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Some scientists are researching how to manipulate viruses so as to be

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Some scientists are researching how to manipulate viruses so as to be  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2019, 09:44
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Some scientists are researching how to manipulate viruses so as to be useful in nanotechnology applications, particularly in the human body. Since viruses do not engage in metabolic activity to survive and reproduce, they may be durable building blocks for composite materials. Viruses can be altered to serve human purposes through two approaches, chemical modification and genetic engineering. To make a virus into an effective nanotechnological structure, it is necessary to determine how to attach biological interfaces to the surface of the virus’s protein coat.

The discussion above most strongly supports which of the following statements?

(A). Research into nanotechnology is likely to produce useful applications in the human body.

(B). Viruses are the best choice to make composite materials on a nanotechnological scale.

(C). The protein coats of viruses naturally lack biological interfaces.

(D). Composite materials are of interest primarily due to their potential uses in the human body.

(E). For their research to be successful, scientists must figure out how to make attachments to the protein coats of viruses.

Source: Kaplan Prep Plus 2020

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Re: Some scientists are researching how to manipulate viruses so as to be  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2019, 11:26
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SajjadAhmad wrote:
Some scientists are researching how to manipulate viruses so as to be useful in nanotechnology applications, particularly in the human body. Since viruses do not engage in metabolic activity to survive and reproduce, they may be durable building blocks for composite materials. Viruses can be altered to serve human purposes through two approaches, chemical modification and genetic engineering. To make a virus into an effective nanotechnological structure, it is necessary to determine how to attach biological interfaces to the surface of the virus’s protein coat.

The discussion above most strongly supports which of the following statements?

(A). Research into nanotechnology is likely to produce useful applications in the human body.

(B). Viruses are the best choice to make composite materials on a nanotechnological scale.

(C). The protein coats of viruses naturally lack biological interfaces.

(D). Composite materials are of interest primarily due to their potential uses in the human body.

(E). For their research to be successful, scientists must figure out how to make attachments to the protein coats of viruses.

Source: Kaplan Prep Plus 2020


(A) Already stated in the first paragraph - Hence can not strengthen the conclusion further.
(B) Viruses are the best choice - Too strong , to form a strengthener of the highlighted part of the conclusion.
(C) protein coats of viruses naturally lack biological interfaces - We need to attach biological interfaces to the surface of the virus’s protein coat, and we do not have any information to claim whether the viruses naturally lack biological interface.
(D) Interest Primarily due to their potential uses in the human body - Goes against the statement highlighted in blue in the stimulus.

(E) Absolutely true, this is a must for achieving the objective, hence Answer must be (E)
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Re: Some scientists are researching how to manipulate viruses so as to be  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2019, 15:31
The argument in brief:

Researchers are attempting to manipulate virus for their nanotechnology. But they need determine how to attach biology interface to make their research successful.
Remaining content of the argument is fact set about virus.

In my view C and E are competitive choices.
What virus lacks is not mentioned in argument.
E addresses the "must be true" point.
E is correct ans.
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Re: Some scientists are researching how to manipulate viruses so as to be  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2020, 22:30
this is not strengthener, this is an inference, rarely in gmat such topic is used to strengthen
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Re: Some scientists are researching how to manipulate viruses so as to be  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2020, 22:46
I agree with you exsoldierz

This is definitely an inference question,
Request to review the tag.
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Re: Some scientists are researching how to manipulate viruses so as to be  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2020, 22:59
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Re: Some scientists are researching how to manipulate viruses so as to be  [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2020, 04:20
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Where in the passage is it mentioned that the turning the virus into effective nanotechnological structure (which is making attachments to protein coats) determines the success of the research?
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Some scientists are researching how to manipulate viruses so as to be  [#permalink]

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New post 26 May 2020, 02:44
Official Explanation

STEP 1: IDENTIFY THE QUESTION TYPE

The question stem indicates that you are to consider the stimulus as support, or evidence, for your answer choice. Therefore, this is an Inference question. The correct answer will be fully supported by the information provided.

STEP 2: UNTANGLE THE STIMULUS

The stimulus explains one reason scientists are interested in viruses. Don’t get caught up in trying to understand all the details here; you’re taking the GMAT, not a molecular biology exam. You might paraphrase the stimulus this way: viruses may be useful in nanotechnology because “composite materials” can be built from them. But viruses can only be useful in this way after people attach stuff to them, using one of two approaches.

STEP 3: PREDICT THE ANSWER

Because the question stem lacks specific clues, it will be difficult to make a specific prediction. But do have firmly in mind what the stimulus says—and what it doesn’t say—as you evaluate the choices. Note, for example, the tentative language “[viruses] may be durable building blocks.” So there’s no guarantee that viruses will be used successfully in nanotechnology. But also note the definite “it is necessary [to attach stuff to the viruses].” If progress is going to be made in this area, scientists have to figure out how to do this.

STEP 4: EVALUATE THE CHOICES

(E) connects the idea in the first sentence of the stimulus—scientists are investigating how to make viruses useful in nanotechnology—with the idea in the last sentence, which is that the way to make viruses useful requires figuring out how to attach things to them. This statement is fully supported by the stimulus and is correct.

(A) is a distortion; scientists are interested in pursuing this avenue of research, but nothing in the stimulus indicates that useful applications are “likely.” It’s possible that the scientists’ research will yield no useful results.

(B) is extreme; viruses may be a good choice for composite materials, according to the stimulus, but there is no evidence that they are the “best” choice.

