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Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of wa

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New post Updated on: 26 Feb 2019, 00:37
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Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises, and it reduces the chance of injury.

(A) exercises, and it reduces
(B) exercises, which reduces
(C) exercises, reducing
(D) exercises, the routine reduces
(E) exercises, so the routine reduces

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Originally posted by perfectstranger on 20 Aug 2009, 04:29.
Last edited by Bunuel on 26 Feb 2019, 00:37, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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New post 20 Aug 2009, 04:51
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Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises, and it reduces the chance of injury.

a) exercises, and it reduces - "it" cannot refer to verb.
b) exercises, which reduces - "which" introduces a nonessential clause and modifies preceding noun.
c) exercises, reducing - "reducing" modifies "warm up". nothing wrong with the option.
d) exercises, the routine reduces - I'm not sure that "routine" is unambiguous here. Comma cannot connect two clauses. We need a semicolon instead of comma.
e) exercises, so the routine reduces - the same doubt about "routine".

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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of wa  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2009, 05:14
Well, I think between B and C.
if in B 'which' refers to exercises, it should use singular verb 'reduce', but if 'which' refers to "a series of ..." using singular verb "reduce'' seems correct.
Cannot find errors in C either:roll:
tricky question :)
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of wa  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2009, 09:33
a) "it" can refer to "performance" or "series". Even if "it" refers to "series", it distorts meaning: "a series before every performance" rather than "series" itself reduces the chance of injury.

c) you are right, it is a clause. (+1)

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New post 22 Aug 2009, 07:43
why not D....I guess routine is reducing....IMO D
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New post 22 Aug 2009, 07:58
reply2spg wrote:
why not D....I guess routine is reducing....IMO D


I might be completely wrong but

Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises
and
the routine reduces the chance of injury

are two independent clauses so you need a coordinator, a subordinator or a semicolon to join them
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of wa  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2009, 08:51
Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises, and it reduces the chance of injury.

a) exercises, and it reduces
b) exercises, which reduces
c) exercises, reducing
d) exercises, the routine reduces
e) exercises, so the routine reduces

However, I think C is more confusing for me (May be I am wrong). Reducing doesn't have clear reference. Seems like Reducing is modifying to exercises. Who is reducing the chance of injury? Stretching exercise or series of warmup? or Just warm up routine is reducing chances.

As you said there might be a possibility of run on sentence, I don't think so, because "The routine reduces the chance of injury" can be independant sentence only when it clearly specifies which routine, and first of the sentence does the exact thing.

OA please

mikeCoolBoy wrote:
reply2spg wrote:
why not D....I guess routine is reducing....IMO D


I might be completely wrong but

Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises
and
the routine reduces the chance of injury

are two independent clauses so you need a coordinator, a subordinator or a semicolon to join them
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of wa  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2009, 12:30
my 2 cents
Which need not always refer to the nearest noun, if the noun preceeding which is either object of gerund, infinitive or any other verb form then which can refer to the subject of the preceeding clause.
Here "doing a series of ....and ...." so if we consider series of exercises as object of doing then which can refer to "warm up...". So even B looks like a possible answer

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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of wa  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Nov 2009, 04:59
perfectstranger wrote:
Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises, and it reduces the chance of injury.

a) exercises, and it reduces
b) exercises, which reduces
c) exercises, reducing
d) exercises, the routine reduces
e) exercises, so the routine reduces


Please explain in a detailed way.Nice explanation will be appreciated with kudos :)) . OA after explanations.

EDIT by walker: please, underline tested part.


C for me
A - pronoun error (it)
D - run-on sentence - if it were "the routine reducing", D would be an attractive choice
E - ..., so ... distort the meaning by reversing cause and effect.
because of reducing injury, they do warm up

B and C are close.
But I choose C because "Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance" is the true factor that reduces that injury
In B, how can just a series of warmup reduce an injury? It should contain a word that demonstrates "routine," such as everyday
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of wa  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2010, 02:51
A single concept kills this question quickly.

Lets have an analysis of the situation.

An "-ing" can also be used to state the effect of the previous clause and it does modify the whole clause.Lets understand this by an example.

Despite the insistence of Irish officials that only its banks need additional help, investors continue to bet on an Irish rescue, driving down the bond yields on that country’s debt against a benchmark again on Monday.

