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The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used

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The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used  [#permalink]

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The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used plane can be bought for one-third the price of the train line, and the plane, which is just as fast, can fly anywhere. The train would be a fixed linear system, and we live in a world that is spreading out in all directions and in which consumers choose the free-wheel systems (cars, buses, aircraft), which do not have fixed routes. Thus a sufficient market for the train will not exist.

Which of the following, if true, most severely weakens the argument presented above?


(A) Cars, buses, and planes require the efforts of drivers and pilots to guide them, whereas the train will be guided mechanically.

(B) Cars and buses are not nearly as fast as the high-speed train will be.

(C) Planes are not a free-wheel system because they can fly only between airports, which are less convenient for consumers than the high-speed train's stations would be.

(D) The high-speed train line cannot use currently underutilized train stations in large cities.

(E) For long trips, most people prefer to fly rather than to take ground-level transportation.


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Originally posted by parasena on 23 Jun 2012, 20:12.
Last edited by Bunuel on 20 Sep 2018, 03:49, edited 3 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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QOTD: The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2017, 15:59
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Planes, Trains, and Automobiles! (A classic 1980s comedy. I think it was probably funny, but I've killed a lot of brain cells since the 80s, and can't really remember...)

Here the author concludes that "a sufficient market for the {proposed high-speed} train will not exist." Why not?

  • The train would be a fixed linear system (with fixed routes).
  • Consumers prefer free-wheel systems (cars, buses, aircraft), which do not have fixed routes.
  • A plane would be just as fast as the proposed train, could fly anywhere (free-wheel), and would be cheaper.

So why build a high-speed train line when there is a cheaper, faster, and supposedly more flexible (i.e. free-wheel) option? Now that we understand the structure of the author's argument, we need to find something that weakens that argument:

Quote:
(A) Cars, buses, and planes require the efforts of drivers and pilots to guide them, whereas the train will be guided mechanically.

You might be tempted to choose (A) if you think, "Oh, maybe trains are safer because they leave less room for human error?". But we need something that weakens the author's specific argument, which states that a sufficient market for the train will not exist. The author's argument has nothing to do with safety or drivers/pilots vs mechanical guidance. Choice (A) has nothing to do with the market for a high-speed train or with free-wheel vs fixed route systems. Thus, choice (A) does not impact the author's argument and should be eliminated.

Quote:
(B) Cars and buses are not nearly as fast as the high-speed train will be.

Although cars and buses are cited as EXAMPLES of free-wheel systems, the author's argument focuses on planes versus high-speed trains (i.e. why build a train when planes are cheaper, faster, and more flexible)? Furthermore, choice (B) does not address the free-wheel versus fixed route argument made by the author. Even if the trains are much faster, customers might prefer free-wheel systems that allow them to travel anywhere and not just along fixed routes. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) Planes are not a free-wheel system because they can fly only between airports, which are less convenient for consumers than the high-speed train's stations would be.

The passage states that consumers choose free-wheel systems that do not have fixed routes. If a free-wheel system is one that does not have fixed routes and planes are free to fly anywhere, then planes seem to represent a free-wheel system.

However, even though aircraft by themselves might be free-wheel, planes travel along fixed routes. Although planes can theoretically fly anywhere, in reality their routes are limited to airports at fixed locations. If we include the fact that consumers need to use these airports in order to actually travel by plane, the resulting system is not free-wheel.

Since the author's argument is that planes are cheaper, faster, and more flexible (i.e. free-wheel), choice (C) directly weakens that argument. Hang on to this one.

Quote:
(D) The high-speed train line cannot use currently underutilized train stations in large cities.

Choice (D) implies that new stations would have to be built in order to use the new high-speed trains. This point would likely be used to argue AGAINST building the high-speed trains. This point likely strengthens the author's argument. Regardless, choice (D) does not impact the author's reasoning and can be eliminated.

Quote:
(E) For long trips, most people prefer to fly rather than to take ground-level transportation.

As with choice (D), this seems to support the view that the train line should not be built. Regardless, choice (E) says nothing about the author's argument, which is based on the market for high-speed trains. Eliminate (E).

