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Researchers bet their bottom dollar on a combination

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Researchers bet their bottom dollar on a combination  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2018, 11:59
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Researchers bet their bottom dollar on a combination of polar ice cores, tree-rings, geochemistry, and a medieval chronicle little-known in the West to solve one of vulcanology’s most enduring mysteries: which peak blew its top in the mid-13th century, causing a catastrophic eruption that ranks as one of the biggest in the recorded history? As with any investigation, the team had to rule out other suspects as it followed a trail of clues - and even read palms, or at least palm leaves, ultimately finding the culprit of the massive 1257 AD eruption, which the researchers say is Samalas volcano on Lombok Island in Indonesia.

For decades, scientists have been searching for the volcano responsible for the largest spike in sulfate deposits in the last 7,000 years, which were revealed in the ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica. The spike indicated a massive eruption around 1257 that may have sent up to eight times more sulfate into the stratosphere than the 1883 eruption of Karaktau, often held up as an archetype of volcanoes behaving badly. Researchers say the 1257 mystery spew is comparable in scope to a second-century AD eruption in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand, known as the most intense historic volcanic event. Multitude of futile attempts for a few decades compelled the researchers to write the project off as “unsolved”. Some thirty years later, one of the researchers’ tips came from Babad Lombok, a 13th century historical record in Old Javanese, written on palm leaves, the chronicle referencing a massive eruption of Samalas that created an enormous caldera.The current research zeroed in on Samalas, part of the Mount Rinjani volcanic complex.

The team was able to accumulate a sizable amount of incriminating evidence, including pyroclastic deposits from the eruption more than 100 feet thick found more than 15 miles from the ruins of the volcano. The range of deposits and the volume suggest that the Samalas eruption exceeded that of the Tambora event in 1815. The team sampled carbonized tree trunks and branches in the Samalas deposit zone and used radiocarbon dating to confirm a mid 13th-century eruption. Reviewing wind patterns, researchers were even able to narrow the timeframe for the eruption. The distribution, to the west, of volcanic ash and other ejecta from Samalas suggest that the dry season’s easterly trade winds were prevalent, putting the eruption window between May and October of 1257.


1. The author is primarily concerned with:
A. enumerating how an unconventional means solved one of the volcanology’s most enduring mysteries.
B. explaining how researchers could finally trace the Samalas event.
C. describing one of the deadliest volcanic eruptions that took place in mid-13th century.
D. presenting the nature of volcanic spew of the 1257 volcano eruption in comparison with that of the other major volcanic event.
E. showing through major volcanic events how deadly the eruption of the 1257 AD was.

enumerating how an unconventional means solved one of the volcanology’s most enduring mysteries.

INCONSISTENT: The focus of the passage is not on the unconventional method.

explaining how researchers could finally trace the Samalas event.

Per our pre-thinking, this indeed is the CORRECT answer.

C
describing one of the deadliest volcanic eruptions that took place in mid-13th century.

OUT OF SCOPE: The author does not describe about the eruption of Samalas but describes how researchers could get to Samalas.

D
presenting the nature of volcanic spew of the 1257 volcano eruption in comparison with that of the other major volcanic event.

PARTIAL SCOPE: This point is covered only in paragraph 2 & 3 just to mention the scope of the 1257 AD eruption.

E
showing through major volcanic events how deadly the eruption of the 1257 AD was.

PARTIAL SCOPE: The comparisons are made only in the second and third paragraphs.




2. The author of the passage alludes to the discovery made in Greenland and Antarctica in order to
A. suggest that the researchers explored these sites to accumulate traces and study effects of the massive 1257 AD eruption.
B. indicate that the sharp increase in the levels of sulfate in stratosphere must have been due to massive volcanic eruption in 1257 AD.
C. point massive eruptions can affect vast areas of land.
D. compare the effects of 1257 AD eruption with that of eruption in these two locations.
E. bring in the importance of these places in the resolution of the mystery of 1257 AD eruption.

A
suggest that the researchers explored these sites to accumulate traces and study effects of the massive 1257 AD eruption.

OPPOSITE: This choice reverses the cause-effect.

indicate that the sharp increase in the levels of sulfate in stratosphere must have been due to massive volcanic eruption in 1257 AD.

Per our pre-thinking, this indeed is the CORRECT answer.

C
point massive eruptions can affect vast areas of land.

OUT OF SCOPE: This is certainly not the reason why the author talks about Greenland and Antarctica.

D
compare the effects of 1257 AD eruption with that of eruption in these two locations.

