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The likelihood of America’s exhausting her natural resources is growin

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The likelihood of America’s exhausting her natural resources is growin  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Feb 2019, 03:53
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The likelihood of America’s exhausting her natural resources is growing less. All kinds of waste are being recycled, and new uses are constantly being found for almost everything. We are getting more use out of what we produce, and are manufacturing many new byproducts out of what we formerly threw away. It is, therefore, unnecessary for us to continue to ban logging in national parks, nature reserves, or areas inhabited by endangered species of animals.

Which one of the following most seriously undermines the conclusion of this argument? ​

A) The increasing amount of recycled material made available each year is equal to one-tenth of the increasing amount of natural material consumed annually.
B) ​Recent studies have shown that the number of endangered animals throughout the world fluctuates sharply and is chiefly determined by changes in meteorological conditions. ​
C) The logging industry contributes huge sums of money to political campaigns in states where it has a financial interest. ​
D) The techniques that make recycling possible are constantly improved so that more is reclaimed for lower costs each year.
E) ​Political contributions by the recycling industry are now greater than those of either the logging or animal protection interests.

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Re: The likelihood of America’s exhausting her natural resources is growin  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Feb 2019, 13:43
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A) The increasing amount of recycled material made available each year is equal to one-tenth of the increasing amount of natural material consumed annually.
Correctly undermine the conclusion
B) ​Recent studies have shown that the number of endangered animals throughout the world fluctuates sharply and is chiefly determined by changes in meteorological conditions.
out of topic ​
C) The logging industry contributes huge sums of money to political campaigns in states where it has a financial interest.
out of topic ​ ​
D) The techniques that make recycling possible are constantly improved so that more is reclaimed for lower costs each year.
strengthen opposite
E) ​Political contributions by the recycling industry are now greater than those of either the logging or animal protection interests.
out of topic ​

Answer A
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Re: The likelihood of America’s exhausting her natural resources is growin  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Feb 2019, 19:05
Note that the argument is formed as, 1) premise and 2) conclusion.

Currently the premise is "All kinds of waste are being recycled, and new uses are constantly being found for almost everything. We are getting more use out of what we produce, and are manufacturing many new byproducts out of what we formerly threw away".
- this means that we are making good uses of natural resources
Conclusion follows as, "unnecessary for us to continue to ban logging in national parks, nature reserves, or areas inhabited by endangered species of animals."

The question asked, which undermines the conclusion the most. If a statement makes the premise false, the conclusion can't stand. Thus, let's look at the choices.

A) The increasing amount of recycled material made available each year is equal to one-tenth of the increasing amount of natural material consumed annually.
- If this holds true, our premise goes false. It shows that inc. amt. of recycled material is one-tenth of INCREASING amt. of natural resources. So we aren't making good uses out of the nat. resources. Since this undermines the premise, it's the answer.

B) ​Recent studies have shown that the number of endangered animals throughout the world fluctuates sharply and is chiefly determined by changes in meteorological conditions. ​
- Not relevant with conclusion.

C) The logging industry contributes huge sums of money to political campaigns in states where it has a financial interest. ​
- Again, financial interest is not related.

D) The techniques that make recycling possible are constantly improved so that more is reclaimed for lower costs each year.
- Techniques make the cost less is not relevant to our conclusion.
E) ​Political contributions by the recycling industry are now greater than those of either the logging or animal protection interests.
- Political conclusion has nothing to do with our conclusion.
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The likelihood of America’s exhausting her natural resources is growin  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Feb 2019, 19:44
carcass wrote:
The likelihood of America’s exhausting her natural resources is growing less. All kinds of waste are being recycled, and new uses are constantly being found for almost everything. We are getting more use out of what we produce, and are manufacturing many new byproducts out of what we formerly threw away. It is, therefore, unnecessary for us to continue to ban logging in national parks, nature reserves, or areas inhabited by endangered species of animals.

Which one of the following most seriously undermines the conclusion of this argument? ​

A) The increasing amount of recycled material made available each year is equal to one-tenth of the increasing amount of natural material consumed annually.
B) ​Recent studies have shown that the number of endangered animals throughout the world fluctuates sharply and is chiefly determined by changes in meteorological conditions. ​
C) The logging industry contributes huge sums of money to political campaigns in states where it has a financial interest. ​
D) The techniques that make recycling possible are constantly improved so that more is reclaimed for lower costs each year.
E) ​Political contributions by the recycling industry are now greater than those of either the logging or animal protection interests.

Conclusion of the Argument: It is, therefore, unnecessary for us to continue to ban logging.

Premises: We are getting more use out of what we produce, and waste is being recycled.

So, the idea seems to be that, since materials are being used more effectively, the forests are no longer at risk of being destroyed as a result of use of materials.

Gap in the Argument: This argument jumps from the premise that materials are being used more effectively all the way to the conclusion that the forest are no longer at risk. That's a pretty big gap. One way to weaken the argument is to call into question the validity of the assumption that that gap can be jumped.

(A) Correct. This choice indicates that, while material is being recycled more, the recycling is not keeping up with increases in use of materials. So materials are being used more, not less. This fact is clearly a reason to question the idea that we can jump from the fact that materials are being use more effectively to the conclusion that the forests are no longer at risk.

(B) Incorrect. This would go on regardless of how materials are being used, and the fact that the numbers of endangered animals fluctuate does not provide a reason to call into question the conclusion that forests are no longer at risk of being destroyed as a result of use of materials.

(C) Incorrect. This answer could be tempting because a test-taker could get the impression that what this choice says indicates that the logging industry is doing unethical things. However, the idea is that material use is decreasing, and so forests are no longer at risk. This argument is unaffected by information on the ways in which the logging industry looks out for its interests.

(D) Incorrect. The fact that recycling techniques are improving does not weaken an argument based on the fact that more materials are being recycled.

(E) Incorrect. The fact that the recycling industry makes political contributions does not weaken an argument based on the fact that more materials are being recycled.
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The likelihood of America’s exhausting her natural resources is growin   [#permalink] 05 Feb 2019, 19:44
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