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# In the Middle ages, the distressingly high infant mortality rate,

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Director
Joined: 22 Feb 2018
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In the Middle ages, the distressingly high infant mortality rate,  [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2020, 00:05
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55% (hard)

Question Stats:

60% (01:56) correct 40% (02:07) wrong based on 167 sessions

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In the Middle ages, the distressingly high infant mortality rate, reckoned in the first year of life to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births when compared to a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now, resulted in the parents’ relative lack of interest in their children.

A) reckoned in the first year of life to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births when compared to a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now,
B) which is around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now,
C) which was reckoned to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now, and
D) reckoned to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now,
E) reckoned to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life as compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now, which
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Re: In the Middle ages, the distressingly high infant mortality rate,  [#permalink]

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20 Jan 2020, 03:29
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In the Middle ages, the distressingly high infant mortality rate, reckoned in the first year of life to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births when compared to a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now, resulted in the parents’ relative lack of interest in their children.

We have subject "rate" and need a working verb for it; it is easy to eliminate three answer choices that lack the verb: B, C, and E.

A) reckoned in the first year of life to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births when compared to a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now,
D) reckoned to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now,

Between A and D, there is probably a better reason for elimination that the one I used... My reasoning was that "when compared to" is rarely used in correct choices, so I choose D and it appears correct one
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Re: In the Middle ages, the distressingly high infant mortality rate,  [#permalink]

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21 Jan 2020, 18:44
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Raxit85 wrote:
In the Middle ages, the distressingly high infant mortality rate, reckoned in the first year of life to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births when compared to a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now, resulted in the parents’ relative lack of interest in their children.

A) reckoned in the first year of life to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births when compared to a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now,
B) which is around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now,
C) which was reckoned to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now, and
D) reckoned to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now,
E) reckoned to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life as compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now, which

here the subject is rate and verb is resulted so we can eliminate C,E as these options use and ,which at the end of the sentence
option B uses is which is incorrect

Now between A and D D is right because in A "when compared to" is used which is incorrect usage

Hence option D
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In the Middle ages, the distressingly high infant mortality rate,  [#permalink]

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21 Jan 2020, 21:07
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Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-

Raxit85 wrote:
In the Middle ages, the distressingly high infant mortality rate, reckoned in the first year of life to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births when compared to a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now, resulted in the parents’ relative lack of interest in their children.

A) reckoned in the first year of life to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births when compared to a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now,
B) which is around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now,
C) which was reckoned to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now, and
D) reckoned to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now,
E) reckoned to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life as compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now, which

Choice A: This answer choice suffers from a meaning error due to improper construction; the phrase "when compared to a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now" incorrectly implies that the infant mortality rate of the Middle Ages was 300-350, per 1000 live births only when compared to the modern infant mortality rate in rich countries. These two statistics exist independently, and this sentence compares the two to highlight the severity of the former. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

Choice B: This answer choice incorrectly uses the present tense verb "is" to refer to an event in the far part. Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

Choice C: This answer choice fails to maintain parallelism between the verbs "was reckoned" and "resulted". Moreover, this answer choice presents extra information between two commas; if this information is removed, the resulting sentence must be complete in itself. However, if the extra information in this answer choice is removed, the resulting sentence is "In the Middle ages, the distressingly high infant mortality rate and resulted in the parents’ relative lack of interest in their children." Thus, the superfluous conjunction "and" renders this answer choice incorrect.

Choice D: This answer choice maintains parallelism and proper tense use, conveys the intended meaning of the sentence, and is properly constructed. Thus, this answer choice is correct.

Choice E: This answer choice also suffers from the error of superfluous conjunction, similar to the one seen in Option C, due to the inclusion of the word "which". Thus, this answer choice is incorrect.

Hence, D is the best answer choice.

As this sentence is quite complex, it is important to understand its exact meaning. The core meaning of this sentence is that the high infant mortality rate in the Middle ages caused parents to take relatively little interest in their children. The information presented between the commas is additional information that highlights this core meaning by informing us just how high the mortality rate was, compared to the modern rate. Another thing to remember is that the subject of this sentence is "rate" and the action it takes is "resulted".

To understand the concept of "Extra Information Between Two Commas", you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):

To understand the concept of "Compared With v/s Compared To", you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):

All the best!
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Re: In the Middle ages, the distressingly high infant mortality rate,  [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2020, 07:26
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Top Contributor
In the Middle ages, the distressingly high infant mortality rate, reckoned in the first year of life to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births when compared to a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now, resulted in the parents’ relative lack of interest in their children.

A) reckoned in the first year of life to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births when compared to a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now,--- Here is a sly modification pitfall. The phrase 'in the first year of life,' should actually modify the 300-350 live births and per se should be next to "the live births", whereas in this choice, it modifies reckoned. This is a phenomenal error.

B) which is around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now,--- the shift of tense is incorrect.

C) which was reckoned to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now, and --- This is am fragment as the substantive noun phrase "the mortality rate, which was reckoned to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now--- has no verb.

D) reckoned to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now, --- The fragmentation has been avoided by removing the intrusive conjunction 'and'. In addition this choice is made concise by the dropping of the words ' which was'.

E) reckoned to have been around 300-350 per 1,000 live births in the first year of life as compared with a single-digit figure per 1,000 in rich countries now, which -- This is also a sheer fragment. There is no main clause at all.

D is the best of the choices.
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Re: In the Middle ages, the distressingly high infant mortality rate,   [#permalink] 22 Jan 2020, 07:26
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