OUT OF SCOPE: The passage does not mention that these two places witnessed volcanic eruptions.

E
bring in the importance of these places in the resolution of the mystery of 1257 AD eruption.

OUT OF SCOPE: These places certainly did not help in resolving the mystery.



3. Which of the following statements about “the most intense historic volcanic event” is supported by information in the passage?
A. The ejecta from this volcanic eruption led to pyroclastic deposits more than 100 feet thick that were found more than 15 miles away from the site of the volcano.
B. This event took place in 1883 and led to significant increase in sulfate in stratosphere.
C. The event is chronicled in Babad Lombak, a 13th century historical record in Old Javanese.
D. The event refers to Tambora event that took place in 1815 and is included in the history of massive volcanic eruptions.
E. This event took place in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand in 2nd century AD.

The ejecta from this volcanic eruption led to pyroclastic deposits more than 100 feet thick that were found more than 15 miles away from the site of the volcano.

OUT OF SCOPE: This statement is true of Samalas eruption in 1257 AD.

B
This event took place in 1883 and led to significant increase in sulfate in stratosphere.

OUT OF SCOPE: This statement is about the eruption of Karaktau volcano.

C
The event is chronicled in Babad Lombak, a 13th century historical record in Old Javanese.

OUT OF SCOPE: This statement is again true of Samalas eruption in 1257 AD.

D
The event refers to Tambora event that took place in 1815 and is included in the history of massive volcanic eruptions.

OUT OF SCOPE: Tambora is not mentioned as the “most historic volcanic event” in the passage.

This event took place in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand in 2nd century AD.

This indeed is the CORRECT answer. This is what we pre-thought.


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Researchers bet their bottom dollar on a combination  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2018, 22:03
1. The author is primarily concerned with:


A. enumerating how an unconventional means solved one of the volcanology’s most enduring mysteries.

INCORRECT INCONSISTENT: The focus of the passage is not on the unconventional method.

B. explaining how researchers could finally trace the Samalas event.

CORRECT.

C. describing one of the deadliest volcanic eruptions that took place in mid-13th century.

INCORRECT OUT OF SCOPE: The author does not describe about the eruption of Samalas but describes how researchers could get to Samalas.

D. presenting the nature of volcanic spew of the 1257 volcano eruption in comparison with that of the other major volcanic event.

INCORRECT PARTIAL SCOPE: This point is covered only in paragraph 2 & 3 just to mention the scope of the 1257 AD eruption.

E. showing through major volcanic events how deadly the eruption of the 1257 AD was.

INCORRECT PARTIAL SCOPE: The comparisons are made only in the second and third paragraphs.[/spoiler]

2. The author of the passage alludes to the discovery made in Greenland and Antarctica in order to


A. suggest that the researchers explored these sites to accumulate traces and study effects of the massive 1257 AD eruption.

INCORRECT OPPOSITE: This choice reverses the cause-effect.

B. indicate that the sharp increase in the levels of sulfate in stratosphere must have been due to massive volcanic eruption in 1257 AD.

CORRECT

C. point massive eruptions can affect vast areas of land.

INCORRECT OUT OF SCOPE: This is certainly not the reason why the author talks about Greenland and Antarctica.

D. compare the effects of 1257 AD eruption with that of eruption in these two locations.

INCORRECT OUT OF SCOPE: The passage does not mention that these two places witnessed volcanic eruptions.

E. bring in the importance of these places in the resolution of the mystery of 1257 AD eruption.

INCORRECT OUT OF SCOPE: These places certainly did not help in resolving the mystery.[/spoiler]

3. Which of the following statements about “the most intense historic volcanic event” is supported by information in the passage?


A. The ejecta from this volcanic eruption led to pyroclastic deposits more than 100 feet thick that were found more than 15 miles away from the site of the volcano.

INCORRECT OUT OF SCOPE: This statement is true of Samalas eruption in 1257 AD.

B. This event took place in 1883 and led to significant increase in sulfate in stratosphere.

INCORRECT OUT OF SCOPE: This statement is about the eruption of Karaktau volcano.

C. The event is chronicled in Babad Lombak, a 13th century historical record in Old Javanese.

INCORRECT OUT OF SCOPE: This statement is again true of Samalas eruption in 1257 AD.

D. The event refers to Tambora event that took place in 1815 and is included in the history of massive volcanic eruptions.

INCORRECT OUT OF SCOPE: Tambora is not mentioned as the “most historic volcanic event” in the passage.