Choice (C) is the best answer.
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Re: The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2012, 05:03
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parasena wrote:
The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used plane can be bought for one-third the price of the train line, and the plane, which is just as fast, can fly anywhere. The train would be a fixed linear system, and we live in a world that is spreading out in all directions and in which consumers choose the free-wheel systems (cars, buses, aircraft), which do not have fixed routes. Thus a sufficient market for the train will not exist. to decrease in the next few years.

Which of the following, if true, most severely weakens the argument presented above?

(A) Cars, buses, and planes require the efforts of drivers and pilots to guide them, whereas the train will be guided mechanically.

(B) Cars and buses are not nearly as fast as the high-speed train will be.

(C) Planes are not a free-wheel system because they can fly only between airports, which are less convenient for consumers than the high-speed train's stations would be.

(D) The high-speed train line cannot use currently underutilized train stations in large cities.

(E) For long trips, most people prefer to fly rather than to take ground-level transportation.


The main argument of this blurb is that a sufficient market for the train will not exist mainly due to the fact that the train would be a fixed linear system, where as planes, cars and buses do not rely on the fixed linear system.

To weaken this argument IMO you need to state that planes cars and buses do not always rely on the free wheeler system/ or the fact that train would not all be a fixed linear system.

(C) weakens b/c it says that planes are also somewhat fixed as they can only be allowed to fly in b/w airports.

(A) tells us that trains are guided mechanically which could prove as an advantage to other systems, but it does not change that fact that it is still relying on a fixed linear system which is far inferior than a free wheeler system.
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Re: The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2012, 07:35
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The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used plane can be bought for one-third the price of the train line, and the plane, which is just as fast, can fly anywhere. The train would be a fixed linear system, and we live in a world that is spreading out in all directions and in which consumers choose the free-wheel systems (cars, buses, aircraft), which do not have fixed routes. Thus a sufficient market for the train will not exist.

Which of the following, if true, most severely weakens the argument presented above?

(A) Cars, buses, and planes require the efforts of drivers and pilots to guide them, whereas the train will be guided mechanically.
(B) Cars and buses are not nearly as fast as the high-speed train will be.
(C) Planes are not a free-wheel system because they can fly only between airports, which are less convenient for consumers than the high-speed train's stations would be.
(D) The high-speed train line cannot use currently underutilized train stations in large cities.
(E) For long trips, most people prefer to fly rather than to take ground-level transportation.

I agree with the OA.
However, it is tricky to find the conclusion (in blue) because the sentence in red seems to be the conclusion if you don't pay enough attention (It is at the end of the argument and used the word "thus").
In this sense, I would like to know whether there is a method or approach to find the conclusion in this type of tricky questions in a faster way. CR Powerscore Bible suggests to organize the ideas to find what statement is consequence of another statement; however, it takes time. Thanks!
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Re: The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2012, 09:04
is true that the conclusion not always is founded at the end of the stimulus (98% of time YES).

However, i disagree with you; for me the red phrase is the conclusion, and even not, the key point of the entire situation is that train are NOT convenient.

We have to find something that says train IS convenient. C does.

During this (huge, monster, crazy , amazing, unbelievable) exam one of the central point is : understand what's going on on the problem. As Ron says: be flexible

Without consider or not the conclusion.

First sentence: The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used plane can be bought for one-third the price of the train line, and the plane, which is just as fast, can fly anywhere. -------> what 's that mean: train as more expensive than plane.

Second sentence: he train would be a fixed linear system, and we live in a world that is spreading out in all directions and in which consumers choose the free-wheel systems (cars, buses, aircraft), which do not have fixed routes ---------> we live in a world with a lot of movement where wheels are a problem rather than plane.

Thierd sentence: Thus a sufficient market for the train will not exist ----------> Train has no (or will not) market sufficient enough to develope.

I do not see the process above takes much time. At most 20 seconds. This collimate with what CR Bible says

That's it
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Re: The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2012, 12:59
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I also think the conclusion is in red. The blue part provides a few reasons (prices, range of mobility, etc.) to support the conclusion, which states there will be no market for the train line.

