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Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2016, 00:23
Divyadisha wrote:
A. more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because

[color=#ed1c24]often because the intentional discarding of lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks, and payload covers. The sentence is missing something after 'because'

That something is of :)

It looks like option A has been incorrectly transcribed. It should have an of in the underlined portion (because of).

A moderator might want to fix it.
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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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New post 04 Dec 2016, 22:39
zoezhuyan wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
Dear zoezhuyan
Having "because" and "due to" in the same sentence is not necessarily redundant. It may just indicate a layered discussion of causality, with different causes discussed at different levels. The (A) & (B) have other problems, but it would be perfectly possible to have a valid and logical statement with both "because" and "due to."
The state is raising highway taxes because the frequent traffic delays, due to flooding, necessitate improvements in the highway drainage systems.
Nothing is redundant in that sentence. It just happens that one cause-effect discussion is nestled inside another. The GMAT loves to nest one idea inside another.

Mike :-)

Hi mike,
I am back here and post a new question ,because we discussed "because (of) " and "due to" above and I want to further discuss a new similar phrase "result from" from GMAT exam 2, rather than discuss one case , although this question exists in other catalog of GC.

here is the question:
Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because of the intentional discarding of lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks and payload covers.

a) more and more littering has occured in orbits near Earth, often because of
b) orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from
c) orbits near Earth became littered more and more, often resulting from
d) there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of
e) there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with


from your article, I got the idea that "because" modifies target action and that "due to" modifies target noun. Well, my interpretation of "result from" is little.

like this case, I cross off C because I think that it will be better to place "often resulting from" in front of the main clause "orbits near Earth became littered more and more".
because "comma + participle phrase" can indicate causal relationship, if "comma + participle phrase" suggests a cause, then it will be placed in front of the main clause, if "comma + participle phrase" suggests a effect, then it will be placed at the ending of the sentence.
examples from MANHATTAN:
the engineer fixed the problem, earning himself a promotion. -- the effect is "promotion"
Slipping on the ice, she broke her ankle. -- the cause is "slipping"

back to GMAT exam 2 SC question, when "result from" introduces a cause, I think it will be better if place "result from" in front of the main clause.

please confirm my reasoning, and point out.


thanks in advance.

have a nice day
>_~
:flower

Dear zoezhuyan,

How are you, my friend? I'm happy to respond. :-)

First of all, my friend, I am going to chastise you. You are in the very bad habit of entering a thread on one question and then posting an entirely different question and asking about that. This makes the threads very disorganized and it does a disservice to the other users of GMAT Club. You originally posted this question here, but this is the thread devoted specifically to the discussion of this GMAT Prep question. This is really where the discussion of this question should happen. GMAT Club has a certain organization and when students respect this organization, then GMAT Club can provide the highest value to all students.

I will say that while "because" is begins a full subordinate clause, a full [noun] + [verb] clause, the construction "because of" is a compound preposition, and the object of this will be either a noun or something playing the role of a noun (such as a gerund).

In the question you posted, (B) is the OA and is really the best answer by far. I would say the best reason to reject (C) is that it is too wordy, longer than it has to be. (B) is much more elegant. Also, the change in verb tense ("became") changes the meaning.

You wrote:
because "comma + participle phrase" can indicate causal relationship, if "comma + participle phrase" suggests a cause, then it will be placed in front of the main clause, if "comma + participle phrase" suggests a effect, then it will be placed at the ending of the sentence.
I don't fully agree. That is too dogmatic. You are trying to be too mathematical with language. These are, at best, general tendencies, not black & white strict rules. Yes, these are often true, but not always true. They cannot be applied to all cases, irrespective of content.

I would say that having a "resulting from" phrase at the beginning of the sentence would sound extremely awkward. This is a phrase that "belongs" after the main clause.

