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The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are kn

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The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are kn  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 06 Dec 2018, 23:07
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A
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The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are known to stimulate certain receptors in the brain. To investigate the function of cannabinoids, researchers injected newborn mice with a chemical that is known to block cannabinoids from reaching their receptors in the brain. The injected mice showed far less interest in feeding than normal newborn mice do. Therefore, cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?


A. Newborn mice do not normally ingest any substance other than their mothers' milk.

B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals' milk that stimulate the appetite.

C. The mothers of newborn mice do not normally make any effort to encourage their babies to feed.

D. The milk of mammals would be less nutritious if it did not contain cannabinoids.

E. The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does not independently inhibit the appetite.


Attachment:
Mammals.JPG
Mammals.JPG [ 95.23 KiB | Viewed 224 times ]

Originally posted by nakib77 on 07 Oct 2005, 13:47.
Last edited by Bunuel on 06 Dec 2018, 23:07, edited 2 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are kn  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2005, 14:20
2
E, I think.

I was initially thinking A. But settled on E as being the more correct answer.

This is a trap by the testing methodology by throwing up a seemingly good answer at the beginning and saving the best answer for last - kinda testing whether your brain has grown tired...

Does anybody know whether the order of the options is randomized by the CAT or remains the same for a particular question?
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are kn  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2005, 20:20
B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals’ milk that stimulate the appetite.

if other than Cannabinoids stimulates the appetite, the resercher would have not found chamically injected mice not having intreset in feeding.
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are kn  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2005, 20:24
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HIMALAYA wrote:
B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals’ milk that stimulate the appetite.

if other than Cannabinoids stimulates the appetite, the resercher would have not found chamically injected mice not having intreset in feeding.

I disagree. Talking from a researcher's point of view, the mice would still have access to the mother's milk. A standard technique to study the actions of a substance is to block it using an inhibitor of the substance in study. One of the main concerns is the effects that the inhibitor may have by itself. So, E is the logical answer.
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are kn  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2005, 21:07
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E is the best choice.


If it were not true, the observation on mice behaviour may be because of the inhibitant rather than the Cannabinoids.
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are kn  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2007, 21:19
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singh_amit19 wrote:
The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are known to stimulate certain receptors in the brain. To investigate the function of cannabinoids, researchers injected newborn mice with a chemical that is known to block cannabinoides from reaching their receptors in the brain. The injected mice showed far less interest in feeding than normal newborn mice do. Therefore, cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Newborn mice do not normally ingest any substance other than their
mothers’ milk.
B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals’ milk that stimulate the appetite.
C. The mothers of newborn mice do not normally make any effort to encourage their babies to feed.
D. The milk of mammals would be less nutritious if it did not contain cannabinoids.
E. The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does not independently inhibit the appetite.


E.

The only variables that were different between the control group "normal newborn mice" and "injected newborn mice" was the chemical and the cannabinoids. Since we're testing for the latter, if we can fault the chemical, then the experiment is not valid.

B is not as strong because say, for instance, the chemical caused them to have only 10% of the energy they normally would have. This would not be a direct change in their appetite, but they may show low-appetite behavior.
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are kn  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2007, 17:51
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singh_amit19 wrote:
The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are known to stimulate certain receptors in the brain. To investigate the function of cannabinoids, researchers injected newborn mice with a chemical that is known to block cannabinoides from reaching their receptors in the brain. The injected mice showed far less interest in feeding than normal newborn mice do. Therefore, cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Newborn mice do not normally ingest any substance other than their
mothers’ milk.
B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals’ milk that stimulate the appetite.
C. The mothers of newborn mice do not normally make any effort to encourage their babies to feed.
D. The milk of mammals would be less nutritious if it did not contain cannabinoids.
E. The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does not independently inhibit the appetite.


E.

A: this was my contendor til I read E. But its weak.
B: this assumption is too extreme.
C: irrelevant
D: Irrelevant

E suggests that possibly the chemical was the cause. If this were the case the argument would be weakend. So E it is.
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are kn  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2014, 20:00
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My explanation:

E

Scenario
Two Groups of Mice
Group 1: the control group and had no chemical blocking cannabinoids.
Group 2: Had the chemical.

Result
Group 2 showed less interest in eating therefore cannabinoids function is stimulating appetite.

Negation of E: However, what if the chemical used in blocking cannabinoids by itself blocked the appetite? Then, this invalidates the experiment and thus the argument, and we can't say that cannabinoids stimulates appetite, because the chemical would be the one responsible for blocking the appetite.

