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# In the last decade, research in nanotechnology conducted at university

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01 Apr 2018, 02:46
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48% (02:37) correct 52% (01:44) wrong based on 135 sessions

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In the last decade, research in nanotechnology conducted at university-funded laboratories fell to a record low because grants for scientists who conducted independent research were not easily approved, but, because the necessary technical tools were rising in costs, those of expenses incurred during such research increased rapidly.

(A) who conducted independent research were not easily approved, but, because the necessary technical tools were rising in costs, those of

(B) conducting independent research were not easily approved while, because of the rising costs of the necessary technical tools,

(C) conducting independent research were not easily approved, because of the rising costs of the necessary technical tools, and those of

(D) that conducted independent research that was not easily approved; however, because the necessary tools were rising in costs,

(E) conducting independent research that was not easily approved, but, because of the rising costs of the necessary technical tools,

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Re: In the last decade, research in nanotechnology conducted at university  [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2018, 03:38
A. Incorrect usage of "those of"

B. Incorrect usage of "while, because of"....very absurd

C.Incorrect usage of "those of"

D. Incorrect usage of "that" to refer to scientists

E. Correct. Brings out the correct meaning of the sentence.

IMO E.

Please give Kudos if my explanation is right.

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01 Apr 2018, 03:57
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In the last decade, research in nanotechnology conducted at university-funded laboratories fell to a record low because grants for scientists who conducted independent research were not easily approved, but, because the necessary technical tools were rising in costs, those of expenses incurred during such research increased rapidly.

(A) who conducted independent research were not easily approved, but, because the necessary technical tools were rising in costs, those of

(B) conducting independent research were not easily approved while, because of the rising costs of the necessary technical tools,

(C) conducting independent research were not easily approved, because of the rising costs of the necessary technical tools, and those of

(D) that conducted independent research that was not easily approved; however, because the necessary tools were rising in costs,

(E) conducting independent research that was not easily approved, but, because of the rising costs of the necessary technical tools,

Initial thoughts: The sentence describes that the amount of research conducted dropped because:

1) the researcher's funding (grants) didn't get approved
2) the cost for tools needed to conduct research increased at the same time

Hence, researchers had less money available while facing increased costs. This development has to be described properly.

Split #1: "Those of" refers to what exactly? A reference to "grants of scientists" or "technical tools" doesn't make any sense. Therefore, we can preclude answers A) and C)

Step #2: D) can be eliminated easily because it uses "that" to refer to "scientists". However, "that" can't refer to persons, we would need to use "who".

Step #3: Now we are left with ansswers B) and E). Let's analyze the first obvious difference between the two answers. B) uses "were not easily approved", while E) uses "was not easily approved". This verb refers to "grants to scientists", which is a plural noun. Hence, the verb has to be in plural as well. In conclusion, we can eliminate answer E).

That's why answer B) is left as the correct choice. I hope that helps

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01 Apr 2018, 04:44
1
itisSheldon wrote:
In the last decade, research in nanotechnology conducted at university-funded laboratories fell to a record low because grants for scientists who conducted independent research were not easily approved, but, because the necessary technical tools were rising in costs, those of expenses incurred during such research increased rapidly.

(A) who conducted independent research were not easily approved, but, because the necessary technical tools were rising in costs, those of

(B) conducting independent research were not easily approved while, because of the rising costs of the necessary technical tools,

(C) conducting independent research were not easily approved, because of the rising costs of the necessary technical tools, and those of

(D) that conducted independent research that was not easily approved; however, because the necessary tools were rising in costs,

(E) conducting independent research that was not easily approved, but, because of the rising costs of the necessary technical tools,

(A) who conducted independent research were not easily approved, but, because the necessary technical tools were rising in costs, those of (conveys the meaning "scientists were not approved" . Also, "but, because structure" is incorrect along with "those of")

(B) conducting independent research were not easily approved while, because of the rising costs of the necessary technical tools, (correct as we need "while" here to show that both actions (delay in approval of grants and rising of tool expense) are happening simultaneously.

(C) conducting independent research were not easily approved, because of the rising costs of the necessary technical tools, and those of Incorrect

(D) that conducted independent research that was not easily approved; however, because the necessary tools were rising in costs, (that can't refer to living beings)

(E) conducting independent research that was not easily approved, but, because of the rising costs of the necessary technical tools [("that" is modifying "research" incorrectly and conveying the meaning " research was not easily approved"
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In the last decade, research in nanotechnology conducted at university   [#permalink] 01 Apr 2018, 04:44
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