My friend, here's the problem. You are trying to learn grammar the way one would learn mathematics. You are trying to learn all the rules, as if there were some complete set of rules. This course of action will NOT result in SC mastery. This is an extremely left-brain approach, and SC mastery involves right-brains skills as well. The very best way to develop a sense of how "resulting from" would be used is not to apply some abstract rule. The best way is to read extensively, and when you see this in your reading, you will have a sense of how it is used in the living language. You have to read to build the intuition for how English is used. No memorizing of rules can replace that hard-won intuition.

Does all this make sense?

Have a very good day, my friend.
Mike :-)
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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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New post 05 Dec 2016, 01:25
mikemcgarry wrote:
zoezhuyan wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
Dear zoezhuyan
Having "because" and "due to" in the same sentence is not necessarily redundant. It may just indicate a layered discussion of causality, with different causes discussed at different levels. The (A) & (B) have other problems, but it would be perfectly possible to have a valid and logical statement with both "because" and "due to."
The state is raising highway taxes because the frequent traffic delays, due to flooding, necessitate improvements in the highway drainage systems.
Nothing is redundant in that sentence. It just happens that one cause-effect discussion is nestled inside another. The GMAT loves to nest one idea inside another.

Mike :-)

Hi mike,
I am back here and post a new question ,because we discussed "because (of) " and "due to" above and I want to further discuss a new similar phrase "result from" from GMAT exam 2, rather than discuss one case , although this question exists in other catalog of GC.

here is the question:
Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because of the intentional discarding of lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks and payload covers.

a) more and more littering has occured in orbits near Earth, often because of
b) orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from
c) orbits near Earth became littered more and more, often resulting from
d) there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of
e) there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with


from your article, I got the idea that "because" modifies target action and that "due to" modifies target noun. Well, my interpretation of "result from" is little.

like this case, I cross off C because I think that it will be better to place "often resulting from" in front of the main clause "orbits near Earth became littered more and more".
because "comma + participle phrase" can indicate causal relationship, if "comma + participle phrase" suggests a cause, then it will be placed in front of the main clause, if "comma + participle phrase" suggests a effect, then it will be placed at the ending of the sentence.
examples from MANHATTAN:
the engineer fixed the problem, earning himself a promotion. -- the effect is "promotion"
Slipping on the ice, she broke her ankle. -- the cause is "slipping"

back to GMAT exam 2 SC question, when "result from" introduces a cause, I think it will be better if place "result from" in front of the main clause.

please confirm my reasoning, and point out.


thanks in advance.

have a nice day
>_~
:flower

Dear zoezhuyan,

How are you, my friend? I'm happy to respond. :-)

First of all, my friend, I am going to chastise you. You are in the very bad habit of entering a thread on one question and then posting an entirely different question and asking about that. This makes the threads very disorganized and it does a disservice to the other users of GMAT Club. You originally posted this question here, but this is the thread devoted specifically to the discussion of this GMAT Prep question. This is really where the discussion of this question should happen. GMAT Club has a certain organization and when students respect this organization, then GMAT Club can provide the highest value to all students.

I will say that while "because" is begins a full subordinate clause, a full [noun] + [verb] clause, the construction "because of" is a compound preposition, and the object of this will be either a noun or something playing the role of a noun (such as a gerund).

In the question you posted, (B) is the OA and is really the best answer by far. I would say the best reason to reject (C) is that it is too wordy, longer than it has to be. (B) is much more elegant. Also, the change in verb tense ("became") changes the meaning.

You wrote:
because "comma + participle phrase" can indicate causal relationship, if "comma + participle phrase" suggests a cause, then it will be placed in front of the main clause, if "comma + participle phrase" suggests a effect, then it will be placed at the ending of the sentence.
I don't fully agree. That is too dogmatic. You are trying to be too mathematical with language. These are, at best, general tendencies, not black & white strict rules. Yes, these are often true, but not always true. They cannot be applied to all cases, irrespective of content.

I would say that having a "resulting from" phrase at the beginning of the sentence would sound extremely awkward. This is a phrase that "belongs" after the main clause.