(C) directly weakens this conclusion by stating that there will be a market: using planes one can only fly from airport to airport. Thus many will still rely on trains for those areas in which using an airport will be inconvenient.

@metallicafan, Btw, was there another answer choice you were drawn to?
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Re: The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2013, 09:17
parasena wrote:
The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used plane can be bought for one-third the price of the train line, and the plane, which is just as fast, can fly anywhere. The train would be a fixed linear system, and we live in a world that is spreading out in all directions and in which consumers choose the free-wheel systems (cars, buses, aircraft), which do not have fixed routes. Thus a sufficient market for the train will not exist. to decrease in the next few years.

Which of the following, if true, most severely weakens the argument presented above?

(A) Cars, buses, and planes require the efforts of drivers and pilots to guide them, whereas the train will be guided mechanically.

(B) Cars and buses are not nearly as fast as the high-speed train will be.

(C) Planes are not a free-wheel system because they can fly only between airports, which are less convenient for consumers than the high-speed train's stations would be.

(D) The high-speed train line cannot use currently underutilized train stations in large cities.

(E) For long trips, most people prefer to fly rather than to take ground-level transportation.



In this question how can we can weaken the conclusion by questioning the premise itself that planes are not a free wheel system,whereas in premise its mentioned consumers choose the free wheel systems (cars,buses,aircraft).
Aircraft and planes are two different things?
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Re: The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2013, 04:17
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abid1986 wrote:
parasena wrote:
The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used plane can be bought for one-third the price of the train line, and the plane, which is just as fast, can fly anywhere. The train would be a fixed linear system, and we live in a world that is spreading out in all directions and in which consumers choose the free-wheel systems (cars, buses, aircraft), which do not have fixed routes. Thus a sufficient market for the train will not exist. to decrease in the next few years.

Which of the following, if true, most severely weakens the argument presented above?

(A) Cars, buses, and planes require the efforts of drivers and pilots to guide them, whereas the train will be guided mechanically.

(B) Cars and buses are not nearly as fast as the high-speed train will be.

(C) Planes are not a free-wheel system because they can fly only between airports, which are less convenient for consumers than the high-speed train's stations would be.

(D) The high-speed train line cannot use currently underutilized train stations in large cities.

(E) For long trips, most people prefer to fly rather than to take ground-level transportation.



In this question how can we can weaken the conclusion by questioning the premise itself that planes are not a free wheel system,whereas in premise its mentioned consumers choose the free wheel systems (cars,buses,aircraft).
Aircraft and planes are two different things?


Hi Abid,

No, I don't think the argument is playing on the difference between aircraft and planes. By the way, technically, an airplane is a kind of aircraft.

It seems to me a rare case of attacking the premise.

Due to lack of any better options, this is the right one.

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2017, 11:25
I am shocked that this is an official question. Any answer that goes against the premise is incorrect. Option C clearly goes against what is stated in the passage. I feel option B weakens the conclusion because if cars and buses are not as fast as high-speed train, then there could be a market for these trains. Thus doesn't B weaken the conclusion?
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Re: The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used  [#permalink]

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abhijay wrote:
I am shocked that this is an official question. Any answer that goes against the premise is incorrect. Option C clearly goes against what is stated in the passage. I feel option B weakens the conclusion because if cars and buses are not as fast as high-speed train, then there could be a market for these trains. Thus doesn't B weaken the conclusion?

The passage states that consumers choose free-wheel systems that do not have fixed routes. If a free-wheel system is one that does not have fixed routes and planes are free to fly anywhere, then planes can indeed be considered a free-wheel system.

Choice (C) doesn't actually contradict this information; rather, choice (C) elaborates by stating that, although planes can theoretically fly anywhere, in reality their routes are limited to airports at fixed locations. If we include the fact that consumers need to use these airports in order to actually travel by plane, the resulting system is not free-wheel. This does not directly contradict the author's notion that an aircraft, by itself, can be considered free-wheel.