E. This event took place in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand in 2nd century AD.

CORRECT
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Re: Researchers bet their bottom dollar on a combination  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2018, 00:13
1
para1: a volcano of 13th century and mystery about it among the scientist
para2: various traces and other comparison from volcano to trace its origin
para3 : some info found to corroborate

Q1:B : author is trying to show how scientists were finally able to trace the volcano of mid 13 century ": only B is in line
Q2:B: the author mentions the sulphates work as to show the puzzle faced by scientist to determine what caused the in spike of the levels of sulphate
Q3 : D: just read the line mentioned in passage and all other options are irrelevant.though they are true but the line "the most intense volcanic" in the second para is enough to answer
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Re: Researchers bet their bottom dollar on a combination  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2018, 01:41
can someone please explain the reasoning behind Q2
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Re: Researchers bet their bottom dollar on a combination  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2018, 01:44
2
The passage descibes how the mystery of one of the greatest volcanic erruptions was solved and compares its magnitude with
other such erruptions.

1. The author is primarily concerned with:
A. enumerating how an unconventional means solved one of the volcanology’s most enduring mysteries- The author does mention
the unconventional means like reading the palm leaves etc. but that is not the primary concern.

B. explaining how researchers could finally trace the Samalas event- This is the correct choice, the author describes the
various events which ultimately led to the solution of the mystery.

C. describing one of the deadliest volcanic eruptions that took place in mid-13th century- The author mentions that
the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand in 2nd century AD is considered as the deadliset and Samalas is comparable to that.

D. presenting the nature of volcanic spew of the 1257 volcano eruption in comparison with that of the other major volcanic
event- The compariosn is just to give an idea of the magnitude and is not the primary concern of the passage.

E. showing through major volcanic events how deadly the eruption of the 1257 AD was-This comes close but is again not the
primary concern.

2. The author of the passage alludes to the discovery made in Greenland and Antarctica in order to
A. suggest that the researchers explored these sites to accumulate traces and study effects of the massive
1257 AD eruption- The author does not specifically mention this.

B. indicate that the sharp increase in the levels of sulfate in stratosphere must have been due to massive volcanic
eruption in 1257 AD- The author mentions it to highlight how it was a clue which helped in resolving the mystery and is the correct choice.

C. point massive eruptions can affect vast areas of land.- This is not te reason in the context it is mentioned.

D. compare the effects of 1257 AD eruption with that of eruption in these two locations- There is no comparison made but the
author is just mentioning the things which helped the scientists.

E. bring in the importance of these places in the resolution of the mystery of 1257 AD eruption-This is quiet close to the correct
choice but the context in which the author mentions it to suggest how the clues were used to solve the mystery and not
to stress on its importance.

3. Which of the following statements about “the most intense historic volcanic event” is supported by information in the passage?
A. The ejecta from this volcanic eruption led to pyroclastic deposits more than 100 feet thick that were found more than 15 miles away from the site of the volcano-
This is not mentioned for Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand but for Samalas eruption.
B. This event took place in 1883 and led to significant increase in sulfate in stratosphere- This was not the most intesnse.
C. The event is chronicled in Babad Lombak, a 13th century historical record in Old Javanese- This was not the most intesnse.
D. The event refers to Tambora event that took place in 1815 and is included in the history of massive volcanic eruptions- This was not the most intesnse.
E. This event took place in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand in 2nd century AD - The author specifically mentions this in
2nd paragraph.
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Re: Researchers bet their bottom dollar on a combination  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2018, 21:09
2
1. Paragraph 1 : The author introduces a mystery regarding a volcanic eruption and concludes on one particular eruption ( Samalas volcano on Lombok Island in Indonesia.)
Paragraph 2 : Chronicles how Scientists reached the conclusion in paragraph1
Paragraph 3 : Additional support and inferences from the volcanic event.
Hence primary Purpose : to describe how scientists found the solution to volcanic mysteries. Therefore B
2. Excerpt from the passage : the largest spike in sulfate deposits in the last 7,000 years, which were revealed in the ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica.The spike indicated a massive eruption around 1257
This means the author included the findings in Greenland and Antarctica to substantiate the scientists inference that increased level of sulfate in stratosphere must have been due to massive volcanic eruption in 1257 AD.
Clear B
3. Excerpt from the passage : Researchers say the 1257 mystery spew is comparable in scope to a second-century AD eruption in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand, known as the most intense historic volcanic event
Straight E
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Re: Researchers bet their bottom dollar on a combination &nbs [#permalink] 23 Sep 2018, 21:09
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