My friend, here's the problem. You are trying to learn grammar the way one would learn mathematics. You are trying to learn all the rules, as if there were some complete set of rules. This course of action will NOT result in SC mastery. This is an extremely left-brain approach, and SC mastery involves right-brains skills as well. The very best way to develop a sense of how "resulting from" would be used is not to apply some abstract rule. The best way is to read extensively, and when you see this in your reading, you will have a sense of how it is used in the living language. You have to read to build the intuition for how English is used. No memorizing of rules can replace that hard-won intuition.

Does all this make sense?

Have a very good day, my friend.
Mike :-)


thanks for pointing out my bad habit, mike.
I will pay attention to it.

my wrote:
because "comma + participle phrase" can indicate causal relationship, if "comma + participle phrase" suggests a cause, then it will be placed in front of the main clause, if "comma + participle phrase" suggests a effect, then it will be placed at the ending of the sentence.
My new interpretation is that the order of the sentence is the actual order

examples from MANHATTAN:
the engineer fixed the problem, earning himself a promotion. --"fixed " prior to "earning"
Slipping on the ice, she broke her ankle. -- "slipping" prior to "broke"

Is this way right to understand how English work in the living language ?
I think "READ" is a way to get "intuition" , but "intuition" is abstract for me. :oops:
To be extend , what should I focus on if I want to get "intuition" by reading,
the order of the sentence is one of the focus ?

thanks in advance

have a nice day
>_~

Last edited by zoezhuyan on 05 Dec 2016, 05:39, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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New post 05 Dec 2016, 01:47
A – more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because
B – orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from
C – orbits near Earth became littered more and more, often resulting from
D – there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of
E – there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with


IMO B
Subject Orbits should come after comma, B & C Left
B Sounds good

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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New post 17 Dec 2016, 03:34
kizito2001 wrote:
Since the start of the space age, more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because the intentional discarding lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks, and payload covers.

A – more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because
B – orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from
C – orbits near Earth became littered more and more, often resulting from
D – there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of
E – there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with


I have studied this problem again and again
what is the difference beteen B and D.

in D, it is possitble that there are more and more littering but the orbit dose not become more and more littered.
so d is different from B.

and so, d is wrong.

this is the 10th time , I study this problem and this time i find out the meaning difference between d and b.

my god, hard one.

takeaway.
becareful of meaning difference between action verb and "there are+noun"
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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2017, 01:21
Experts, could you please tag the difficulty level of this question.

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2017, 08:22
kizito2001 wrote:
Since the start of the space age, more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because the intentional discarding lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks, and payload covers.

A – more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because
B – orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from
C – orbits near Earth became littered more and more, often resulting from
D – there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of
E – there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with


it is hard to choose between B and D.

there is split between direct verb and "there are..." there is meaning difference between these two version and normally the version "there are..." is wrong. we should anticipate the meaning difference in this split so chat in the test room we can find the incorrect meaning.

in D, there are more the action of littering but it is possible that orbit is less littered. we have more littering but the littering is less and so, the orbit is less littered.

so, "more littering" mean more action of littering. "more littered" means a place has more garbage. quite different meaning.

it is clear that the intended meaning is in B

it is hard in the test room to see this meaning difference.
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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2017, 11:24
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mbaprep2017 wrote:
Experts, could you please tag the difficulty level of this question.

