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# Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions

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Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions  [#permalink]

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06 Nov 2013, 12:28
3
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17
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Difficulty:

65% (hard)

Question Stats:

58% (01:52) correct 42% (02:02) wrong based on 810 sessions

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Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions of the hormone estrogen. These artificial estrogens are commonly added to cosmetic products used on hair and skin. Some cosmetics manufacturers refrain from using parabens in their products. Consequently, consumers who have adverse reactions to externally-applied hormones can safely use these paraben-free products without risking their health.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. These cosmetics manufacturers have been able to duplicate the preservative effect produced by parabens by means that do not involve adding artificial substances to their products.

B. Not all forms of artifical estrogens are equally likely to produce adverse reactions.

C. Cosmetics are the only products to which parabens are commonly added.

D. Estrogens are not naturally present in the cosmetics produced by these manufacturers in amounts large enough to produce an adverse reaction in someone who uses these cosmetics.

E. Apart from parabens, there are no substances commonly present in cosmetics that give rise to adverse reactions.

oe to follow
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Re: Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions  [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2013, 08:06
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Hi Ronr,

Yes you are correct, that D is contained within E.

The issue is that it does not logically follow that E is correct...

This is because E is too broad. It says that there are 'no substances' that could cause a bad reaction. That is beyond the remit of the question, we are only talking about 'hormones' - so it is possible that people who are alergic to hormones, but not alergic to other substances could use this product even though there are substances that could cause a bad reaction in it.

When looking at these questions, always check the answer is right in all solutions. Here E is not, so pick D
##### General Discussion
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Re: Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions  [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2013, 08:18
good one...took 2.20 min to get it right..

D> I used negating technique in this. if estrogen is naturally present in the cosmetic, then even if manufacturers don't use it, it can still put consumers health on risk.
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Re: Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions  [#permalink]

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09 Nov 2013, 10:46
1
Official Explanation

- The key to this problem is the recognition that in the conclusion (the final sentence of the stimulus), the author extends the argument from the synthetic estrogens known as parabens to all externally-applied hormones. If a consumer responds poorly to both natural and artificial hormones in skin and hair-care products, then these products may not be safe to use, even if they do not contain parabens.

Choice A is out of scope. The shelf-life of these cosmetics is not at issue.

Choice B is irrelevant because the premises of the argument deal only with parabens, not with other forms of artificial estrogens.

Choice C is similarly irrelevant because the argument has nothing to do with non-cosmetics products.

Choice D is correct. The conclusion that paraben-free cosmetics can safely be used by hormone-sensitive customers depends on the assumption that there are not significant quantities of natural hormones in the cosmetics that might also produce an adverse reaction.

Choice E is out of scope, because the premises concern only reactions caused by parabens.
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Re: Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions  [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2013, 05:02
avohden wrote:
Official Explanation

- The key to this problem is the recognition that in the conclusion (the final sentence of the stimulus), the author extends the argument from the synthetic estrogens known as parabens to all externally-applied hormones. If a consumer responds poorly to both natural and artificial hormones in skin and hair-care products, then these products may not be safe to use, even if they do not contain parabens.

Choice A is out of scope. The shelf-life of these cosmetics is not at issue.

Choice B is irrelevant because the premises of the argument deal only with parabens, not with other forms of artificial estrogens.

Choice C is similarly irrelevant because the argument has nothing to do with non-cosmetics products.

Choice D is correct. The conclusion that paraben-free cosmetics can safely be used by hormone-sensitive customers depends on the assumption that there are not significant quantities of natural hormones in the cosmetics that might also produce an adverse reaction.

Choice E is out of scope, because the premises concern only reactions caused by parabens.

In my opinion, E includes D, therefore E is the right answer.
E states that apart from parabens, there are no other chemicals that cause the effect.
This includes Astrogen, which is what option D is all about.
Therefore, if D is correct -> E must be correct.
Maybe there is another chemical, lets call it X, that has the same effect as Astrogen.
Option D does not address this issue, while option E does.
Thoughts?
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Re: Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions  [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2013, 10:25
plumber250 wrote:
Hi Ronr,

Yes you are correct, that D is contained within E.

The issue is that it does not logically follow that E is correct...

