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Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such

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Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such  [#permalink]

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Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it.



A. Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it

B. Over a long period of time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it

C. Over time, weightlessness cause medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration

D. Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronaut are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration

E. Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, but astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration

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Re: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2015, 07:26
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The point to note here is that deterioration of back bone is only one of the problems and not the only problem. What the passage seeks to mean is that the astronauts should train for avoiding weightlessness, the chief cause of the problems. Therefore C, D, and E can be dumped forthwith. Between A and B, now meaning takes over. Over time means, over a considerable period of time. It means neither a short period of time nor a long period of time. In order to maintain the original intent, we have to fall for A over B
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Re: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2015, 12:36
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Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it.


Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it->"it" may refer to astronauts/spinal cord

Over a long period of time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it->wordy; "it" does has a clear reference to spinal cord

Over time, weightlessness cause medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration-> should have been "causes"

Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronaut are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration-> best possible option, though wordy

Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, but astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration->nothing is being contradicted; use of "but" is un-warranted


Please help me understand my mistake!
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Re: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2015, 01:30
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Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it - Correct

Over a long period of time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it - I think Over a long period of time is correct but this option is not concise than A

Over time, weightlessness cause medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration - Doesn't address the main clause but address an example

Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronaut are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration- Doesn't address the main clause but address an example

Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, but astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration- Doesn't address the main clause but address an example
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Re: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2015, 11:32
daagh wrote:
The point to note here is that deterioration of back bone is only one of the problems and not the only problem. What the passage seeks to mean is that the astronauts should train for avoiding weightlessness, the chief cause of the problems. Therefore C, D, and E can be dumped forthwith. Between A and B, now meaning takes over. Over time means, over a considerable period of time. It means neither a short period of time nor a long period of time. In order to maintain the original intent, we have to fall for A over B


Hello daagh

Doesn't it strange that astronauts train to avoid weightlessness? They can train to avoid medical problems but how they can avoid weightlessness in space?
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Re: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2015, 11:33
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narmadadhruv wrote:
Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it.


Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it->"it" may refer to astronauts/spinal cord

Over a long period of time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it->wordy; "it" does has a clear reference to spinal cord

Over time, weightlessness cause medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration-> should have been "causes"

Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronaut are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration-> best possible option, though wordy

Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, but astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration->nothing is being contradicted; use of "but" is un-warranted


Please help me understand my mistake!



Hello narmadadhruv

Variant D is incorrect becuase of this: "Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronaut are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration" --> 'astonaut' singular, 'are' plural
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Re: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2015, 19:39
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Harley
Hi,

Weightlessness is more a bane than a boon in astronauts due to their remaining for a long time in the space, where gravity is said to be zero or near zero. So they tend to lose the sense of normal perceptions in which gravity has a role to play. . For instance calcium depletion is one of effect of weightlessness, wherein calcium is extracted in the daily production of urine, leaving the bones brittle. Especially when these astronauts descend to earth after their haul in the space, they tend to have a free fall, with the normal sense of distance between feet and the floor and between head and the ceiling being unable to recover instantly to match earth conditions. Hence they are given rigorous training of physiotherapy to avoid these occupational hazards.

In effect, training against weightlessness means training against the effects of weightlessness. This is just as far as I can elaborate.
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Re: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2015, 06:28
A is the correct answer-

OE -

Although this answer choice is stylistically flawed as the pronoun it is ambiguous, it is the best of the five answer choices.

The three answer choices that correct the stylistic mistake, namely, the ambiguity, are grammatically incorrect or illogical.

Remember that unlike grammatical mistakes, which must always be corrected, stylistic mistakes, namely, redundancy and ambiguity, are not always corrected.

Therefore, If you don't find a perfect answer choice and have to choose between a grammatically incorrect answer and a stylistically flawed one, choose the latter.
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Re: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Dec 2015, 06:31
Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it.

A. Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it

B. Over a long period of time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it

C. Over time, weightlessness cause medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration

D. Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronaut are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration

E. Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, but astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration
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Re: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Dec 2015, 08:00
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A. Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it

B. Over a long period of time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it

C. Over time, weightlessness cause medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration

D. Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronaut are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration

E. Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, but astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration

C, D and E can be dumped for silly errors. In C, ‘weightlessness … cause’ is an SV error. In D, ‘astronaut … are’ is yet another SV error. The ‘but’ in E is an intrusion of unwanted contrast.

Now between A and B: In both the cases, ‘it’ refers to weightlessness rather than deterioration. Deterioration is only an example of the medical problems the astronauts face and not the only problem. Therefore, by avoiding the deterioration alone, one cannot dodge other medical problems. The only difference is ‘over time’ in A and over a long time’ in B; ‘over time’ itself means over considerable time. Hence, that conveys the intended meaning more succinctly than the comparatively longer ‘a long period of time.”
Although somewhat by a wafer-thin margin, ‘A’ can be voted in.

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Re: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Dec 2015, 00:36
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daagh You nailed it almost completely.

daagh wrote:
C, D and E can be dumped for silly errors.
In C, ‘weightlessness … cause’ is an SV error.
In D, ‘astronaut … are’ is yet another SV error.
The ‘but’ in E is an intrusion of unwanted contrast.

Now between A and B:
The only difference is ‘over time’ in A and over a long time’ in B; ‘over time’ itself means over considerable time. Hence, that conveys the intended meaning more succinctly than the comparatively longer ‘a long period of time.”
Although somewhat by a wafer-thin margin, ‘A’ can be voted in.


However

In both the cases, ‘it’ refers to weightlessness rather than medical problems.

As Deterioration is only an example of the medical problems the astronauts face and not the only problem.
Therefore, by avoiding the deterioration alone, one cannot dodge other medical problems.

So I believe the intended meaning is to train in order to avoid medical problems in astronauts.
Thus the sentence can be much better if you replace "it" with "them" thereby conveying the intended meaning as below.

here "them" refer to medical problems correctly.

Quote:
Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid them.
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Re: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2016, 22:53
Hello Daagh,

I am still not clear how in option A the pronoun 'it' refers to weightlessness. How can one deduce that the argument is about training against the effects of weightlessness?

Please explain.

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Re: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2016, 01:13
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AkashKashyap wrote:
Hello Daagh,

I am still not clear how in option A the pronoun 'it' refers to weightlessness. How can one deduce that the argument is about training against the effects of weightlessness?

Please explain.

Thanks
Akash



Hello AkashKashyap

"Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it."

"such as the deterioration of the spinal cord," - this is example and we can remove it for analysis

after this we have:

"Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts ... so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it."

It can't refer to medical problems because they are plural so it refers on weightlessness
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Re: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such  [#permalink]

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