Dear mbaprep2017,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

This question is arguably on the harder side. Nevertheless, I am extremely skeptical about the chimera of the "700-level question." See:
Is this a 700+ level GMAT question?
Do you best with each question. Be less concerned with the hypothetical levels. That's my advice.
victory47 wrote:
I have studied this problem again and again
what is the difference beteen B and D.

in D, it is possitble that there are more and more littering but the orbit dose not become more and more littered.
so d is different from B.

and so, d is wrong.

this is the 10th time , I study this problem and this time i find out the meaning difference between d and b.

my god, hard one.

takeaway.
becareful of meaning difference between action verb and "there are+noun"

Dear victory47,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

As a general rule, a sentence is more powerful, more direct, and more effective when all the action in the sentence is encapsulated in verb form. This is part of rhetorical construction, which is one of the hardest aspects of language for non-native speakers to appreciate, but the GMAT tests it. Look at (B):
orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from
BMA! Direct and powerful, like a full speed train--it just moves. Now look at (D):
there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of
This is a lily-livered indirect cringing disaster! These two versions taste different! Part of mastering GMAT SC is you have to become attune to the taste of action. See this blog:
Active Verbs on the GMAT

You can't get that taste by learning rules. The only way to develop this sense is to read. See:
How to Improve Your GMAT Verbal Score

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2017, 03:27
option D is wrong here.

It uses the word because of which can only be followed by a noun or noun phrase. Also, littering of orbits alters the meaning of the sentence.

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2017, 09:30
kizito2001 wrote:
Since the start of the space age, more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because the intentional discarding lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks, and payload covers.

(A) more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because
(B) orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from
(C) orbits near Earth became littered more and more, often resulting from
(D) there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of
(E) there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with


Imo B

A is wrong as littering is modifying more and more

B is correct

C the action is still going on so we need present perfect .

D Wordy and it changes meaning as well

E No need of past perfect tense .
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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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The sentence begins with "Since the start of space age." This tells us that the problem has occurred at an indefinite time in the past, and may continue into the present and future. This requires us to use the present perfect tense (i.e., has occurred, have occurred, have become, etc. ).

Since we need the past perfect tense here, we can ELIMINATE C and E
C) orbits near Earth became littered more and more, often resulting from
E) there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with

The agent of a COMMA + VERBing modifier must be the nearest preceding SUBJECT.
In C, resulting seems to refer to orbits -- the nearest preceding subject -- implying that ORBITS are RESULTING from the intentional discarding of lens caps.
This meaning is nonsensical.
Eliminate C.

because + of must be followed by a NOUN or NOUN PHRASE.
because + NO of must be followed by a COMPLETE CLAUSE.
In A, because + NO of is not followed by a complete clause.
Eliminate A.

In D, have been (plural) does not agree with littering (singular).
Eliminate D.

In E, had been littering (past perfect) implies an action completed IN THE PAST, while since the start of the space age implies an action still happening IN THE PRESENT.
Since the two usages contradict each other, eliminate E.

The correct answer is B.
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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2017, 03:52
Since the start of the space age, more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because the intentional discarding lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks, and payload covers.

(A) more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because - ‘Because’ is always followed by a clause; ‘Because of’ is followed by a noun
(B) orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from - Correct
(C) orbits near Earth became littered more and more, often resulting from - ‘Since’ implies present perfect tense or present perfect continuous tense; we cannot write ‘became’ as a simple past tense verb
(D) there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of - The word ‘littering’ is a singular noun; we cannot use the word ‘have’
(E) there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with - ‘Since’ implies present perfect tense or present perfect continuous tense; we cannot write ‘had been’ as a past perfect tense verb

Answer B
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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2017, 09:46
kizito2001 wrote:
Since the start of the space age, more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because the intentional discarding lens caps, packing material, fuel tanks, and payload covers.

(A) more and more littering has occurred in orbits near Earth, often because
(B) orbits near Earth have become more and more littered, often from
(C) orbits near Earth became littered more and more, often resulting from
(D) there have been more and more littering of orbits near Earth, often because of
(E) there had been littering more and more of orbits near Earth, often with


look at b and d/

if there is a split between "do" and "there is", there is a meaning difference between them.
there is more and more littering" dose not mean orbit is more littered. more littering dose not mean something is more littered.

I watter my plant more but my plant is not wattered more because I can spray exactly on the plant

am i correct?

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Re: Since the start of space age, more and more littering has occurred in   [#permalink] 03 Sep 2017, 09:46

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