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Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfull

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Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfull  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2018, 20:03
3
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A
B
C
D
E

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  85% (hard)

Question Stats:

52% (02:18) correct 48% (02:26) wrong based on 283 sessions

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Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers and finding a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, and thereby possibly inhibit growth of cancer cells.

A) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers and finding a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, and thereby possibly inhibit

B) States, successfully unravelling the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, that join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, and have found a drug that can, by acting on the binding of these proteins, possibly inhibit

C) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other and promote the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, and have found a drug that can, by acting on the binding of these proteins, possibly inhibit

D) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, and have found a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, thereby possibly inhibiting

E) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other and therefore promote the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, have found a drug that can, by acting on the binding of these proteins, thereby possibly inhibit

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Re: Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfull  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2018, 22:07
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workout wrote:
Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers and finding a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, and thereby possibly inhibit growth of cancer cells.

A) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers and finding a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, and thereby possibly inhibit

B) States, successfully unravelling the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, that join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, and have found a drug that can, by acting on the binding of these proteins, possibly inhibit

C) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other and promote the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, and have found a drug that can, by acting on the binding of these proteins, possibly inhibit

D) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, and have found a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, thereby possibly inhibiting

E) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other and therefore promote the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, have found a drug that can, by acting on the binding of these proteins, thereby possibly inhibit



D.

Meaning difference between C and D.

C says "..have successfully unraveled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other and promote the reproduction..", which essentially means they have unraveled two things - 1. mechanism by which two proteins join, and 2. mechanism by which two proteins promote the reproduction. According to the original paraphrase, they have only unraveled the mechanism by which two proteins join with each other. The modifier - promoting the reproduction..- modifies the previous action join.
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Re: Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfull  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2018, 22:22
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workout wrote:
Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers and finding a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, and thereby possibly inhibit growth of cancer cells.

A) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers and finding a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, and thereby possibly inhibit

B) States, successfully unravelling the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, that join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, and have found a drug that can, by acting on the binding of these proteins, possibly inhibit

C) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other and promote the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, and have found a drug that can, by acting on the binding of these proteins, possibly inhibit

D) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, and have found a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, thereby possibly inhibiting

E) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other and therefore promote the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, have found a drug that can, by acting on the binding of these proteins, thereby possibly inhibit


IMO D.

A) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers and finding a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, and thereby possibly inhibit

Higlighted parts need to be parallel. Parallelism missed here.Hence Incorrect

B) States, successfully unravelling the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, that join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, and have found a drug that can, by acting on the binding of these proteins, possibly inhibit

Higlighted parts need to be parallel. Parallelism missed here.Hence Incorrect

C) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other and promote the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, and have found a drug that can, by acting on the binding of these proteins, possibly inhibit

Here option C says in highlighted part that the drug itself will help in inhibiting growth of cancer cells. But the meaning here should be that the drug acts on the binding of protein which in turn helps in inhibiting growth of cancer cells. Hence Incorrect

D) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, and have found a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, thereby possibly inhibiting

Parallelism and meaning both maintained here. Hence Correct.

E) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other and therefore promote the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and coloncancers, have founda drug that can, by acting on the binding of these proteins, thereby possibly inhibit

Parallelism required here but removed. Hence Incorrect

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Re: Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfull  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2018, 23:39
I chose D too.

Narrowed it down to C and D and then chose D because I found D clearer.
Thought this part in C - "have found a drug that can, by acting on the binding of these proteins, possibly inhibit" was less direct and needlessly breaks the flow of the part that says - have found a drug that can possibly inhibit.
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Re: Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfull  [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2019, 11:18
I disagree with the OA. D reads as if the scientists “unraveled..., prompting..., and have found...”. It falsely ascribes the promoting to the scientists instead of the proteins and isn’t parallel when it does so.

C doesn’t have this problem. It actually remains unclear to me what the grammatical error in C is.

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Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfull  [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2019, 14:23
what is the ideal time for this question..???

took about 3 mins to get down to D.

Great question !!
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Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfull  [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2019, 19:38
workout wrote:
Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers and finding a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, and thereby possibly inhibit growth of cancer cells.

A) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers [COMMA] and finding a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, and thereby possibly inhibit
• the researchers, not the joinder of proteins, FOUND a drug
• to uncouple "and finding" from "promoting," we need a comma

B) States, successfully unravelling the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, that join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, and have found a drug that can, by acting on the binding of these proteins, possibly inhibit
• not parallel
• mechanism by which two proteins . . . that join with each other, promoting. . .
Remove the appositive (names of proteins). "by which" and "that" conflict. The construction is ungrammatical

C) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other and promote the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, and have found a drug that can , by acting on the binding of these proteins, possibly inhibit
• rhetorically and stylistically inferior to D
• the prepositional phrase set off by commas that describes the drug interrupts flow, adds more commas, and is in passive voice
• stylistically, almost always, do NOT use a long phrase in passive voice to split the helping verb (can) from the main verb (inhibit)

D) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, and have found a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, thereby possibly inhibiting
• highlighted language in D is rhetorically and stylistically superior to highlighted language in C (see below, Split #3)

E) States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other and therefore promote the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, [AND] have found a drug that can, by acting on the binding of these proteins, thereby possibly inhibit
• Researchers have unraveled . . . , AND have found.
• We cannot join two ICs with a comma alone (a "comma splice"). We need AND.

If you are having trouble understanding what this sentence should express, strip it.
-- Remove modifiers, including prepositional phrases, adverbs, and even appositive phrases (in this case, the names of the proteins).
-- Put square brackets around words that must stay but that appear to be errors.

Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other, [THUS promoting?] the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers and [finding - the researchers found, not the mechanism or the joined proteins] a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, and thereby possibly inhibit growth of cancer cells.