You may observe that the action of Investors to continue betting on Irish rescue caused the bond yields to drop.

Applying the same concept to our question,

Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises, reducing the chance of injury.

The series of warmup and stretching exercises--> will reduce the chance of injury. This prevention of injury is the outcome of exercises.

Correct me if I am mistaken
Thanks !! :)
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New post 02 Jan 2012, 23:45
I picked C because I liked the word reducing which I found to be the correct choice due to parallel structure. I saw the author use "doing" earlier in the sentence so I thought that choice B would match up in grammatical structure and it also sounded good and concise as well.
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of wa  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jan 2012, 00:30
(A) exercises, and it reduces - Wrong. 'It' seems to refer to dancer.
(B) exercises, which reduces : which reduce could have been a correct choice, but 'which reduces' is wrong
(C) exercises, reducing - correct.
(D) exercises, the routine reduces :- comma is wrong as it joins two independent clauses
(E) exercises, so the routine reduces - grammatically correct, but not so good in meaning.
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New post 19 Nov 2012, 11:07
This is a good example for a cause-effect sentence.

Cause: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises
Effect: reducing the chance of injury

Cause....., effect starting with 'ing' word.

Example:
The rains were extremely heavy, causing great damage to crops.
Notice the 'ing' in the word causing.

Hence, C fits perfectly here.
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New post 09 May 2013, 05:05
Not able to choose between C and D. what does reducing modify in c and why is D wrong apart from saying its ambiguous.
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of wa  [#permalink]

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New post 09 May 2013, 05:30
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Hi Rrkan,

'reducing' modifies 'warm up' it's the warm up that reduces the chance of injury. (this is common sense as well as grammatical sense)

D is wrong, because as others have said there are 2 independent clauses in it, which should be separated by a ; .

Read through the prior answers, they give some good explanations...
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New post 09 May 2013, 14:14
plumber250 wrote:
Hi Rrkan,

'reducing' modifies 'warm up' it's the warm up that reduces the chance of injury. (this is common sense as well as grammatical sense)

D is wrong, because as others have said there are 2 independent clauses in it, which should be separated by a ; .

Read through the prior answers, they give some good explanations...
James


Hi James.

I think "reducing" is put after exercises with a comma. It should modify a previous clause with a meaningful subject. I'm not convinced by C cause I think the routine would reduce injury. Please clarify. Thank you.
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of wa  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2013, 00:22
perfectstranger wrote:
Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises, and it reduces the chance of injury.

(A) exercises, and it reduces
(B) exercises, which reduces
(C) exercises, reducing
(D) exercises, the routine reduces
(E) exercises, so the routine reduces


Please explain in a detailed way.Nice explanation will be appreciated with kudos :)) . OA after explanations.

EDIT by walker: please, underline tested part.


Hi,

Clearly option A, B and E can be ruled out because of various reasons pointed out.
in Option B, which is used in place "Stretching and Warm up exercises" ie. plural and the verb for "which" should be reduce.

In option C, reducing.....modifies the preceding clause by providing additional information as to how Salsa dancers achieve that. The sentence means that Salsa dancers reduce the chances of Injury by doing warm and stretching exercises. The sentence makes sense.

In Option D ------> The routine reduces makes a Independent clause which is not connected to first IC correctly.

A semicolon would be a much better option. Another way, the Option D could have been written "the routine that reduces...." which means noun+noun modifier construction modifying the noun " warm and stretching exercises"

Option C looks a better option
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of wa  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2016, 06:18
Still confused... think its B. Non essential clauses generally start with which.. that should be the case here.

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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of wa  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2016, 07:25
shashanksagar wrote:
Still confused... think its B. Non essential clauses generally start with which.. that should be the case here.

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Hi,
I will try to explain what is wrong with b

Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of warmup and stretching exercises,and it reduces the chance of injury.

(B) exercises, which reduces

which here refers to 'exercises'
1. if we see grammatically then plural noun + singular verb(reduces) wrong.
2. If we understand logically then 'warm up' before performance reduces the chance of injury not exercises.

Let me know if it helped :)
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Re: Salsa Dancers warm up before every performance by doing a series of wa   [#permalink] 26 Feb 2019, 00:12
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