(C) is not supported. The stimulus says that biological interfaces need to be added to viruses for them to be useful in nanotechnology, but it does not say the viruses have no such interfaces now. Perhaps scientists need to attach particular interfaces to get the viruses to do a desired task.

(D) is a distortion because of the word “primarily.” While it is inferable that composite materials have potential uses in the human body, nothing in the stimulus indicates that this is the main reason they are useful.

Answer: E

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Re: Some scientists are researching how to manipulate viruses so as to be  [#permalink]

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New post 26 May 2020, 09:08
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What the argument is discussing is :

Researchers are attempting to manipulate virus for their nanotechnology. But they need determine how to attach biology interface to make their research successful.
And in the end it talks about facts about viruses.

E should be the right choice as it talks about the point which should be necessarily true.

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Re: Some scientists are researching how to manipulate viruses so as to be  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jun 2020, 11:17
SajjadAhmad wrote:
Official Explanation

STEP 1: IDENTIFY THE QUESTION TYPE

The question stem indicates that you are to consider the stimulus as support, or evidence, for your answer choice. Therefore, this is an Inference question. The correct answer will be fully supported by the information provided.

STEP 2: UNTANGLE THE STIMULUS

The stimulus explains one reason scientists are interested in viruses. Don’t get caught up in trying to understand all the details here; you’re taking the GMAT, not a molecular biology exam. You might paraphrase the stimulus this way: viruses may be useful in nanotechnology because “composite materials” can be built from them. But viruses can only be useful in this way after people attach stuff to them, using one of two approaches.

STEP 3: PREDICT THE ANSWER

Because the question stem lacks specific clues, it will be difficult to make a specific prediction. But do have firmly in mind what the stimulus says—and what it doesn’t say—as you evaluate the choices. Note, for example, the tentative language “[viruses] may be durable building blocks.” So there’s no guarantee that viruses will be used successfully in nanotechnology. But also note the definite “it is necessary [to attach stuff to the viruses].” If progress is going to be made in this area, scientists have to figure out how to do this.

STEP 4: EVALUATE THE CHOICES

(E) connects the idea in the first sentence of the stimulus—scientists are investigating how to make viruses useful in nanotechnology—with the idea in the last sentence, which is that the way to make viruses useful requires figuring out how to attach things to them. This statement is fully supported by the stimulus and is correct.

(A) is a distortion; scientists are interested in pursuing this avenue of research, but nothing in the stimulus indicates that useful applications are “likely.” It’s possible that the scientists’ research will yield no useful results.

(B) is extreme; viruses may be a good choice for composite materials, according to the stimulus, but there is no evidence that they are the “best” choice.

(C) is not supported. The stimulus says that biological interfaces need to be added to viruses for them to be useful in nanotechnology, but it does not say the viruses have no such interfaces now. Perhaps scientists need to attach particular interfaces to get the viruses to do a desired task.

(D) is a distortion because of the word “primarily.” While it is inferable that composite materials have potential uses in the human body, nothing in the stimulus indicates that this is the main reason they are useful.

Answer: D


confusing as in some posts the moderator says inference can't be mentioned in the premise and now this says it is possible.
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Re: Some scientists are researching how to manipulate viruses so as to be  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jun 2020, 18:00
(A). Research into nanotechnology is likely to produce useful applications in the human body. - the passage is not focused on the ''likelihood'' of research generating useful applications.

(B). Viruses are the best choice to make composite materials on a nanotechnological scale.
- the passage does not imply this.

(C). The protein coats of viruses naturally lack biological interfaces.
- we cannot be certain about (C) since it is possible that the protein coats of viruses do contain biological interfaces, but not in sufficient strength/quantity to be considered as useful and thereby requiring additional biological interfaces.

(D). Composite materials are of interest primarily due to their potential uses in the human body.
- (D) explains ''what'' led to the interests in composite materials. This is irrelevant to the passage.

(E). For their research to be successful, scientists must figure out how to make attachments to the protein coats of viruses. - from the passage, we do know that the goal of the scientists is to ''find ways to manipulate viruses so as to make such viruses useful in nanotechnology applications". We also do know that in order to make such viruses capable of meeting the purpose of the goal stated, it is necessary to determine how to attach biological interfaces to the surface of the virus’s protein coat. Therefore, the success of the research hinges on whether the scientists are able to figure out a way to make attachments to the protein coats of viruses. This though is perfectly captured in (E). Hence, (E) is the right answer to this question.
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Re: Some scientists are researching how to manipulate viruses so as to be  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jun 2020, 21:52
I don't completely agree with answer E here.
The option E says that
For their research to be successful, scientists must figure out how to make attachments to the protein coats of viruses.
but how do we know that scientists haven't figured out how to make any sort of attachments. It is possible that scientists know how to attach many other things, apart from the biological interface, to the protein coats of viruses. I feel that the option E can be partially inferred but not completely, same as with option C (since the reason to eliminate C was that we don't know if there is a biological interface already attached)
So how can we infer something so general from the passage which gives us very specific information ( it is necessary to determine how to attach biological interfaces to the surface of the virus’s protein coat)

It'll be great if one of the experts could clarify my doubt.
SajjadAhmad GMATNinja

Thanks in advance.
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Re: Some scientists are researching how to manipulate viruses so as to be   [#permalink] 29 Jun 2020, 21:52

Some scientists are researching how to manipulate viruses so as to be

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