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# Preliminary tests show that the drug known as Mephaline

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Senior Manager
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Preliminary tests show that the drug known as Mephaline  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 07 Nov 2013, 19:15
4
23
00:00

Difficulty:

55% (hard)

Question Stats:

62% (01:47) correct 38% (02:00) wrong based on 718 sessions

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Preliminary tests show that the drug known as Mephaline is useful in treating people experiencing memory loss due to Alzheimer’s disease. These same tests showed that Mephaline did not appear to slow or reverse memory loss in people who experienced memory loss due to a brain injury. There must be something qualitatively different about these two types of memory loss.

Which of the following most strengthens the conclusion in the argument above?

A. Mephaline works by acting on the medial temporal lobes of the brain.

B. The patients who took part in the tests had similar amounts of memory loss prior to the tests.

C. People with Alzheimer’s disease usually have impaired powers of speech.

D. Some of the people being tested were unaware that they were given a drug that was intended to reduce memory loss.

E. The average age of the people tested who had lost memory due to a brain injury was less than the average age of the people with Alzheimer’s disease.

oe to follow

Originally posted by avohden on 04 Nov 2013, 21:48.
Last edited by avohden on 07 Nov 2013, 19:15, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Preliminary tests show that the drug known as Mephaline  [#permalink]

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05 Nov 2013, 01:07
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3
This question follows a classical comparison form in CR. Very good question to practice.

The form is:
Before: .........(hidden statement)........
After event X: A better/worse than B

Conclusion 1: A and B must be different.
Conclusion 2: X did make A better/worse than B.

Assumption: Before: A and B were the SAME --OR-- had same starting points.
Confirm: Because: if A = B, after event X, A and B must increase/decrease the same level.

ANALYZE THE STIMULUS:
Fact: Mephaline is useful in treating people experiencing memory loss due to Alzheimer’s disease.
Fact: Mephaline did not appear to slow or reverse memory loss in people who experienced memory loss due to a brain injury.
Conclusion: There must be something qualitatively different about these two types of memory loss.

Which of the following most strengthens the conclusion in the argument above?

A. Mephaline works by acting on the medial temporal lobes of the brain.
Wrong. Out of scope.

B. The patients who took part in the tests had similar amounts of memory loss prior to the tests.
Correct. B confirms that the comparison is VALID. See theories above.

C. People with Alzheimer’s disease usually have impaired powers of speech.
Wrong. Out of scope.

D. Some of the people being tested were unaware that they were given a drug that was intended to reduce memory loss.
Wrong. Does not help. The fact that people know or not know they were given that drug does NOT affect those people's memory loss.

E. The average age of the people tested who had lost memory due to a brain injury was less than the average age of the people with Alzheimer’s disease.
Wrong. Weaken the argument. If those people are in different categories --> the comparison is INVALID.

Hope it helps.
##### General Discussion
Senior Manager
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Preliminary tests show that the drug known as Mephaline  [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2013, 10:35
1
1

Official Explanation

Answer: B - The conclusion is that there must be something qualitatively different about memory loss due to Alzheimer’s and memory loss due to a brain injury. The evidence is that a drug, Mephaline, worked on only one of these groups. If the people with brain injuries had much greater memory loss prior to the tests, then this quantitative difference could explain why the injured people did not appear to be helped, thus weakening the argument. Choice B, by eliminating this possibility, strengthens the conclusion.

(A) This is irrelevant background information.

(C) This does not provide relevant information. There is no reason to think that the test did not take this fact into account.

(D) This gives us some information about how the tests were conducted, but does not specify whether the people who were unaware of the test were in only one group (which would weaken the argument somewhat, since the test wasn’t “fair”) or in both groups, thus strengthening the legitimacy of the experiment, and to some extent, the argument).

(E) If anything, this weakens the argument, since the memory loss difference between the two groups might have been because of their ages, not because of an intrinsic difference between the types of memory loss.
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Re: Preliminary tests show that the drug known as Mephaline  [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2013, 03:53
1
Ron said that we should not alway prethink an assumption and then find strengthener/weakener because this make the question harder because naturally we can find out strengtherner/weakener more easy than an assumption.

if we categorize the arguments into many pattern and find out assumptions for each pattern, we may fall into a trap of memorizing the rules. gmat dose not award the memorising of rules.

I can go to B without prethinking an assumption . if I prethink an assumption, I feel harder and spend more times. and , honestly, in the test room ,we hardly remember "comparision" argument to do some thing.

in short, the approach by learning and memorizing the "comparison" argument dose not work.

that is my idea. pls, comment.
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Re: Preliminary tests show that the drug known as Mephaline  [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2013, 08:14
B.

