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Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at

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Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 04 Mar 2019, 01:23
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Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at persuading industrial corporations to change. For example, as a result of the efforts of animal groups, many pharmaceutical and cosmetics companies have reduced their use of laboratory animals, substituting in their place alternative methods of product testing.

Which of the following, if true, casts the most serious doubt on the connection between pressure group activity and corporate change claimed above?


(A) Many companies in the pharmaceutical industry have increased their public relations spending in order to counter the activity of animal rights groups.

(B) Before the new methods of testing products are used, they have to be calibrated by comparison tests involving experiments on laboratory animals.

(C) When companies stop using laboratory animals, they generally go to some expense to publicize this change of policy.

(D) The pharmaceutical manufacturers who still use laboratory animals are mostly the smaller firms that have been less subject to pressure group activity.

(E) The methods of product testing that do not involve laboratory animals are faster and cheaper that the methods that do.

Originally posted by vermatanya on 23 Jan 2008, 22:36.
Last edited by GMATNinja on 04 Mar 2019, 01:23, edited 5 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jan 2008, 22:44
(E)The methods of product testing that do not involve laboratory animals are faster and cheaper that the methods that do.


Should be "E"
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Re: Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jan 2008, 07:38
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E

Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at persuading industrial corporations to change.For example, as a result of the efforts of animal groups, many pharmaceutical and cosmetics companies have reduced their use of laboratory animanls, substituting in their place alternative methods of product testing.

the first assumption: there was no other reason to reduce use of laboratory animanls by pharmaceutical and cosmetics companies

Which of the following, if true, casts the most serious doubt on the connection between pressure group activity and corporate chage claimed above?

(A)Many comp in the pharmaceutical industry have increased their public relations spending in order to counter the activity of animal rights groups. - irrelevant.
(B)Bfore the new methods of testing products are used, they have to be caliberated by comparison tests involving experiments on laboratory animals. - irrelevant.
(C)wHEN COMP STOP USING LABORATORY ANIMALS, THEY GENERALLY GO TO SOME EXPENSE TO PUBLICIZE THIS CHANGE of policy. irrelevant. strengthen. Despite of expenses companies have reduced their use of laboratory animals.
(D)The pharmaceutical manufacturrers who still use laboratory animals are mostly the smaller firms that have been less subject to pressure group activity. - irrelevant. slightly strengthen
(E)The methods of product testing that do not involve laboratory animals are faster and cheaper that the methods that do. - ok. it is the first assumption.
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Re: Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2012, 13:31
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I'm going with (B) here. First, the breakdown:

PREMISE: Pol groups caused some corps to switch from animal test to new test
CONCLUSION: Pol groups are more effective in making corps change (care about animals)
ASSUMPTION: Switching tests demonstrates that the corporations actually care.

(B) weakens the assumption by showing conclusively that the corporations don't care about animals, and therefore haven't changed at all.

(E), on the other hand, does not destroy the assumption - it's possible that corporations can care about both animals AND money (let's not be too cynical here). Furthermore, if the new tests are cheaper, why didn't the corporations switch earlier? Probably because the political pressure was the catalyst, which would actually strengthen our conclusion!
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Re: Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jan 2019, 02:58
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I feel C is a strong contender here....They stopped testing not because of the pressure but because they wanted publicity....

Experts please help...
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Re: Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2019, 21:56
The answer here should be option B.

Can you anyone what rationale was used to select answer as option E.
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New post 08 Jan 2019, 22:15
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Answer is E

The question makes an assumption that the only reason pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries are using other alternative instead of laboratory animal is due to pressure.

E. This mentions that there are other reasons as well for a company to use other methods other than laboratory animals. Hence it defeats the assumption made.



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Re: Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2019, 22:27
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Option E mentions the alternative cause, and thus weakens the conclusion.
But even answer choice B is weakening the conclusion. Please explain why option B is wrong?
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Re: Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2019, 01:25
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mallya12 wrote:
GMATNinja
Option E mentions the alternative cause, and thus weakens the conclusion.
But even answer choice B is weakening the conclusion. Please explain why option B is wrong?

To see the issue with answer choice (B), first look back at the exact wording of the question (the question as written in the original post left out a word; it has since been fixed, so this is the correct version):
Quote:
Which of the following, if true, casts the most serious doubt on the connection between pressure group activity and corporate change claimed above?

So, we are looking for a weakness in the connection between pressure group activity and corporate change. The author claims that "many pharmaceutical and cosmetics companies have reduced their use of laboratory animals" as a result of "the efforts of animal groups." As we go through the answer choices, we need to cast doubt on the claim that this corporate change was a result of political pressure group activity.

Let's take a look at answer choice (B):
Quote:
(B) Before the new methods of testing products are used, they have to be calibrated by comparison tests involving experiments on laboratory animals.

Answer choice (B) tells us that the shift away from using laboratory animals is not immediate, because new methods "have to be calibrated by comparison tests involving experiments on laboratory animals." However, this answer choice gives us no information on whether the corporate change is due to the activity of political pressure groups or some other factor. Because of this, answer choice (B) does not cast doubt on the claim that corporate change was a result of political pressure groups. (B) is out.

Now look again at (E):
Quote:
(E) The methods of product testing that do not involve laboratory animals are faster and cheaper that the methods that do.

This answer choice gives an alternate explanation for the corporate change away from using laboratory animals-- instead of being influenced by political pressure groups, maybe corporations changed because other methods were "faster and cheaper" than using animals. This casts doubt on the connection between political pressure group activity and corporate change. (E) is the correct answer.

I hope that helps!
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Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2019, 02:32
Hi GMATNinja,

as a result of the efforts of animal groups, many pharmaceutical and cosmetics companies have reduced their use of laboratory animals, substituting in their place alternative methods of product testing.

