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Many marine organisms defend themselves

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Many marine organisms defend themselves  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2019, 05:46
2
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A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  55% (hard)

Question Stats:

61% (02:17) correct 39% (02:17) wrong based on 157 sessions

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Many marine organisms defend themselves from predators, using a dark ink-like pigment secreted from an inch-long sac attached to their epidermis. A fossil from the Jurassic period, dated at almost 155 million years old and discovered in the Wiltshire region, contains a perfectly-preserved ink-sac that was probably from a now-extinct species of squid, the Belemnotheutis Antiquus, whose exact origins had not been previously established. Therefore, this form of self-preservation in marine organisms is at least 155 million years old.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the conclusion above?

A) Ink-sacs in marine organisms have functions other than self-preservation.
B) The Belemnotheutis Antiquus had physiological features that exist only as inactive organs in some present-day species of squid.
C) Marine organisms other than squids also have epidermal ink-sacs that the organisms use to ward off predators.
D) Fossils found in the Wiltshire region have previously provided evidence that land-based organisms from the Jurassic period had epidermal organs with the function of self-preservation.
E) Remains of a squid belonging to the Belemnotheutis Antiquus family were also found in the Wiltshire region and estimated to be from the Jurassic period
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Re: Many marine organisms defend themselves  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2019, 06:35
To strengthen the conclusion, we must prove that self-preservation by the means of epidermal organs in marine organisms is at least 155 million years old.
But I can't figure out which option fits best.

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Many marine organisms defend themselves  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2019, 06:47
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The stem tells you only that they found an ink sac. In the stem, they're just guessing that it comes from a squid, but for all we know it came from a kangaroo or a chicken. If we know that the specific type of squid mentioned in the stem existed in the region at the same time as the ink sac in the fossil, that would make it more likely the sac and squid are related, and that the sac was used by marine life, so E is a mild strengthener.

It's really not the kind of answer I was expecting though. It doesn't strengthen the argument all that much, and there's a gaping hole in the argument that I was expecting the right answer to address. We have no evidence that the function of this sac, 155 million years ago, was self-preservation. But no answer addresses that gaping hole (D is wrong because the conclusion is not about land-based animals, and C is wrong because it tells us nothing about how old these defenses are in marine animals). So E is the only answer left.
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Many marine organisms defend themselves  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2019, 12:17
800RahulHBS wrote:
Many marine organisms defend themselves from predators, using a dark ink-like pigment secreted from an inch-long sac attached to their epidermis. A fossil from the Jurassic period, dated at almost 155 million years old and discovered in the Wiltshire region, contains a perfectly-preserved ink-sac that was probably from a now-extinct species of squid, the Belemnotheutis Antiquus, whose exact origins had not been previously established. Therefore, this form of self-preservation in marine organisms is at least 155 million years old.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the conclusion above?

A) Ink-sacs in marine organisms have functions other than self-preservation.
B) The Belemnotheutis Antiquus had physiological features that exist only as inactive organs in some present-day species of squid.
C) Marine organisms other than squids also have epidermal ink-sacs that the organisms use to ward off predators.
D) Fossils found in the Wiltshire region have previously provided evidence that land-based organisms from the Jurassic period had epidermal organs with the function of self-preservation.
E) Remains of a squid belonging to the Belemnotheutis Antiquus family were also found in the Wiltshire region and estimated to be from the Jurassic period


I am going with B if descendants today have things that are no longer active because they are not needed it means they don't have their intended purpose. The ink sack is still needed so it stands to reason that it was needed for the same purpose over the 155 million years.
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Many marine organisms defend themselves   [#permalink] 06 Aug 2019, 12:17
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