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More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts

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Re: More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2017, 13:59
More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic development and investing millions of dollars in cultural activities, despite strained municipal budgets and fading federal support.

(A) to greater economic development and investing
(B) to greater development economically and investing
(C) of greater economic development and invest
(D) of greater development economically and invest
(E) for greater economic development and the investment of
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Re: More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2017, 05:07
More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic development and investing millions of dollars in cultural activities, despite strained municipal budgets and fading federal support.

(A) to greater economic development and investing - Correct
(B) to greater development economically and investing - “economically” means “inexpensively”. Clearly, we are talking about economic development and not some inexpensive development.
(C) of greater economic development and invest - Parallelism issue - stressing and invest ; means of is incorrect here
(D) of greater development economically and invest - Parallelism issue - stressing and invest ; also economically gives illogical meaning ; means of is incorrect here
(E) for greater economic development and the investment of - Parallelism issue - stressing and the investment of ; means for is incorrect

Answer A
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Re: More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2017, 06:06
Means to and Means of both are correct idioms.
The difference lies in the meaning.
Means to - method to achieve something
Means of - kind of
Here the correct usage would be as a Means to.
Therefore, C and D can be easily eliminated.
B changes the meaning development economically is different from economic development.
Between A and E.
E has parallelism error.
As per intended meaning cities are doing two things:-
1. Stressing the arts
2. Investing millions
Hence, answer is A.

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Re: More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 06:19
#MY10SECONDAPPROACH:
- Means carry only "TO" as a conjunction hence option C,D and E - rejected.( don't even read them )
- Option B changes the meaning - "development economically means development at low costs which is a completely different meaning than what question stem says.

Hence Answer option A
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Re: More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 07:31
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Lest we should have misconceptions about the use of ' to' as a preposition after means, here is what the Free Dictionary says about the various prepositions that may accompany means.

Quote:
Means is most often followed by of: a means of noise reduction. But for, to, and toward are also used: a means for transmitting sound; a means to an end; a means toward achieving equality.
(https://www.thefreedictionary.com/means).

I think the use of parallelism will be a safer route to solve this question.
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Re: More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 19:57
daagh wrote:
Lest we should have misconceptions about the use of ' to' as a preposition after means, here is what the Free Dictionary says about the various prepositions that may accompany means.

Quote:
Means is most often followed by of: a means of noise reduction. But for, to, and toward are also used: a means for transmitting sound; a means to an end; a means toward achieving equality.
(https://www.thefreedictionary.com/means).

I think the use of parallelism will be a safer route to solve this question.

Hey daagh , have a book from one of GMAT's coaching centres claiming that GMAT prefers"TO" as a conjunction with "Means" , hence went ahead with POE.
your views?
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Re: More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2018, 21:40
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If the book says so and if you believe that the GMAT coaching book is dependable, you please carry on with your belief. Mine is only an additional info.
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Re: More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2019, 16:04
Hello Everyone!

Let's take a look at this question, one issue at a time, and narrow it down to the correct choice. To begin, here is the original question with the major differences between the options highlighted in orange:

More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic development and investing millions of dollars in cultural activities, despite strained municipal budgets and fading federal support.

(A) to greater economic development and investing
(B) to greater development economically and investing
(C) of greater economic development and invest
(D) of greater development economically and invest
(E) for greater economic development and the investment of

After a quick glance over the options, there are a few places we can focus on to narrow things down:

1. as a means to/of/for (idioms)
2. economic development / development economically (intended meaning)
3. investing / invest / the investment of (parallelism/verb choice)


Let's start with #1 on our list: as a means to/of/for. Each of these formats means something different, so we need to determine which one we'll need:

X as a means of Y = X is a type of Y
Memorization as a means of studying is not as efficient as you might think. (memorization is a type of studying)

X as a means to Y = X is a way to make Y happen
The soccer team runs 3 miles every day as a means to improve their endurance during games. (running is a way to improve their endurance)

X as a means for Y = not an idiom; eliminate any options that use this

Since the original sentence states that cities are stressing arts as a way to develop the economy and invest money, we need to use the phrase "X as a means to Y" for it to keep the intended meaning:

(A) to greater economic development and investing
(B) to greater development economically and investing
(C) of greater economic development and invest
(D) of greater development economically and invest
(E) for greater economic development and the investment of

We can eliminate options C & D because they use "X as a means of Y," which isn't what we need here. We can eliminate option E because "X as a means for Y" is not a correct idiom structure in English.

This only leaves us with 2 options, so let's look at #2 on our list: economic development vs. development economically. The words "economic" and "economically" mean two different things:

economic = adjective that refers to the economy
economically = adverb that means "cheaply or inexpensively" done

Let's see how each option handles this:

More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic development and investing millions of dollars in cultural activities, despite strained municipal budgets and fading federal support.

(A) to greater economic development and investing

This is CORRECT! The phrase "economic development" is what we're looking for here to show that stressing the arts will help to improve the economy.

(B) to greater development economically and investing

This is INCORRECT because the phrase "development economically" is not what we want here. This phrase means that stressing the arts will help development happen more cheaply, which isn't what the writer is trying to say.


There you go - option A was the correct choice all along!


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Re: More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Feb 2019, 03:29
mikemcgarry wrote:
AK700 wrote:
What is the intended meaning here ?

Is it

Cities are investing millions of dollars in cultural activities

or

Arts is a method to achieve investment of millions of dollars in cultural activities

?

If it is the latter and we ignore the idiom error in option E, can option E not be considered as a correct choice ? That way this sentence can be interpreted as :

arts is a method to achieve greater economic development and investment of millions of dollars in cultural activities.

I know, I am somewhere wrong in comprehending this statement. Please help me to point out the flaw in my understanding.

Dear AK700,

I'm happy to respond. :-) Frankly, I wouldn't endorse either of the meanings you propose. Let's look at the prompt.
1) ... cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic development ...
That's the first and most important thing the cities are doing. By stressing the arts, these cities hope to stimulate business growth in general.

It's quite typical, in American cities, that a city will encourage an arts program, say, a gallery walk on the first Friday of the month, and inevitably the people who participate wind up going out to dinner and spending money that supports the downtown businesses in general.

The goal is general economic development of all the businesses in the city. That's what the city really want to achieve. While it may not be obvious, supporting the arts is a way to achieve that goal.

That's action #1, and the cities are also pursuing separate action #2.

2) ... cities are ... investing millions of dollars in cultural activities ...

This second action is clearly something supportive to the first, which contains the bigger idea. Presumably investing in these culture activities will have a similar effect, and also will have beneficial effects on the whole economy.

The relationship between these two activities is clear in the correct parallelism of (A). The relationship between them is blurred and unclear in (E): choice (E) makes it sound as if the city's goal is investing millions of dollars in something non-essential. That's absolutely illogical and completely absurd from an economics point of view.

Does this make sense?
Mike :-)


Hi mikemcgarry. I would like you to help me with a doubt - If in case one of the options used a verb-ing then would it be correct to use it as highlighted below, as it would answer the question how the cities are stressing? - by investing millions.

cities are stressing the arts as a means to greater economic development ,investing millions of dollars in cultural activities

Thanks!
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Re: More and more in recent years, cities are stressing the arts   [#permalink] 17 Feb 2019, 03:29

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