arhumsid wrote:
Harley1980,
Can you please provide the OE? I believe the answer should be C and not B (Pl correct me).

Can someone please help?

-Thanks


Hello arhumsid

Here is the OE:

Sentence 1-3 are premises because they simply describe the process of the experiment in a purely factual manner.
Sentence 4 contains the first boldface portion which is introduced by the phrase has been believed and uses the word could. Therefore, it is not a premise, but merely a hypothesis.
The first part of Sentence 5, uses the conclusion word clearly so it's the conclusion.
The conclusion is followed by the reason conjunction since, and then the second boldface portion, another premise providing data about findings (the published results of the experiment).

A) The first is a theory that is in accordance with the argument's main position; the second is evidence that exposes the refutability of the defence of that position.
Incorrect. Although this answer choice's first definition is right, its second is not. The phrase exposes the refutability basically means undermines, i.e., it means the second boldface portion undermines the conclusion. However, the second boldface portion completely agrees with the argument's position since it directly supports it.
B) The first is a speculative statement based on reasoning; the second is an elaboration of certain findings recorded as evidence that agrees with that speculation.
Correct. The first boldface portion cites an old belief which has not been proven, only speculated; the second validates this speculation with scientific findings.
C) The first is a questionable concept; the second develops that concept, forming a more comprehensive hypothesis.
Incorrect. The second boldface portion does not develop the concept, but rather provides evidence that the concept is true. Also, describing the first boldface as questionable goes too far - the concept is questioned (i.e. under examination), but questionable is taken in this context as "probably wrong", and that goes against the argument's position.
D) The first is an untested proposal of a causal relationship that the argument favors; the second calls that relationship into question.
Incorrect. While this answer choice correctly defines the first boldface portion, it is incorrect regarding the definition of the second. The second boldface portion validates the relationship described in the first rather than calls it into question.
E) The first is historical evidence leading to the basis of the argument's position; the second is proof of that position
Incorrect. The first boldface portion cannot be referred to as evidence since it is worded as an old belief, that had not been verified objectively. You can immediately eliminate answer choices that incorrectly define the first boldface part; do not waste time reading the rest.

In B it says the speculation is based on reasoning. But no where it's implied that the speculation is based on some reasoning. Isn't it little extreme way of saying. I was about to reject B but had to select as others choices had major flaws.
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In a recent experiment, scientists constructed an environment [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2018, 13:41
In a recent experiment, scientists constructed an environment with certain conditions that would contribute to excessive stress levels in lab rats. The rats were separated into two groups before being subjected to the stressful environment. One group was treated with linaloyl oxide through natural respiration while the other was not. Although it has been believed for centuries by certain medicinal researchers that the plant-based alcohol could be effective as an anxiety reducer, the broader medical community has remained skeptical. This skepticism will clearly change since the published results of the experiment reveal that there was an undeniable link between the administered substance and the moderate and controlled status of the treated rats' neutrophil granulocytes, a central component of the immune system indicative of stress, despite the manipulated, stress-inducing environment.

In the argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first is a theory that is in accordance with the argument's main position; the second is evidence that exposes the refutability of the defence of that position.

B. The first is a speculative statement based on reasoning; the second is an elaboration of certain findings recorded as evidence that agrees with that speculation.

C. The first is a questionable concept; the second develops that concept, forming a more comprehensive hypothesis.

D. The first is an untested proposal of a causal relationship that the argument favors; the second calls that relationship into question.

E. The first is historical evidence leading to the basis of the argument's position; the second is proof of that position

Kindly explain your answers. Hit kudos if you like this question.
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Re: In a recent experiment, scientists constructed an environment [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2018, 00:17
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ImAnkitKaushik wrote:
How to choose between B and E ?

In the option E it is mentioned as historical evidence. According to the passage there is no evidence presented in the history. Simply a speculation

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Re: In a recent experiment, scientists constructed an environment [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2018, 02:28
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ImAnkitKaushik wrote:
In a recent experiment, scientists constructed an environment with certain conditions that would contribute to excessive stress levels in lab rats. The rats were separated into two groups before being subjected to the stressful environment. One group was treated with linaloyl oxide through natural respiration while the other was not. Although it has been believed for centuries by certain medicinal researchers that the plant-based alcohol could be effective as an anxiety reducer, the broader medical community has remained skeptical. This skepticism will clearly change since the published results of the experiment reveal that there was an undeniable link between the administered substance and the moderate and controlled status of the treated rats' neutrophil granulocytes, a central component of the immune system indicative of stress, despite the manipulated, stress-inducing environment.

In the argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

A. The first is a theory that is in accordance with the argument's main position; the second is evidence that exposes the refutability of the defence of that position.

B. The first is a speculative statement based on reasoning; the second is an elaboration of certain findings recorded as evidence that agrees with that speculation.

C. The first is a questionable concept; the second develops that concept, forming a more comprehensive hypothesis.

D. The first is an untested proposal of a causal relationship that the argument favors; the second calls that relationship into question.

E. The first is historical evidence leading to the basis of the argument's position; the second is proof of that position

Kindly explain your answers. Hit kudos if you like this question.


In boldfaced questions, we must pay attention to connecting words, which provide valuable clues to the logical relation between different parts. The word although makes it clear that there is a relationship of contrast between the first boldface and the following, but then "This skepticism will clearly change since " makes clear that the second boldface reverses that contrast - therefore, the first and second boldface must align with each other. skimming the answers, we can quickly eliminate A and D.
Now, comparing the remaining answers, let's see which best describes the first boldface: is it a speculative statement, a questionable concept or historical evidence? It definitely isn't historical evidence ("it has been believed"), leading us to eliminate E. Let's see which of the final two answers best describe the second part: is it evidence or a hypothesis? "the published results of the experiment" is clearly evidence, which tests a hypothesis (but is not one itself). Therefore, answer B.
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Re: In a recent experiment, scientists constructed an environment [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2018, 09:20
ImAnkitKaushik wrote:
How to choose between B and E ?


I second JANAN19....Think we can't play much with the second part of the option E)....
Re: In a recent experiment, scientists constructed an environment   [#permalink] 08 Jan 2018, 09:20
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