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The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew

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The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2010, 04:45
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The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts transformed the indifference into one of interest, though the concept of drift itself was ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift.

(A) was a ball of expanding mass never drew any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts transformed the indifference into one of interest , though the concept of drift itself was ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift

(B) is a ball of expanding mass had never drawn any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts transformed the indifference into one of interest, though the concept of drift itself was ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift

(C) was a ball of expanding mass did never draw any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts has transformed the indifference into one of interest, though the concept of drift itself has been ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift

(D) was a ball of expanding mass never drew any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts transformed this apathetic indifference into one of interest, though the concept of drift itself was ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift

(E) is a ball of expanding mass had never drawn any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts transformed the indifference into one of interest, though the concept of drift itself had been ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2010, 04:53
daagh wrote:
The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts transformed the indifference into one of interest, though the concept of drift itself was ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift.

(A) was a ball of expanding mass never drew any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts transformed the indifference into one of interest , though the concept of drift itself was ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift.

(B) is a ball of expanding mass had never drawn any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts transformed the indifference into one of interest, though the concept of drift itself was ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift.

(C) was a ball of expanding mass did never draw any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts has transformed the indifference into one of interest, though the concept of drift itself has been ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift.

(D) was a ball of expanding mass never drew any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts transformed this apathetic indifference into one of interest, though the concept of drift itself was ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift.

(E) is a ball of expanding mass had never drawn any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts transformed the indifference into one of interest, though the concept of drift itself had been ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift


I chose D, for consistency in use of Past tense, was a ball...never drew.......and use of this for indifference,
in E "The idea" shifts gears and goes from present tense"is" to past perfect "had never drawn" just too swiftly.....

any other takers?
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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2010, 07:35
Got it narrowed down to B & E, given that "is" is the appropriate tense. The difference between the two lie in the "was" (past tense) and "had been" (past perfect tense) in the second clause. Gonna have to read up on this, "was" just sounds better to my ear. Can anyone help out here? Thanks.

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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2010, 07:45
ok, got it.

Multiple time events here to consider:

- The idea that the earth is ball of expanding mass, and

- Concept of continental drift

First event on the timeline: The concept of drift was ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence

Second event: The idea the earth is a ball of expanded mass drew takers after compelling evidence was presented.

Given that the first event is further back on the timeline, you would use past perfect to distinguish it as the earlier past event

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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2010, 19:52
cheers !! picked B .
made 2-3 split narrowed to b and e ....and finally ignored had been in B .....

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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2010, 22:21
I have one question.
If two different events in the past are confusing with respect to their occurrence
then we have to use past perfect to clear this confusion . But if we are very
sure abt the occurrence of the two events(like here where until makes it clear) then
is it really mandatory to use past perfect.

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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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Usage of past tense and past perfect tense


Use of past perfect is essentially a chronological factor, when two events that started and ended in the past are to be marked with proper tenses. In this scenario, the one that is clearly the earlier, will be in past perfect and the one that is later in simple past. Supposing there were more than two event the last of one of the series of action will entail a simple past tense, while the all the previous ones will entail use of past perfect.

Thus, to cite an example,

1. I had woken up pretty late in the morning and darted to the office like a bullet.

Only two events and hence the last one is in simple past and the earlier one is in past perfect.

2. I had woken up, pretty late, taken bath quickly, eaten my breakfast in a gulp and darted to the office like a bullet.
More than two events, only the last one in simple past and all the other earlier ones, though more than one, marked in past perfect.


By logical predication, a past perfect can not exist alone without an accompanying simple past. Thus when only one event is involved, you can not express it in the past perfect.

Ex; I had taken two cups of tea this morning
Ex; I had lived in Canada in the 1980s

Both the above examples are wrong, because they are not accompanied by a simple past event.
The correct answers are: I took two cups of tea; I lived in Canada 1980s.

Similarly, even if there is more the one event, say two, three or four, you can not mark all of them with past perfect. At least, one function should be there in simple past, naturally the last of the events, to expose the chronological difference

3. When the events that occurred in the past are not distinguishable in regard to the timing, or if they occurred at the same time, then only simple past should be used for all the events.

Ex: As I entered the room, I was shocked to see the students snoring
Here, entering and being shocked are happening at the same time. You can not say one is earlier than the other. So use simple past for both.


