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One explanation for the tendency of animals to be more vigilant in

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One explanation for the tendency of animals to be more vigilant in  [#permalink]

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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 417, Date: 28-Oct-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


One explanation for the tendency of animals to be more vigilant in smaller groups than in larger ones assumes that the vigilant behavior— looking up, for example— is aimed at predators. If individuals on the edge of a group are more vigilant because they are at greater risk of being captured, then individuals on average would have to be more vigilant in smaller groups, because the animals on the periphery of a group form a greater proportion of the whole group as the size of the group diminishes.

However, a different explanation is necessary in cases where the vigilant behavior is not directed at predators. J. Krebs has discovered that great blue herons look up more often when in smaller flocks than when in larger ones, solely as a consequence of poor feeding conditions. Krebs hypothesizes that the herons in smaller flocks are watching for herons that they might follow to better feeding pools, which usually attract larger numbers of the birds.

1. It can be inferred from the passage that in species in which vigilant behavior is directed at predators, the tendency of the animals to be more vigilant in smaller groups than in larger ones would most likely be minimized if which of the following were true?

(A) The vigilance of animals on the periphery of a group always exceeded that of animals located in its interior, even when predators were not in the area.
(B) The risk of capture for individuals in a group was the same, whether they were located in the interior of the group or on its periphery.
(C) Animals on the periphery of a group tended to be less capable of defending themselves from attack by predators than animals located in the interior of the group.
(D) Animals on the periphery of a group tended to bear marks that were more distinctive to predators than animals located in the interior of the group.
(E) Animals on the periphery of a group tended to have shorter life spans than animals located in the interior of the group.


2. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the first?

(A)The second paragraph relies on different evidence in drawing a conclusion similar to that expressed in the first paragraph.
(B)The second paragraph provides further elaboration on why an assertion made at the end of the first paragraph proves to be true in most cases.
(C)The second paragraph provides additional information in support of a hypothesis stated in the first paragraph.
(D)The second paragraph provides an example of a case in which the assumption described in the first paragraph is unwarranted.
(E) The second paragraph describes a phenomenon that has the same cause as the phenomenon described in the first paragraph.


3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following assertions about vigilant behavior?

(A) The larger the group of animals, the higher the probability that individuals in the interior of the group will exhibit vigilant behavior.
(B) Vigilant behavior exhibited by individuals in small groups is more effective at warding off predators than the same behavior exhibited by individuals in larger groups.
(C) Vigilant behavior is easier to analyze in species that are preyed upon by many different predators than in species that are preyed upon by relatively few of them.
(D) The term "vigilant," when used in reference to the behavior of animals, does not refer exclusively to behavior aimed at avoiding predators.
(E) The term "vigilant, " when used in reference to the behavior of animals, usually refers to behavior exhibited by large groups of animals.


4. The passage provides information in support of which of the following assertions?

(A) The avoidance of predators is more important to an animal's survival than is the quest for food.
(B) Vigilant behavior aimed at predators is seldom more beneficial to groups of animals than to individual animals.
(C) Different species of animals often develop different strategies for dealing with predators.
(D) The size of a group of animals does not necessarily reflect its success in finding food.
(E) Similar behavior in different species of animals does not necessarily serve the same purpose.


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Originally posted by Skywalker18 on 28 Oct 2019, 05:38.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 29 Oct 2019, 21:26, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (1127).
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Re: One explanation for the tendency of animals to be more vigilant in  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2019, 06:39
1
Skywalker18 wrote:
One explanation for the tendency of animals to be more vigilant in smaller groups than in larger ones assumes that the vigilant behavior— looking up, for example— is aimed at predators. If individuals on the edge of a group are more vigilant because they are at greater risk of being captured, then individuals on average would have to be more vigilant in smaller groups, because the animals on the periphery of a group form a greater proportion of the whole group as the size of the group diminishes.

However, a different explanation is necessary in cases where the vigilant behavior is not directed at predators. J. Krebs has discovered that -Krebs hypothesizes that the herons in smaller flocks are watching for herons that they might follow to better feeding pools, which usually attract larger numbers of the birds.
1. It can be inferred from the passage that in species in which vigilant behavior is directed at predators, the tendency of the animals to be more vigilant in smaller groups than in larger ones would most likely be minimized if which of the following were true?