Why are we attacking the highlighted sentence? I assumed that since this is a premise, I cannot attack this statement. I took it as a fact that efforts of animal groups indeed forced pharmaceutical and cosmetics companies to reduce their use of laboratory animals. Also, to me it doesn't look like an intermediate conclusion (there is no premise).
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Re: Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Mar 2019, 00:26
Please advise how E is concluded here , even I have concluded E
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Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Mar 2019, 02:28
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madhurajmishra wrote:
Please advise how E is concluded here , even I have concluded E


E is the only choice that makes sense with the premise.

Choice E is simply saying that "It is not political pressure because of which the companies have shifted from animals to other products for experimenting, but it is the low cost of using products in place of animals.

"Alternate reasoning" is one of the ways that helps in weakening the conclusion.

Likewise , "No other alternate" makes a conclusion stronger.
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Re: Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Apr 2019, 01:52
manishcmu wrote:
Hi GMATNinja,

as a result of the efforts of animal groups, many pharmaceutical and cosmetics companies have reduced their use of laboratory animals, substituting in their place alternative methods of product testing.

Why are we attacking the highlighted sentence? I assumed that since this is a premise, I cannot attack this statement. I took it as a fact that efforts of animal groups indeed forced pharmaceutical and cosmetics companies to reduce their use of laboratory animals. Also, to me it doesn't look like an intermediate conclusion (there is no premise).

The question specifically instructs us to find an answer choice that "casts the most serious doubt on the connection between pressure group activity and corporate change claimed [in the passage]." This "claim" is found in the sentence you have highlighted, so we have no choice but to cast doubt on the information in that sentence.

I hope that answers your question!
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Re: Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2019, 23:39
redskull1 wrote:
I feel C is a strong contender here....They stopped testing not because of the pressure but because they wanted publicity....

Experts please help...


Option C is a general statement. There is no mention of 'product testing'.
That's why C is incorrect.

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Re: Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Apr 2019, 00:25
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vermatanya wrote:
Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at persuading industrial corporations to change. For example, as a result of the efforts of animal groups, many pharmaceutical and cosmetics companies have reduced their use of laboratory animals, substituting in their place alternative methods of product testing.

Which of the following, if true, casts the most serious doubt on the connection between pressure group activity and corporate change claimed above?


(A) Many companies in the pharmaceutical industry have increased their public relations spending in order to counter the activity of animal rights groups.

(B) Before the new methods of testing products are used, they have to be calibrated by comparison tests involving experiments on laboratory animals.

(C) When companies stop using laboratory animals, they generally go to some expense to publicize this change of policy.

(D) The pharmaceutical manufacturers who still use laboratory animals are mostly the smaller firms that have been less subject to pressure group activity.

(E) The methods of product testing that do not involve laboratory animals are faster and cheaper that the methods that do.


Argument:

As a result of the efforts of animal groups, many pharmaceutical and cosmetics companies have reduced their use of laboratory animals, substituting in their place alternative methods of product testing.

Conclusion: Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at persuading industrial corporations to change.

We need to weaken this claim. That the change may not have been driven by political pressure groups. That the political pressure groups may not have become more effective at persuading change.

(A) Many companies in the pharmaceutical industry have increased their public relations spending in order to counter the activity of animal rights groups.

PR spending of industry is irrelevant. They reduced their use of lab animals as a result of animal groups. If they are trying to counter the damage done by animal groups by spending more on PR, it doesn't weaken the claim that political pressure groups have become more effective.

(B) Before the new methods of testing products are used, they have to be calibrated by comparison tests involving experiments on laboratory animals.

It doesn't matter that the new tests have to be calibrated by using animals in the beginning. The new methods are being used now instead of animals. The animal groups have been successful in putting pressure on the pharma industry.

(C) When companies stop using laboratory animals, they generally go to some expense to publicize this change of policy.

Again, irrelevant. If the pharma companies stop using lab animals due to pressure from animal rights groups, our conclusion is fine. Even if they publicise later that they are not using lab animals to earn some brownie points in the public, it doesn't matter.

(D) The pharmaceutical manufacturers who still use laboratory animals are mostly the smaller firms that have been less subject to pressure group activity.

This strengthens our argument. The larger manufacturers have seen pressure from animal right groups and have given in to other methods. The smaller ones have not been pressurised so are not using other methods. It does seem to imply that animal right groups have been responsible for the change.

(E) The methods of product testing that do not involve laboratory animals are faster and cheaper that the methods that do.

Now this is a twist. If the other methods are faster and cheaper, it is possible that companies are switching not because animal right groups have become more effective at persuading, but because the companies want to save money. This introduces an alternative reason for the switch and weakens the argument's claim.

Answer (E)
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Re: Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2019, 03:58
This is a Causal argument
Cause: Pressure form environmental groups
Effect: Industrial companies changed.

In order to weaken this, we need to show that the effect has happened from some other reason, and not the cause mentioned in the argument.

Option E, clearly does this.

(E) The methods of product testing that do not involve laboratory animals are faster and cheaper that the methods that do.
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New post 21 Aug 2019, 21:06
The answer is E with a simple explanation: which option casts doubt over the connection between animal rights group and industrial corporations? The claim (premise) states because of the pressue, the corporations backed off. With option E we find out that it wasn't really the pressure from said groups but the fact that it's cheaper to pursue alternative ways of testing!
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Re: Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2019, 21:49
As we need to weaken the argument that the industrial corporations took pressurized by animal rights group.
Option E it is. This option gives alternate explanation: the methods of product testing that do not involve laboratory animals are faster and cheaper that the methods that do.
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Re: Recently political pressure groups have become far more effective at   [#permalink] 21 Aug 2019, 21:49
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