Question type: strengthen conclusion
Conclusion: Brain damage and alzheimers affect memory differently.

working from wrong to right (eliminate answer choices and see what's left over):

A) not relevant. not an assumption or fact that further supports the conclusion.
B) this fact establishes that both sets of patients were "equal" at the start of the experiment. drugs effects can be measured accurately since you can now compare both groups of patients (validity). don't cross this one out, but maybe there's a better answer in here...
C) speech has nothing to do with the conclusion (out of scope).
D) this one is a stretch/trick. shows that the experiment followed good scientific practices...however, it doesn't really have anything to do with the conclusion.
E) age has nothing to do with the conclusion.

B is left over. And it is the answer. Yay.
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Re: Preliminary tests show that the drug known as Mephaline  [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2013, 08:21
vietmoi999-
I haven't watched that video, but I guess what you're saying makes sense. With the strengthen/weaken conclusion questions I deconstruct the argument first to find the conclusion. Then I compare the answer choices to see which fact would support the conclusion. Brainstorming ("prethinking") assumptions could be a waste of time because you're trying to find NEW evidence to support/weaken the conclusion, not identify what is already given in the argument. Also, I don't memorize argument formulas - haven't really found that to be necessary. Knowing the question types and what to look for in each type seems to be a better way to spend your time. Just my 2 cents.
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Re: Preliminary tests show that the drug known as Mephaline  [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2015, 04:42
avohden wrote:
Official Explanation

- The conclusion is that there must be something qualitatively different about memory loss due to Alzheimer’s and memory loss due to a brain injury. The evidence is that a drug, Mephaline, worked on only one of these groups. If the people with brain injuries had much greater memory loss prior to the tests, then this quantitative difference could explain why the injured people did not appear to be helped, thus weakening the argument. Choice B, by eliminating this possibility, strengthens the conclusion.

(A) This is irrelevant background information.

(C) This does not provide relevant information. There is no reason to think that the test did not take this fact into account.

(D) This gives us some information about how the tests were conducted, but does not specify whether the people who were unaware of the test were in only one group (which would weaken the argument somewhat, since the test wasn’t “fair”) or in both groups, thus strengthening the legitimacy of the experiment, and to some extent, the argument).

(E) If anything, this weakens the argument, since the memory loss difference between the two groups might have been because of their ages, not because of an intrinsic difference between the types of memory loss.

IMO, B does not look good. Just coz A and B are not quantitatively different does not mean that they are qualitatively different. Could you please explain this point?
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Re: Preliminary tests show that the drug known as Mephaline  [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2015, 06:07
B as we are talking how to it does Not help the person with brain damage bu5 with alzheimer. B helps to emphasize that both patients did not differ signifivcantly: which could ecplsin the differ3nt results
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Re: Preliminary tests show that the drug known as Mephaline  [#permalink]

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07 Mar 2016, 13:07
I don't understand how b is the answer.

Argument concludes that there must be something qualitatively different about these two types of memory loss. the author arrives at this conclusion because of difference in applicability of drug in both kind of memory loss. Author stated in the premise that Mephaline did not appear to slow or reverse memory loss in people who experienced memory loss due to a brain injury.

SO, argument basically assumes that difference in cause/origin of both kind of memory losses leads to unsuitability of common drug in both the cases.

So, what information confirm this.

E can't be a weakener. Argument clearly states that There must be something qualitatively different about these two types of memory loss.
Can any one explain?
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Re: Preliminary tests show that the drug known as Mephaline  [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2017, 05:27
sun01 wrote:
I don't understand how b is the answer.

Argument concludes that there must be something qualitatively different about these two types of memory loss. the author arrives at this conclusion because of difference in applicability of drug in both kind of memory loss. Author stated in the premise that Mephaline did not appear to slow or reverse memory loss in people who experienced memory loss due to a brain injury.

SO, argument basically assumes that difference in cause/origin of both kind of memory losses leads to unsuitability of common drug in both the cases.

So, what information confirm this.

E can't be a weakener. Argument clearly states that There must be something qualitatively different about these two types of memory loss.
Can any one explain?

Yes What is Qualitative Difference and how is it not related to the Ages beng Different??
I was thinking between B and E but marked E as it seemed to hit the Conclusion..

Any directions experts?
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Re: Preliminary tests show that the drug known as Mephaline  [#permalink]

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04 Nov 2019, 17:20
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Re: Preliminary tests show that the drug known as Mephaline   [#permalink] 04 Nov 2019, 17:20