If two different events in the past are confusing with respect to their occurrence
then we have to use past tense and get going.. But if we are very
sure abt the occurrence of the two events(like here where until makes it clear) then it is really mandatory to use past perfect for the earlier event.

Does it help?
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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2010, 00:22
can someone explain to me why A is not correct?

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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2010, 00:39
The fact is that earth was a ball of expanding mass in the past, is a ball of expanding mass now and will be an expanding mass in the future. This is a universal fact, and has to be expressed in simple present. A uses the past tense was instead. Hence wrong.
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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2010, 11:41
+1 E. Not going to lie. Took me 4 mins to get pick E. The choices were quite long - I can see how one could lose train of thought while doing this, however E is the best choice

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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2010, 11:56
Guys,

the Earth Still exists so only B and E remains.
in E " had been ignored until physicists" i like more than was ignored in B.

So E wins.

daagh's questions are always tricky ;)
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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 29 Nov 2010, 01:20
daagh wrote:
The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts transformed the indifference into one of interest, though the concept of drift itself was ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift.

(A) was a ball of expanding mass never drew any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts transformed the indifference into one of interest , though the concept of drift itself was ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift.

(B) is a ball of expanding mass had never drawn any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts transformed the indifference into one of interest, though the concept of drift itself was ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift.

(C) was a ball of expanding mass did never draw any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts has transformed the indifference into one of interest, though the concept of drift itself has been ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift.

(D) was a ball of expanding mass never drew any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts transformed this apathetic indifference into one of interest, though the concept of drift itself was ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift.

(E) is a ball of expanding mass had never drawn any takers until the well documented phenomenon of continental drifts transformed the indifference into one of interest, though the concept of drift itself had been ignored until physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift


Its 600-700 level question but took about 1:45 mins :(

Got rid of A/C/D since "was" is used in these - Earth still IS a ball of expanding mass. So usage of WAS is incorrect.

Now, B vs E...the two events, viz,
'Concept of drift ignored' and 'scientists produced evidence' are related events. So we need past participle foe the event that took place earlier (viz, concept of drift ignored) ... the participle is "HAD BEEN" and is correctly used in E.

So my ans was E.
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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2015, 21:52
b/w B and E

We need past perfect to clarify time sequence but its optional if its clear from context.

In B, we have word until ----. So we know the sequence,

1. the concept of drift itself was ignored
2. physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift

Can anyone help me why I am wrong.

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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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Rukna wrote
Quote:
b/w B and E

We need past perfect to clarify time sequence but its optional if it is clear from context.

In B, we have word until ----. So we know the sequence,

1. the concept of drift itself was ignored
2. physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift

Can anyone help me why I am wrong.


I agree with you that it is optional; Optional means one has the choice either to use it or leave it. It doesn’t mean one should not do it. I chose to use it, because the past perfect renders the sequence explicit while not using it may leave it implicit. In addition, there are a number of instances in official GMAT in which the past perfect in spite of the presence sequence - markers is still used.
Please look at the following example

She was less successful after she had emigrated to New York compared to her native Germany, photographer Lotte Jacobi nevertheless earned a small group of discerning admirers, and her photographs were eventually exhibited in prestigious galleries across the United States.

A) She was less successful after she had emigrated to New York compared to

B) Being less successful after she had emigrated to New York as compared to

C) Less successful after she emigrated to New York than she had been in

D) Although she was less successful after emigrating to New York when compared to

E) She had been less successful after emigrating to New York than in

Ans : C. The sequence marker ‘ after’ is very much there in C; still the OA uses the past perfect ‘had been’.
There are many more such instances. So, I thought it would be crystal clear to use the past perfect.
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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2015, 08:26
daagh wrote:
Rukna wrote
Quote:
b/w B and E

We need past perfect to clarify time sequence but its optional if it is clear from context.

In B, we have word until ----. So we know the sequence,

1. the concept of drift itself was ignored
2. physicists produced compelling evidence to prove the occurrence of drift

Can anyone help me why I am wrong.