Quote:
(B) Cars and buses are not nearly as fast as the high-speed train will be.

As for choice (B), the author's argument is not based on speed but rather on convenience of routes. The train might be 20 times faster than cars and buses, but if the train stations are not convenient for travelers, the travelers will not take the train.
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Re: QOTD: The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2017, 06:09
The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used plane can be bought for one-third the price of the train line, and the plane, which is just as fast, can fly anywhere. The train would be a fixed linear system, and we live in a world that is spreading out in all directions and in which consumers choose the free-wheel systems (cars, buses, aircraft), which do not have fixed routes. Thus a sufficient market for the train will not exist.

Which of the following, if true, most severely weakens the argument presented above?

(A) Cars, buses, and planes require the efforts of drivers and pilots to guide them, whereas the train will be guided mechanically. -We are not worried about the efforts included.

(B) Cars and buses are not nearly as fast as the high-speed train will be. -We are not worried about the speed of the vehicles.

(C) Planes are not a free-wheel system because they can fly only between airports, which are less convenient for consumers than the high-speed train's stations would be. -Correct. If other means of transport are not convenient then the trains won't loose their identity.

(D) The high-speed train line cannot use currently underutilized train stations in large cities. -At the most, this strengthens the argument

(E) For long trips, most people prefer to fly rather than to take ground-level transportation. -This strengthens the argument.
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QOTD: The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2017, 11:23
The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used plane can be bought for one-third the price of the train line, and the plane, which is just as fast, can fly anywhere. The train would be a fixed linear system, and we live in a world that is spreading out in all directions and in which consumers choose the free-wheel systems (cars, buses, aircraft), which do not have fixed routes. Thus a sufficient market for the train will not exist.

Which of the following, if true, most [b]severely weakens the argument presented above?[/b]

WEAKEN -- We need to look for an option which says even though the train has fixed routes then also a sufficient market for train will exist.

(A) Cars, buses, and planes require the efforts of drivers and pilots to guide them, whereas the train will be guided mechanically.
Though this is a plus point for the trains but still the train has fixed routes. So, this option adds nothing in our pocket to conclude anything.

(B) Cars and buses are not nearly as fast as the high-speed train will be.
Again, high speed is a plus point for trains but still the train has fixed routes. So, this option adds nothing in our pocket to conclude anything.

(C) Planes are not a free-wheel system because they can fly only between airports, which are less convenient for consumers than the high-speed train's stations would be.
Ohhh.. so its saying even though planes are free to fly anywhere but there path is even restricted because they can depart and arrive at the airports. So, it gives us an alternate reason that weakens the above conclusion. This goes in line with our prethinking. As travelling to airports would be less convenient for consumers than the high-speed train's stations would be. So, the sufficient market for the trains will exist.

(D) The high-speed train line cannot use currently under utilized train stations in large cities.
Even if the high-speed train line can use currently under utilized train stations in large cities, trains will still has fixed routes. So, this option adds nothing in our pocket to conclude anything.

(E) For long trips, most people prefer to fly rather than to take ground-level transportation.
Irrelevant. Also, what about short trips? Also what about the fixed routes?
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QOTD: The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2018, 03:29
GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo,

In a CR argument, we treat the premise as TRUE on its face value.

Argument says:
The train would be a fixed linear system, and we live in a world that is spreading out in all directions and in which consumers choose the free-wheel systems (cars, buses, aircraft), which do not have fixed routes.

This statement is a fact, and it clearly says: Aircraft (as as system, not plane individually) are free wheel systems ie one that can reach out in all directions.

Does not option C goes against the premise - Planes are NOT free wheeled system?
I believe we CAN NOT challenge the premise but we need to break link between premise and conclusion.

Also do we not need additional supporting evidence against cars and buses too, which are not mentioned in option C.
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Re: QOTD: The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jan 2018, 09:58
adkikani wrote:
GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo,

In a CR argument, we treat the premise as TRUE on its face value.

Argument says:
The train would be a fixed linear system, and we live in a world that is spreading out in all directions and in which consumers choose the free-wheel systems (cars, buses, aircraft), which do not have fixed routes.