This is because E is too broad. It says that there are 'no substances' that could cause a bad reaction. That is beyond the remit of the question, we are only talking about 'hormones' - so it is possible that people who are allergic to hormones, but not allergic to other substances could use this product even though there are substances that could cause a bad reaction in it.

When looking at these questions, always check the answer is right in all solutions. Here E is not, so pick D

I don't mean to be too picky, but following your logic, if we are talking about all hormones and not
estrogen alone, then again, D is too narrow, and E is too wide.
D specifically states that there is not enough estrogen. But what about other hormones that can cause this reaction?
The conclusion we are trying to strengthen states that anyone who is allergic to any externally-applied hormone can use the product.
It does not limit the users to those who are allergic to estrogen alone....
I am still stumped on this one
Any other explanation?
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Re: Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions  [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2013, 19:32
Quote:
I don't mean to be too picky, but following your logic, if we are talking about all hormones and not
estrogen alone, then again, D is too narrow, and E is too wide.
D specifically states that there is not enough estrogen. But what about other hormones that can cause this reaction?
The conclusion we are trying to strengthen states that anyone who is allergic to any externally-applied hormone can use the product.
It does not limit the users to those who are allergic to estrogen alone....
I am still stumped on this one
Any other explanation?

Hi Ronr34 -

I'll try to explain the answer in the way i see it, although I'm not sure I can do any better than the official explanation and plumber250 explanations but here it goes.

In general, when you are looking for the "best" answer to an assumption question you really have to parse the words due to the tricky and clever nature that questions are worded. For example, the conclusion states that "... consumers who have adverse reactions to externally-applied hormones can safely use these paraben-free products without risking their health."

These "keywords" are important because the author of the passage is defining a very narrow conclusion. This conclusion is based on the premises in the earlier sentences that entirely have to do with parabens, which are like hormone estrogens which "some" manufactures "refrain" from using. So the conclusion is entirely based upon the use or lack thereof of parabens.

When you are trying to find the "best" assumption, you have to go off what's in the passage. Sometimes the passages are going to be very narrow in scope and sometimes they will be broad. I think most times, they are going to be on the narrower side because they only way a test writer can illicit an incorrect response from such a short passage is to play with the words and the scope of the passage.

I agree that D is more narrower and kind of falls within E but that doesn't make it the best answer because of how narrow the scope of the passage is. Look at answer D again. The language is a lot closer in terms of scope than E is. D says"Estrogens (the premise and conclusion all reference estrogen or the artificial form -paraben) are not naturally present in the cosmetics produced by these manufacturers in amounts large enough to produce an adverse reaction in someone who uses these cosmetics."

All these underlined keywords highlight how this assumption is linked to both the premises and conclusion. Nowhere in the passage is the author or manufactures concerned with other substances that may cause an adverse reaction.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions  [#permalink]

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10 Apr 2014, 08:43
avohden wrote:

Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions of the hormone estrogen. These artificial estrogens are commonly added to cosmetic products used on hair and skin. Some cosmetics manufacturers refrain from using parabens in their products. Consequently, consumers who have adverse reactions to externally-applied hormones can safely use these paraben-free products without risking their health.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. These cosmetics manufacturers have been able to duplicate the preservative effect produced by parabens by means that do not involve adding artificial substances to their products.

B. Not all forms of artifical estrogens are equally likely to produce adverse reactions.

C. Cosmetics are the only products to which parabens are commonly added.

D. Estrogens are not naturally present in the cosmetics produced by these manufacturers in amounts large enough to produce an adverse reaction in someone who uses these cosmetics.

E. Apart from parabens, there are no substances commonly present in cosmetics that give rise to adverse reactions.

oe to follow

Straight D,Similar to OG question of sulphites added to the wine.
many-people-suffer-an-allergic-reaction-to-certain-og13-25973.html
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Re: Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions  [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2015, 08:13
Giod question. I got it wrong but the explanations are really good
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Re: Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions of the hor  [#permalink]

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23 Jun 2017, 07:32
arvind910619 wrote:
Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions of the hormone estrogen. These artificial estrogens are commonly added to cosmetic products used on hair and skin. Some cosmetics manufacturers refrain from using parabens in their products. Consequently, consumers who have adverse reactions to externally-applied hormones can safely use these paraben-free products without risking their health.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A These cosmetics manufacturers have been able to duplicate the preservative effect produced by parabens by means that do not involve adding artificial substances to their products.
B Not all forms of artificial estrogens are equally likely to produce adverse reactions.
C Cosmetics are the only products to which parabens are commonly added.
D Estrogens are not naturally present in the cosmetics produced by these manufacturers in amounts large enough to produce an adverse reaction in someone who uses these cosmetics.
E Apart from parabens, there are no substances commonly present in cosmetics that give rise to adverse reactions.