(A) The vigilance of animals on the periphery of a group always exceeded that of animals located in its interior, even when predators were not in the area.
(B) The risk of capture for individuals in a group was the same, whether they were located in the interior of the group or on its periphery.
(C) Animals on the periphery of a group tended to be less capable of defending themselves from attack by predators than animals located in the interior of the group.
(D) Animals on the periphery of a group tended to bear marks that were more distinctive to predators than animals located in the interior of the group.
(E) Animals on the periphery of a group tended to have shorter life spans than animals located in the interior of the group.


2. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the first?

(A)The second paragraph relies on different evidence in drawing a conclusion similar to that expressed in the first paragraph.
(B)The second paragraph provides further elaboration on why an assertion made at the end of the first paragraph proves to be true in most cases.
(C)The second paragraph provides additional information in support of a hypothesis stated in the first paragraph.
(D)The second paragraph provides an example of a case in which the assumption described in the first paragraph is unwarranted.
(E) The second paragraph describes a phenomenon that has the same cause as the phenomenon described in the first paragraph.


3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following assertions about vigilant behavior?

(A) The larger the group of animals, the higher the probability that individuals in the interior of the group will exhibit vigilant behavior.
(B) Vigilant behavior exhibited by individuals in small groups is more effective at warding off predators than the same behavior exhibited by individuals in larger groups.
(C) Vigilant behavior is easier to analyze in species that are preyed upon by many different predators than in species that are preyed upon by relatively few of them.
(D) The term "vigilant," when used in reference to the behavior of animals, does not refer exclusively to behavior aimed at avoiding predators.
(E) The term "vigilant, " when used in reference to the behavior of animals, usually refers to behavior exhibited by large groups of animals.


4. The passage provides information in support of which of the following assertions?

(A) The avoidance of predators is more important to an animal's survival than is the quest for food.
(B) Vigilant behavior aimed at predators is seldom more beneficial to groups of animals than to individual animals.
(C) Different species of animals often develop different strategies for dealing with predators.
(D) The size of a group of animals does not necessarily reflect its success in finding food.
(E) Similar behavior in different species of animals does not necessarily serve the same purpose.



1. It can be inferred from the passage that in species in which vigilant behavior is directed at predators, the tendency of the animals to be more vigilant in smaller groups than in larger ones would most likely be minimized if which of the following were true?
When you die you die. At that time you don't search for ways to die. Here, we have to find a case where vigilant behaviour of animals does not provide any advantage to them.
when animals in small groups are aware that the risk of getting preyed is equal whether you show vigil behaviour.
So better do not act smart:)
B:)
2. First para-"One explanation.......assumes that the vigilant behavior— is aimed at predators.
Second para-"However, a different explanation is necessary in cases where the vigilant behavior is not directed at predators.- Followed by example"
D:)
3.
A-passage does not talk about the individuals in the interior of the group.
B-Effectiveness- No way.
C-Here, in the passage there is no mention of different predators. Also No mention of the comparison of the analysis.
D-assumption is that the vigilant behavior— is aimed at predators.( Not aimed at avoiding predators)-Perfect
E- Opposite(Large group)
D:)
4.
A- passage does not talk what is more important and what is not.
B- Benefit-no mention
C-different strategies for dealing with predators- No mention
D-para second does talk about size-great blue herons look up more often when in smaller flocks than when in larger ones, solely as a consequence of poor feeding conditions(opposite)
E- Yes PERFECT- 1.Vigilant behaviour is aimed at predators. 2. Vigilant behaviour is not directed at predators.(smaller flocks are watching for herons that they might follow to better feeding pools)
E:)
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Re: One explanation for the tendency of animals to be more vigilant in  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2019, 21:19
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Re: One explanation for the tendency of animals to be more vigilant in   [#permalink] 29 Oct 2019, 21:19

One explanation for the tendency of animals to be more vigilant in

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