This statement is a fact, and it clearly says: Aircraft (as as system, not plane individually) are free wheel systems ie one that can reach out in all directions.

Does not option C goes against the premise - Planes are NOT free wheeled system?
I believe we CAN NOT challenge the premise but we need to break link between premise and conclusion.

Also do we not need additional supporting evidence against cars and buses too, which are not mentioned in option C.

The passage states that consumers choose free-wheel systems that do not have fixed routes. If a free-wheel system is one that does not have fixed routes and planes are free to fly anywhere, then planes can indeed be considered a free-wheel system.

Choice (C) doesn't actually contradict this information; rather, choice (C) elaborates by stating that, although planes can theoretically fly anywhere, in reality their routes are limited to airports at fixed locations. If we include the fact that consumers need to use these airports in order to actually travel by plane, the resulting system is not free-wheel. This does not directly contradict the author's notion that an aircraft, by itself, can be considered free-wheel.

With that in mind, check out the explanation for choice (C) in the post below. Hopefully it makes more sense now!
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Re: The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2018, 06:08
parasena wrote:
The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used plane can be bought for one-third the price of the train line, and the plane, which is just as fast, can fly anywhere. The train would be a fixed linear system, and we live in a world that is spreading out in all directions and in which consumers choose the free-wheel systems (cars, buses, aircraft), which do not have fixed routes. Thus a sufficient market for the train will not exist.

Which of the following, if true, most severely weakens the argument presented above?



(A) Cars, buses, and planes require the efforts of drivers and pilots to guide them, whereas the train will be guided mechanically.
Comparison is between Trains and Flights. Irrelevant. Drop it.

(B) Cars and buses are not nearly as fast as the high-speed train will be.
Irrelevant. Drop it.

(C) Planes are not a free-wheel system because they can fly only between airports, which are less convenient for consumers than the high-speed train's stations would be.
Gives a possible reason for people to prefer to trains over flights. Keep it.

(D) The high-speed train line cannot use currently underutilized train stations in large cities.
Okay, I dont see it undermining our conclusion in any way. Drop it.

(E) For long trips, most people prefer to fly rather than to take ground-level transportation.
what about shorter trips ? How many people take longer/ shorter trips ?
Too many questions left unanswered. Drop it.


Answer: C
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Re: The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Oct 2018, 08:56
Official Explanation:-

Argument Evaluation

Situation A free-wheel system of transportation, the airplane, is as fast as a fixed linear system, the high-speed train. Because people prefer free-wheel systems that do not have fixed routes, the high-speed train will never find a sufficient market.

Reasoning What is the potential weakness in this argument? The passage argues that consumers will choose to fly rather than use the high-speed train. The argument is based upon a consumer preference for free-wheel systems over fixed linear systems. The definition of a free-wheel system is one that does not have fixed routes. The argument is weakened by any challenge to the definition of flying as a free-wheel transportation system. It is true that airplanes may be able to go almost anywhere, but commercial airlines do establish fixed routes and necessarily must travel to and from airports. Furthermore, if airports are less conveniently located for consumers than are train terminals, consumers might well prefer the more convenient of the two fixed-route alternatives.

A The method of guidance is irrelevant to the argument about free-wheel versus fixed linear systems.
B The passage compares the speed and system models of airplanes and high-speed trains. The argument does not incorporate buses and cars, which are included only to give examples of freewheel systems, and so this statement is irrelevant.
C Correct. This statement properly identifies the weakness in the argument: Airplanes are not truly a free-wheel system because they are restricted to traveling between airports. Additionally, airports tend to be less conveniently located than train terminals, which has further potential to
weaken the argument in favor of airplanes.
D The inability of high-speed trains to use some convenient train stations strengthens, rather than weakens, the argument in favor of airplanes.
E Consumer preference for air travel over ground travel on long trips strengthens, rather than weakens, the argument in favor of airplanes.

The correct answer is C.
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Re: The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used &nbs [#permalink] 02 Oct 2018, 08:56
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