I agree with you that it is optional; Optional means one has the choice either to use it or leave it. It doesn’t mean one should not do it. I chose to use it, because the past perfect renders the sequence explicit while not using it may leave it implicit. In addition, there are a number of instances in official GMAT in which the past perfect in spite of the presence sequence - markers is still used.
Please look at the following example

She was less successful after she had emigrated to New York compared to her native Germany, photographer Lotte Jacobi nevertheless earned a small group of discerning admirers, and her photographs were eventually exhibited in prestigious galleries across the United States.

A) She was less successful after she had emigrated to New York compared to

B) Being less successful after she had emigrated to New York as compared to

C) Less successful after she emigrated to New York than she had been in

D) Although she was less successful after emigrating to New York when compared to

E) She had been less successful after emigrating to New York than in

Ans : C. The sequence marker ‘ after’ is very much there in C; still the OA uses the past perfect ‘had been’.
There are many more such instances. So, I thought it would be crystal clear to use the past perfect.


Okay. Thanks :)

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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2015, 00:54
had done is used to show an action finished before a past point of time or action
and action which begin before and continue until a point of time in the past is shown by simple past.

I am not sure about this. check grammar books.
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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2015, 01:27
Some claims that if any word is used in the sentence that indicates chronological order, then we do not have to use past perfect tense.

I solved the quiz before I watched the game

I had solved the quiz, and I watched the game.

before, until, after...since these words indicates the order, there is no need for past perfect tense.

Would anyone please elaborate?

Thank you
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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2015, 07:52
alphaseeker wrote:
Some claims that if any word is used in the sentence that indicates chronological order, then we do not have to use past perfect tense.

I solved the quiz before I watched the game

I had solved the quiz, and I watched the game.

before, until, after...since these words indicates the order, there is no need for past perfect tense.

Would anyone please elaborate?

Thank you


I had asked the same question above. Pls read that.
As suggested by someone, its optional but recommended. So, best out of other options.

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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2016, 23:26
daagh wrote:
Usage of past tense and past perfect tense


Use of past perfect is essentially a chronological factor, when two events that started and ended in the past are to be marked with proper tenses. In this scenario, the one that is clearly the earlier, will be in past perfect and the one that is later in simple past. Supposing there were more than two event the last of one of the series of action will entail a simple past tense, while the all the previous ones will entail use of past perfect.

Thus, to cite an example,

1. I had woken up pretty late in the morning and darted to the office like a bullet.

Only two events and hence the last one is in simple past and the earlier one is in past perfect.

2. I had woken up, pretty late, taken bath quickly, eaten my breakfast in a gulp and darted to the office like a bullet.
More than two events, only the last one in simple past and all the other earlier ones, though more than one, marked in past perfect.


By logical predication, a past perfect can not exist alone without an accompanying simple past. Thus when only one event is involved, you can not express it in the past perfect.

Ex; I had taken two cups of tea this morning
Ex; I had lived in Canada in the 1980s

Both the above examples are wrong, because they are not accompanied by a simple past event.
The correct answers are: I took two cups of tea; I lived in Canada 1980s.

Similarly, even if there is more the one event, say two, three or four, you can not mark all of them with past perfect. At least, one function should be there in simple past, naturally the last of the events, to expose the chronological difference

3. When the events that occurred in the past are not distinguishable in regard to the timing, or if they occurred at the same time, then only simple past should be used for all the events.

Ex: As I entered the room, I was shocked to see the students snoring
Here, entering and being shocked are happening at the same time. You can not say one is earlier than the other. So use simple past for both.


If two different events in the past are confusing with respect to their occurrence
then we have to use past tense and get going.. But if we are very
sure abt the occurrence of the two events(like here where until makes it clear) then it is really mandatory to use past perfect for the earlier event.

Does it help?



Yes Daagh!!!

Definitely it is very helpful...Thx for your effort to make it very clear

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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2017, 13:50
I was able to get down to B and E relatively quickly but I choose B instead. As Daagh sir said, "Even if there is more the one event, say two, three or four, you can not mark all of them with past perfect. At least, one function should be there in simple past, naturally the last of the events, to expose the chronological difference", why is option B incorrect then? If we should use a simple past, shouldn't B be correct then (was instead of had been)? The reason why I eliminate option E because I assumed that we didn't need to use past perfect in the last perfect of the sentence. Could any of you guys please help? Would immensely appreciate it! mikemcgarry GMATNinjaTwo GMATNinja sayantanc2k

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Re: The idea that earth was a ball of expanding mass never drew   [#permalink] 27 Nov 2017, 13:50

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