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Difficulty: Sub 505 Level,   Pronouns,   Verb Tense/Form,               
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Re: Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of [#permalink]
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Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-
stevegt wrote:
Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of hypertension and shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their blood pressure typically does not rise with age.


A. shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their

B. shown that in societies that have consumed little salt, their

C. shown that in societies where little salt is consumed,

D. showing that in societies where little salt is consumed,

E. showing that in societies where they consume little salt, their

SC91050.02


Concepts tested here: Tenses + Pronouns + Parallelism

• Habitual actions are best conveyed through the simple present tense.
• The present perfect tense (marked by the use of the helping verb “has/have”) is used to indicate actions whose exact time is not known.

A: This answer choice suffers from a pronoun error, as the pronouns “they” and “their” lack a clear and logical referent.

B: This answer choice suffers from a pronoun error, as the pronoun “their” lacks a clear and logical referent. Further, Option B incorrectly uses the present perfect tense verb “have consumed” to refer to a habitual action; please remember, habitual actions are best conveyed through the simple present tense, and the present perfect tense (marked by the use of the helping verb “has/have”) is also used to indicate actions whose exact time is not known.

C: Correct. This answer choice avoids the pronoun errors seen in Options A, B, and E, as it uses no pronouns. Further, Option C correctly uses the present perfect tense verb “have…shown” to refer to an action whose exact time is not known. Additionally, Option C correctly uses the simple present tense verb “is consumed” to refer to habitual action.

D: This answer choice incorrectly uses the present participle (“verb+ing” – “showing” in this sentence) to refer to an action whose exact time is not known; remember, the present perfect tense (marked by the use of the helping verb “has/have”) is used to indicate actions whose exact time is not known.

E: This answer choice suffers from a pronoun error, as the pronouns “they” and “their” lack a clear and logical referent. Further, Option E incorrectly uses the present participle (“verb+ing” – “showing” in this sentence) to refer to an action whose exact time is not known; remember, the present perfect tense (marked by the use of the helping verb “has/have”) is used to indicate actions whose exact time is not known.

Hence, C is the best answer choice.

To understand the concept of "Simple Tenses" on GMAT, you may want to watch the following video (~2 minutes):



To understand the concept of "Present Perfect Tense" on GMAT, you may want to watch the following video (~2 minutes):



All the best!
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Re: Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of [#permalink]
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I will go with C!
The sentence is passive. So, C fits nicely. "shown" is parallel to "linked"


stevegt wrote:
Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of hypertension and shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their blood pressure typically does not rise with age.
(A) shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their
(B) shown that in societies that have consumed little salt, their
(C) shown that in societies where little salt is consumed,
(D) they showed that in societies where little salt is consumed,
(E) they showed that in societies where they consume little salt, their
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Definitely C.

"They showed" is not parallel to have linked. So D and E are wrong. In A and B, the their suggests that the societies have high blood pressure.

Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of hypertension and shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their blood pressure typically does not rise with age.
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Re: Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of [#permalink]
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C.

Can't be D or E simply b/c who's "they?" There is no referent using those choices.

Also, it would be helpful to check if the question is properly underlined before hitting submit.
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Re: Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of [#permalink]
Would request you to please underline the sentence properly.
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Re: Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of [#permalink]
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Can somebody help me out..... Is the use of "where" correct in the OA?
I thought, "where" has to talk about an location or event. Is "societies" something that can utilize "where"?

How is it different from: "I want to live in an era where....."... <--- Which is incorrect
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Re: Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of [#permalink]
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sashaman14 wrote:
Can somebody help me out..... Is the use of "where" correct in the OA?
I thought, "where" has to talk about an location or event. Is "societies" something that can utilize "where"?

How is it different from: "I want to live in an era where....."... <--- Which is incorrect



My views--

You are right about the word "where" which modifies places but here societies is used as a place.So its correct.

