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# Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not

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Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 31 Dec 2018, 05:40
3
12
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Difficulty:

75% (hard)

Question Stats:

54% (02:04) correct 46% (02:06) wrong based on 467 sessions

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Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not typically read above grade level. In the United States, more than three out of ten children watch television at least 35 hours per week. In other western countries, less than one child out of ten watches that much television. In contrast, these other children perform much better than American children on reading tests and more often read above grade level. A majority of these non American children read above their school grade level; a smaller percentage of American children read above grade level. In order to read as well as children in other western countries, American children will have to reduce the amount of time they spend watching television.

The passage depends upon which one of the following assumptions?

(A) American children are not as interested in reading well as children in other western countries.
(B) Other children are more structured in their studies than children in the United States.
(C) If a child wants to become a better reader, he or she will not watch as much television.
(D) If a child watches less television, his or her reading level will increase.
(E) The methods American teachers and parents use to teach reading are not significantly worse than the methods used by teachers and parents in other western countries.

Source: Nova GMAT
Difficulty Level: 750

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Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 30 Apr 2017, 11:00.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 31 Dec 2018, 05:40, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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30 Apr 2017, 11:12
3
The argument is saying watching more television leads to decrease in grade level. It is based on the study done on American and western children.

So, the assumption should be other conditions were same on those children. It was just the TV viewing duration.

This is what option E is doing. It is saying there was no other change in teaching methods. Hence, an assumption.

(A) American children are not as interested in reading well as children in other western countries. : ok, so there are not interested in reading, Then no matter even if they reduce TV duration, they are not going to read. So, a weakner. Hence, incorrect.
(B) Other children are more structured in their studies than children in the United States. : Other children are OFS.
(C) If a child wants to become a better reader, he or she will not watch as much television. : This is irrelevant what he would be if he does that.
(D) If a child watches less television, his or her reading level will increase. : Same as C
(E) The methods American teachers and parents use to teach reading are not significantly worse than the methods used by teachers and parents in other western countries.Correct for the reasons stated above.
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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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28 May 2017, 22:44
I picked up D as the option, but I realise my mistake now. The argument only talks about bringing the reading level of American children at par with that of western children. D, instead, points out an increase (to what extent?)

E is the best option.
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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2017, 02:15
By negating D, we get

If a child watches MORE television, his or her reading level will increase--> this breaks down the conclusion.
So, why it is not OA?
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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2017, 02:31
Mahmud6 wrote:
By negating D, we get

If a child watches MORE television, his or her reading level will increase--> this breaks down the conclusion.
So, why it is not OA?

I have the same doubt, because I choose D over E by applying negation only. otherwise if I just select on the basis of prethinking 'E' is a better option!
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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2017, 04:20
tanvi9 wrote:
Mahmud6 wrote:
By negating D, we get

If a child watches MORE television, his or her reading level will increase--> this breaks down the conclusion.
So, why it is not OA?

I have the same doubt, because I choose D over E by applying negation only. otherwise if I just select on the basis of prethinking 'E' is a better option!

Hi,
I think my approach will help you.
MY analysis .
Premies : Increased T.V ----> not good reading lvls
Conclusion : Decrease in T.V ----> reading lvl increase.
A causal relationship is mentioned in the problem set.

I think both D and E are contenders.
D says that decreasing will increase the reading lvls.
E is eliminating alternate cause.

Let's dig in little more using LSAT Terminology
In order to - SC indicator.

Increase Reading lvls ---> Decreasing T.V viewing.

D is wrong reversal .
Decreasing T.V ---> Increasing Reading lvls.
Which is wrong.
Hence, D is wrong .

So Answer should be E.
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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2017, 04:32
Nightmare007 wrote:
tanvi9 wrote:
Mahmud6 wrote:
By negating D, we get

If a child watches MORE television, his or her reading level will increase--> this breaks down the conclusion.
So, why it is not OA?

I have the same doubt, because I choose D over E by applying negation only. otherwise if I just select on the basis of prethinking 'E' is a better option!

Hi,
I think my approach will help you.
MY analysis .
Premies : Increased T.V ----> not good reading lvls
Conclusion : Decrease in T.V ----> reading lvl increase.
A causal relationship is mentioned in the problem set.

I think both D and E are contenders.
D says that decreasing will increase the reading lvls.
E is eliminating alternate cause.

Let's dig in little more using LSAT Terminology
In order to - SC indicator.

Increase Reading lvls ---> Decreasing T.V viewing.

D is wrong reversal .
Decreasing T.V ---> Increasing Reading lvls.
Which is wrong.
Hence, D is wrong .

So Answer should be E.

Have you applied conditional reasoning?
sufficient--> necessary
on that basis it a wrong reversal.

are actual Gmat questions this tricky? that you have to apply conditional reasoning in an assumption question?
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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2017, 04:37
tanvi9 wrote:
Have you applied conditional reasoning?
sufficient--> necessary
on that basis it a wrong reversal.

are actual Gmat questions this tricky? that you have to apply conditional reasoning in an assumption question?

Yeah once we cross 700, we will get some questions where conditional reasoning will be helpful to eliminate answers, while sometimes we need to use conditional reasoning to get answers especially in inference questions. .
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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2017, 04:42
Nightmare007 wrote:
tanvi9 wrote:
Have you applied conditional reasoning?
sufficient--> necessary
on that basis it a wrong reversal.

are actual Gmat questions this tricky? that you have to apply conditional reasoning in an assumption question?