Researchers ... have unraveled the mechanism by which two proteins ... join with each other, [THUS?] promoting the reproduction of tumor cells ... and [finding - WRONG subject, WRONG verb form] a drug that can [modifier?] possibly inhibit growth of cancer cells.

Now we can tease out the meaning issues.
Researchers have unraveled X and have found Y.

X = the mechanism by which two proteins join with each other and thereby promote reproduction of tumor cells
Y = a drug that can affect the binding of the proteins and thus possibly inhibit the growth of cancer cells

Problems with option A that we need to correct to get the meaning straight.
-- First, researchers, not the joined proteins, found the drug. The verbs attached to "researchers" must be parallel.
-- Second, "promoting the reproduction of tumor cells" results from the joinder of the two proteins, so the participial modifier (the verbING) works. Among other functions, such modifiers present the result of the previous clause. Be on guard, then, that causation is clear in the options.

Researchers have
-- UNRAVELLED
------ the mechanism
----------- by which two proteins join with each other
------------and thus promote the reproduction of tumor cells
and
-- FOUND
----- a drug
-----------that can possibly inhibit growth of cancer cells.

• Split #1: Verbs must be parallel

Option A pairs have unraveled and finding. Not parallel.
Option B pairs unraveling and have found. Not parallel.
Eliminate A and B

Split #2: Two independent clauses cannot be joined with a comma alone

Researchers have unraveled X and have found Y

In Option E the verb tenses are parallel, but option E needs an AND to introduce the second independent clause.
Two independent clauses cannot be joined by a comma alone. Option E is a "comma splice."
Eliminate E

• Split #3 - Style: avoid splitting verbs with long phrases; causality

Stylistically, D is far superior to C.

The verbs have already been split by the adverb possibly.

The long prepositional phrase set off by commas in passive voice that lies between can and inhibit in option C is not as rhetorically effective as the that-clause without commas in option D.

C) ... a drug that can, by acting on the binding of these proteins, possibly inhibit
D) ... a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, thereby possibly inhibiting

Occasionally, we separate a helping verb from a main verb, an action called "splitting the verb."
The word "possibly" splits can from inhibit in both C and D.

We "split the verb" for emphasis or clarity.
Emphatic, correct: You can easily see bright orange vests in a forest.
-- Awkward: You easily can see bright orange vests in a forest. :(
-- Probably incorrect, certainly awkward: You can see easily bright orange vests in a forest. :(
-- Just average, correct: You can see bright orange vests in a forest easily :|

Option C, though, does not deploy a short adverb or a short phrase between can and inhibit.
Further, its long prepositional phrase must be set off by commas in a sentence already full of commas.

Option D does not split the verbs any further and does not interrupt the flow of the sentence.

Finally, D expresses causality better than C does.
C uses "and promote" to convey the result of the joined proteins. Option D uses "promoting" to convey that result.
As a means to convey causality, GMAC dislikes the word and.
Eliminate C

Answer D
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Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfull  [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2019, 20:52
JDF wrote:
I disagree with the OA. D reads as if the scientists “unraveled..., prompting..., and have found...”. It falsely ascribes the promoting to the scientists instead of the proteins and isn’t parallel when it does so.

C doesn’t have this problem. It actually remains unclear to me what the grammatical error in C is.

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Hi JDF , welcome to gmatclub.

You are correct. Option C is grammatical. Stylistically, though, it is inferior to (D).

Your syntax suggests that you are a native speaker.
Warning: this sentence will hurt your ears.

I can see how you might think it were the case that D connects promoting to researchers,
but the participial modifier actually severs that connection.
That is, the function of this participial modifier precludes a connection between promoting and researchers.

Promoting presents the result of the preceding which-clause and "wraps up" that clause.
Generally, COMMA + present participle modifies the immediately preceding clause, subject of that clause, or noun before the comma.
Promoting modifies what the proteins do, not what researchers did.

Further, by presenting a clear result word, promoting helps us segue more smoothly back to the main subject of the sentence, researchers, and the second thing they did.

I agree that option C sounds cleaner in this part:
. . . two proteins . . . join with each other and promote the reproduction . . .

"Sounds cleaner" does not solve two problems:
(1) GMAC really dislikes AND to convey causality or result.
If (C) were to say . . . join with each other and THUS promote. . .,
causation would be clear. By contrast, the function of the participial modifier in D in this instance is to convey result.

(2) the prepositional phrase that modifies drug in option C is a hot mess. See my post above.

Option D, stripped, to check on causality:
Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfully unravelled the mechanism by which two proteins, MATα2 and MATβ, join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells in liver and colon cancers, and have found a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, thereby possibly inhibiting growth of cancer cells.

Researchers have successfully unraveled the mechanism by which two proteins join with each other, promoting the reproduction of tumor cells, and have found a drug that can act on the binding of these proteins, thereby possibly inhibiting growth of cancer cells.

Causation is clear.
Is this sentence awkward? Yes.
Writing these sentences is incredibly difficult.
As an editor, at minimum I would change this single sentence into two sentences.

We are looking for the best of five options, though, not a perfect option.
GMAC people prefer crystal clear causation such as that in D.
They dislike unnecessarily interrupted flow such as that produced by the prepositional modifier in option C.

GMAT sentence correction strategy is a game all its own.

Hope that analysis helps.
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Re: Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfull  [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2019, 21:10
Thanks for the reply. I think I do remember something from the Manhattan materials about not using “and” to show causation. Hopefully I’ll remember it next time.

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New post 08 May 2019, 08:57
Option C tweaks the meaning....
It feels like the scientists found out the cure by acting on the binding of the proteins. Even though that might be the case, but still D provides a clear meaning too
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Re: Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfull   [#permalink] 08 May 2019, 08:57
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Researchers from Spain, the UK, and the United States have successfull

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