"I want to live in an era where--in this "In which" should be more appropriate (In Which modifies places/situations/time period/phenomenon)
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Re: Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of [#permalink]
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(A) shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their - wordy
(B) shown that in societies that have consumed little salt, their - societies which consumed
(C) shown that in societies where little salt is consumed, - best
(D) they showed that in societies where little salt is consumed, - independent sentence , required
(E) they showed that in societies where they consume little salt, their -- independent sentence , required
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Re: Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of [#permalink]
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stevegt wrote:
Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of hypertension and shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their blood pressure typically does not rise with age.

(A) shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their
(B) shown that in societies that have consumed little salt, their
(C) shown that in societies where little salt is consumed,
(D) they showed that in societies where little salt is consumed,
(E) they showed that in societies where they consume little salt, their


Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of hypertension and shown that in societies where little salt is consumed, blood pressure typically does not rise with age.

Eroors in the incorrect options highlighted in RED , due to incorrect use of Pronouns They/Their...

Correct answer must hence be (C)
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Re: Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of [#permalink]
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Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of hypertension and shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their blood pressure typically does not rise with age.

(A) shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their - their can refer to societies -- illogical - it is people in the societies and not the soiciety itself that can have blood pressure.

(B) shown that in societies that have consumed little salt, their - same as A

(C) shown that in societies where little salt is consumed, - Correct

(D) they showed that in societies where little salt is consumed, - usage of where is incorrect here ;"they" unambiguously refers to "many population studies", so it's fine (although it constitutes unnecessary repetition - this is already the subject of the sentence, so it needn't be repeated; see (c))
the principal problem with (d) is the lack of tense parallelism. since "have linked" is in the present perfect, the present perfect is also compulsory for the other verb (i.e., it should be "shown", not "showed").

(E) they showed that in societies where they consume little salt, their - their usage is incorrect as in A , usage of where is incorrect here

Answer C
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Re: Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of [#permalink]
Hi Dear Experts,

OA is (C) shown that in societies where little salt is consumed.
My question is: where is never used for meta places. I consider society meta place. Otherwise can community, group of people, and firm take where as well?

Thanks
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Re: Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of [#permalink]
Abhishek009 wrote:
stevegt wrote:
Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of hypertension and shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their blood pressure typically does not rise with age.

(A) shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their
(B) shown that in societies that have consumed little salt, their
(C) shown that in societies where little salt is consumed,
(D) they showed that in societies where little salt is consumed,
(E) they showed that in societies where they consume little salt, their


Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of hypertension and shown that in societies where little salt is consumed, blood pressure typically does not rise with age.

Eroors in the incorrect options highlighted in RED , due to incorrect use of Pronouns They/Their...

Correct answer must hence be (C)


is "societies" supposed to be it?
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Re: Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of [#permalink]
(A) shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their - wordy
(B) shown that in societies that have consumed little salt, their - societies which consumed
(C) shown that in societies where little salt is consumed, - best
(D) they showed that in societies where little salt is consumed, - independent sentence , required
(E) they showed that in societies where they consume little salt, their -- independent sentence , required
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Re: Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of [#permalink]
The pronoun when can be used to modify a noun event or time, such as period, age, 1987\ or decade. In
these circumstances, you can also use in which instead of when.
But I can't find explanation for the usage of WHERE with the word society

Could someone explain it?
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Re: Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of [#permalink]
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EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one thing at a time, and narrow down our options quickly so we know how to answer questions like this when they pop up on the GMAT! To begin, let's take a quick look at the question and highlight any major differences between the options in orange:

Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of hypertension and shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their blood pressure typically does not rise with age.

A. shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their

B. shown that in societies that have consumed little salt, their

C. shown that in societies where little salt is consumed,

D. showing that in societies where little salt is consumed,

E. showing that in societies where they consume little salt, their

After a quick glance over the options, a few key differences jump out:

1. shown vs. showing (Verb Form & Parallelism)
2. where they consume / that have consumed / is consumed (Verb Form & Pronouns)
3. Using “their” after the comma or not (Pronouns)


Since #1 is an easy either/or split, let’s start there! No matter which one we choose, we’ll eliminate 2-3 options rather quickly. This is mainly a matter of parallelism! We need to make sure the verb tense we use matches up with the earlier “linked.”