Yeah once we cross 700, we will get some questions where conditional reasoning will be helpful to eliminate answers, while sometimes we need to use conditional reasoning to get answers especially in inference questions. .

Thanks for the explaination.
Also can you elaborate more on why negation failed here? I am quite confused now as what to be applied when.
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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2017, 04:59
3
1
tanvi9 wrote:
Nightmare007 wrote:
tanvi9 wrote:
Have you applied conditional reasoning?
sufficient--> necessary
on that basis it a wrong reversal.

are actual Gmat questions this tricky? that you have to apply conditional reasoning in an assumption question?

Yeah once we cross 700, we will get some questions where conditional reasoning will be helpful to eliminate answers, while sometimes we need to use conditional reasoning to get answers especially in inference questions. .

Thanks for the explaination.
Also can you elaborate more on why negation failed here? I am quite confused now as what to be applied when.

SC --- > NC
A ---> B. - given .
We can conclude that - !B ---> !A.- contrapositive.
But
B ---> A - wrong reversal
!A -----> !B - wrong negation

+kudos if you find this useful.
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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2017, 05:04
Thanks,

meanwhile i went back to conditional reasoning explanations and I guess will have to always judge in the stimulus only if conditional reasoning or casual relation occurs and then go to answer choices with the frame of mind.

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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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21 Jun 2017, 14:24
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A is the answer for explanation question, B is the weakener
C,D cannot be assumption because of "if..."
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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2017, 00:13
What would be the negated statement of option D?

D. If a child watches less television, his or her reading level will increase.

Below is my take:

If a child watches MORE television, his or her reading level will increase.

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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2017, 00:34
GMATNInja- Please help me understand how the parents' methods are relevant in this case?
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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2017, 03:01
Nightmare007 wrote:
tanvi9 wrote:
Mahmud6 wrote:
By negating D, we get

If a child watches MORE television, his or her reading level will increase--> this breaks down the conclusion.
So, why it is not OA?

I have the same doubt, because I choose D over E by applying negation only. otherwise if I just select on the basis of prethinking 'E' is a better option!

Hi,
I think my approach will help you.
MY analysis .
Premies : Increased T.V ----> not good reading lvls
Conclusion : Decrease in T.V ----> reading lvl increase.
A causal relationship is mentioned in the problem set.

I think both D and E are contenders.
D says that decreasing will increase the reading lvls.
E is eliminating alternate cause.

Let's dig in little more using LSAT Terminology
In order to - SC indicator.

Increase Reading lvls ---> Decreasing T.V viewing.

D is wrong reversal .
Decreasing T.V ---> Increasing Reading lvls.
Which is wrong.
Hence, D is wrong .

So Answer should be E.

Hi Nightmare,

is n't choice D, a wrong negation ?

Premise : watching more television (A) -> decreases reading levels (B)
D: watching less television( not A) -> increases reading grades (not B).

I eliminated D considering it as wrong negation and chose E. Please correct me if i am wrong

thanks
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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2018, 09:25
Let us do some meaning analysis. In a nutshell the passage states that In order to read well as children of western countries american children will have to reduce time spend watching television.
To arrive at this conclusion he presents a fact that western children perform better than american children on reading tests and can read above their grade level. Also they spend less time watching television. So he tries to draw the conclusion by relating only time spent watching television with that of performance of reading tests.

Pre thinking - He assumes that there is no significant difference in teaching methods of both the countries.

Options:-a,b - if negated doesn't effect the conclusion
c,d - already stated in the passage can't be an assumption
e - in line with our pre thinking analysis -correct
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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2018, 11:02
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I option D - If a child watches less television, his or her "reading level" will increase - Reading Level is poorly defined. From stimulus, i could only presume that it refers to the "grade level" of reading.

The argument throws a lot of stats, such as more students in other countries read above the grade in which they currently are. But nowhere it is explicitly stated that reading above your grade increases reading abilities. Its just stated as a correlation. It may very well be possible that reducing TV time would result in more free time at hand and students start reading above their grade but without increasing their reading abilities.

E clearly gives an alternative cause.
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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2018, 00:54
D is paraphrase of No X ----> No Y , where X is the cause and Y is the effect. Please help me understand ow D is irrelevent over here.
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Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not  [#permalink]

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21 Feb 2019, 02:30
We are comparing the reading performance of two groups of children, who are contrasted by one factor (hours of TV watched). This is being done to ascertain the effect of tv watching on reading performance. Based on this comparison, we are drawing a conclusion as to whether one group of students must decrease their tv consumption in order to improve their reading performance In such a situation, it must be determined whether or not their may be other factors that could be causing the difference in performance. So, E is the best answer, since it clarifies that another major potential factor in shaping the students’ performance (the methods used by teachers and parents to teach reading) are uniform across both groups.

C and D are irrelevant and B includes out of scope factors (other children). A actually weakens the final conclusion, since if the American children aren’t interested in reading then reducing their tv intake won’t change anything.
Re: Studies have shown that children who watch a lot of television do not   [#permalink] 21 Feb 2019, 02:30
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