Moderators, please change the OA to E according to Stacey's reply here: http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/cr- ... -t682.html.
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are kn  [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2016, 02:25
The answer is option E. My understanding :

Conclusion : Cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite

Premises : Cannabinoids stimulate inhibitors ; Mice were injected with chemicals to counter the effect of Cannabinoids ; Mice showed less appetite.
The author reasons that because cannabinoids did not reach the receptors and mice showed lesser appetite, cannabinoids stimulate appetite.

Pre-thinking : This is an assumption type question, so what is the gap between the stated facts and the conclusion ? What if something else led to reduced appetite ? We need to negate this possibility.

Sift through the answer options; only E fits the bill. B is in the race but looses out .... because how does it matter if it is the "only" substance or not ? Run a negation test on E and your conclusion breaks.

Hence E it is !
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are kn  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2016, 06:57
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E is correct.

A. Newborn mice do not normally ingest any substance other than their mother's milk. --> doesn't do anything to help shield the claim from counterargument
B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals' milk that stimulate the appetite. --> that's great and all, but we don't know if the chemical inhibitor is having any effect
C. The mothers of newborn mice do not normally make any effort to encourage their babies to feed. --> irrelevant
D. The milk of mammals would be less nutritious if it did not contain cannabinoids. --> outside of the scope
E. The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does not independently inhibit the appetite. --> bingo! using this choice, we eliminate the possibility for a counterargument on these grounds
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are kn  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2017, 12:06
I got the correct answer. But I am still not exactly clear as to how can B and C be eliminated. Can someone please explain in simple language preferably with an example?
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are kn  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2017, 08:38
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sam2016 wrote:
I got the correct answer. But I am still not exactly clear as to how can B and C be eliminated. Can someone please explain in simple language preferably with an example?

When cannabinoids are blocked from reaching their receptors in the brains of injected mice, those mice show less interest in feeding. The author thus concludes that "cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite." If that conclusion is valid, it would explain why appetite decreases when the cannabinoids are blocked.

Quote:
B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals' milk that stimulate the appetite.

The author concludes that cannabinoids probably stimulate the appetite but not that cannabinoids are the ONLY substances in mammals' milk that stimulate the appetite. For example, perhaps there are a couple other compounds in the milk that stimulate the appetite. Still, if one of those substances is blocked, we would expect appetite to decrease. Thus, the author's argument does not rely on choice (B).

Quote:
C. The mothers of newborn mice do not normally make any effort to encourage their babies to feed.

Again, the author concludes that cannabinoids probably stimulate the appetite but not that cannabinoids are the ONLY factor affecting appetite. Perhaps mothers of newborn mice DO normally make efforts to encourage their babies to feed. Those efforts AND the cannabinoids could both serve to increase appetite. If either factor is removed, we would expect appetite to decrease. The author's argument does not rely on the assumption stated in choice (C).

I hope this helps! (And is anybody impressed that I refrained from making a dumb, obvious joke about cannabis and my home state of Colorado? I didn't think so...)
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are kn  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2018, 17:45
The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are known to stimulate certain receptors in the brain. To investigate the function of cannabinoids, researchers injected newborn mice with a chemical that is known to block cannabinoids from reaching their receptors in the brain. The injected mice showed far less interest in feeding than normal newborn mice do. Therefore, cannabinoids probably function to stimulate the appetite.

Conclusion - CAN -> Stimulates the appetite
Reasoning - Chemical stopped CAN from recaching the receptor in the brain and so receptor was not stimulated.
What are we looking for - Something , which is a must for above conclusion in the light of above reasoning.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. Newborn mice do not normally ingest any substance other than their mothers’ milk.
-- Irrelevant -

B. Cannabinoids are the only substances in mammals’ milk that stimulate the appetite.
-- It was tempting for me. But there can be other substance in milk but may be they are suppressed after adding the chemical. So we need to ignore this now.

C. The mothers of newborn mice do not normally make any effort to encourage their babies to feed.
-- Irrelevant

D. The milk of mammals would be less nutritious if it did not contain cannabinoids.
--Irrelevant

E. The chemical that blocks cannabinoids from stimulating their brain receptors does not independently inhibit the appetite.
-- Correct choice. (Something else is now the cause of the effect). Must be true for the causality to be correct.
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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are kn  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Dec 2018, 19:44
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I solved this problem using the negation technique on answer choice E.

E. The chemical ... does not independently inhibit the appetite.

If we negate this answer choice, it would say that the chemical DOES independently inhibit the appetite. If that were the case, it would weaken our conclusion because ingesting the chemical would cause appetite loss regardless of how it affects cannabinoids. We would not be able to conclude that cannabinoids have an affect on appetite because the chemical causes appeite loss independently, which is something that would weaken our conclusion.

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Re: The milk of many mammals contains cannabinoids, substances that are kn &nbs [#permalink] 06 Dec 2018, 19:44
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