(*Note: We are using the most recent version of this question, which does not match feedback in the comments. Options D & E were updated at some point after this was originally posted.)

A. shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their

B. shown that in societies that have consumed little salt, their

C. shown that in societies where little salt is consumed,

D. showing that in societies where little salt is consumed,

E. showing that in societies where they consume little salt, their

We can eliminate options D & E because “showing” isn’t parallel to “linked.” Now that we have things narrowed down a bit, let’s move on to focusing on #2 and #3 on this list:

A. shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their
This is INCORRECT because it contains a couple vague pronouns! It’s not 100% clear what “they” and “their” are referring to. Logically, “they” and “their” refer back to “societies,” which makes no sense. A society is not the same thing as a person and cannot consume salt or get high blood pressure - however, the people within the society can.

B. shown that in societies that have consumed little salt, their
This is also INCORRECT because of the vague pronoun “their,” which is attempting to state that a society gets high blood pressure, not the people within that society, which makes no logical sense.

C. shown that in societies where little salt is consumed,
This is our CORRECT choice! It gets rid of the vague pronouns, and the meaning is clear to readers.

There you have it - option C is our winner!

Don’t study for the GMAT. Train for it.










Can we use 'where' for non locations? I saw in some video that we can use where only for location
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Re: Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of [#permalink]
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sashankvarma wrote:
EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one thing at a time, and narrow down our options quickly so we know how to answer questions like this when they pop up on the GMAT! To begin, let's take a quick look at the question and highlight any major differences between the options in orange:

Many population studies have linked a high-salt diet to high rates of hypertension and shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their blood pressure typically does not rise with age.

A. shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their

B. shown that in societies that have consumed little salt, their

C. shown that in societies where little salt is consumed,

D. showing that in societies where little salt is consumed,

E. showing that in societies where they consume little salt, their

After a quick glance over the options, a few key differences jump out:

1. shown vs. showing (Verb Form & Parallelism)
2. where they consume / that have consumed / is consumed (Verb Form & Pronouns)
3. Using “their” after the comma or not (Pronouns)


Since #1 is an easy either/or split, let’s start there! No matter which one we choose, we’ll eliminate 2-3 options rather quickly. This is mainly a matter of parallelism! We need to make sure the verb tense we use matches up with the earlier “linked.”

(*Note: We are using the most recent version of this question, which does not match feedback in the comments. Options D & E were updated at some point after this was originally posted.)

A. shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their

B. shown that in societies that have consumed little salt, their

C. shown that in societies where little salt is consumed,

D. showing that in societies where little salt is consumed,

E. showing that in societies where they consume little salt, their

We can eliminate options D & E because “showing” isn’t parallel to “linked.” Now that we have things narrowed down a bit, let’s move on to focusing on #2 and #3 on this list:

A. shown that in societies where they consume little salt, their
This is INCORRECT because it contains a couple vague pronouns! It’s not 100% clear what “they” and “their” are referring to. Logically, “they” and “their” refer back to “societies,” which makes no sense. A society is not the same thing as a person and cannot consume salt or get high blood pressure - however, the people within the society can.

B. shown that in societies that have consumed little salt, their
This is also INCORRECT because of the vague pronoun “their,” which is attempting to state that a society gets high blood pressure, not the people within that society, which makes no logical sense.

C. shown that in societies where little salt is consumed,
This is our CORRECT choice! It gets rid of the vague pronouns, and the meaning is clear to readers.

There you have it - option C is our winner!

Don’t study for the GMAT. Train for it.










Can we use 'where' for non locations? I saw in some video that we can use where only for location


Thanks for your question, sashankvarma!

No, you cannot use "where" for non-locations on the GMAT. It sometimes happens in informal speech/writing, but for the GMAT, it's a no-no.

I hope that helps!
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