Its Between D and E..
First, Argument is specifically talking about parabeans.so E here is not so impressive ..
In D::: we need to assume that Estrogen is not naturally present in Cosmetic , other wise there is no point to refrain using parabens in products.
So D is better than E ...
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Re: Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions of the hor  [#permalink]

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23 Jun 2017, 07:35
arvind910619 wrote:
Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions of the hormone estrogen. These artificial estrogens are commonly added to cosmetic products used on hair and skin. Some cosmetics manufacturers refrain from using parabens in their products. Consequently, consumers who have adverse reactions to externally-applied hormones can safely use these paraben-free products without risking their health.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

These cosmetics manufacturers have been able to duplicate the preservative effect produced by parabens by means that do not involve adding artificial substances to their products.
Not all forms of artifical estrogens are equally likely to produce adverse reactions.
Cosmetics are the only products to which parabens are commonly added.
Estrogens are not naturally present in the cosmetics produced by these manufacturers in amounts large enough to produce an adverse reaction in someone who uses these cosmetics.
Apart from parabens, there are no substances commonly present in cosmetics that give rise to adverse reactions.

Conlcusion : Consequently, consumers who have adverse reactions to externally-applied hormones can safely use these paraben-free products without risking their health.

Agrument : Hormones are added to preserve the cosmetics.

The assumption must be These hormones aren't present naturally which in turn would cause any reaction . Because negating this would cause the allergic reaction and the product wouldn't be safe anymore to consume!
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Re: Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions  [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2017, 06:46
Imo D
If the substance already contains naturally occurring estrogen then if the manufacturer do not add any artificial estrogen it would still cause reaction and health problems thus option D is our assumption for the argument to hold.
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Re: Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions  [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2019, 16:20
Such poor copy of the OG question.

People who are allergic to externally applied hormones can use these products safely is the argument. D would have been perfect without "externally" but by specifying 'externally', the argument becomes qualified and that is what makes D wrong.
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Re: Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions  [#permalink]

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17 Jun 2019, 07:13
[quote="avohden"]

Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions of the hormone estrogen. These artificial estrogens are commonly added to cosmetic products used on hair and skin. Some cosmetics manufacturers refrain from using parabens in their products. Consequently, consumers who have adverse reactions to externally-applied hormones can safely use these paraben-free products without risking their health.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. These cosmetics manufacturers have been able to duplicate the preservative effect produced by parabens by means that do not involve adding artificial substances to their products.

B. Not all forms of artifical estrogens are equally likely to produce adverse reactions.

C. Cosmetics are the only products to which parabens are commonly added.

D. Estrogens are not naturally present in the cosmetics produced by these manufacturers in amounts large enough to produce an adverse reaction in someone who uses these cosmetics.

E. Apart from parabens, there are no substances commonly present in cosmetics that give rise to adverse reactions.

Correct OA:D
Tough choice between D and E

A. These cosmetics manufacturers have been able to duplicate the preservative effect produced by parabens by means that do not involve adding artificial substances to their products. - out of scope

B. Not all forms of artifical estrogens are equally likely to produce adverse reactions. -do not break conclusion on applying negation technique

C. Cosmetics are the only products to which parabens are commonly added. -irrelevant

D. Estrogens are not naturally present in the cosmetics produced by these manufacturers in amounts large enough to produce an adverse reaction in someone who uses these cosmetics. - Negating the statement will break the conclusion

E. Apart from parabens, there are no substances commonly present in cosmetics that give rise to adverse reactions.- little close, we are talking about hormones and not substances
Re: Preservatives known as parabens function like weak versions   [#permalink] 17 Jun 2019, 07:13