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The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been

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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been  [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2017, 08:27
duttsit wrote:
26. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been expected to announce a reduction in output to bolster sagging oil prices, but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output by a total of 500,000 barrels a day.

A.year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output
B.year, but only if the output of non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, is trimmed
C.year only if the output of non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, would be trimmed
D.year only if non-OPEC nations, which includes Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were trimming output
E.year only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, trim output


A A sentence should not have two logical reversals ("but... but...").
B A sentence should not have two logical reversals ("but... but...").
C "Would" is in the subjunctive, but the actions here are not hypothetical.
D The past progressive emphasizes the continuous nature of a past action, but in this case the if clause demands a simple present verb ("If [present], then [future]").
E Correct.
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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2017, 10:45
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Let me not go too deep into the topic trying to understand subjunctive possible hypotheticals etc.
Choices B and D are out because they both denote the plural 'nations' with a singular verb 'includes'. C is also out because we never use the verb "would be trimmed" in the 'if clause'. A is also out because the future tense 'will pare' in the main clause will not gel with the past conditional 'were' in the 'if clause'. This leaves us barely with E.
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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jun 2017, 11:35
1
VishalOne wrote:
Hi,

1. Is the usage of 'which' in option B and D correct?
2. In option E, doesn't 'including Norway, Mexico, and Russia' modify 'non-OPEC nations' to suggest
that Norway, Mexico and Russia are part of non-OPEC nations.

Thanks for your time!!!



Hello VishalOne,


I would be glad to help you out with this query. :)

1. In Choices B and D, the noun modifier which modifies the preceding noun entity non-OPEC nations. The modification is correct because per the context of the sentence Norway, Mexico, and Russia are non-OPEC nations. But because which stands for plural non-OPEC nations, use of singular verb includes for the subject which is incorrect.

2. Yes, your analysis about the role of including Norway, Mexico, and Russia is correct.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2017, 03:37
Here the argument involves, subjective verb form as well as If..Then ..Else
If (condition)..Then (Outcome) , If (condition),(Outcome) and (Outcome),If (condition)

If (Simple Present)
- Then (Simple Present)
- Then (Simple Future)

If (Simple Past)
- Then (Simple Past)
- Would Verb

If (Simple Future)
- Then Would have verb


--but officials of the organization just recently announced that the group will pare daily production by 1.5 million barrels by the beginning of next year, but only if non-OPEC nations, including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, were to trim output--

If Then Else Form - "Y ,If X"
the underline part is in Simple Future(y), so If clause should be in Simple Tense.

Hence E.

Kudos if you like my explanation.
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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2018, 20:39
egmat wrote:
VishalOne wrote:
Hi,

1. Is the usage of 'which' in option B and D correct?
2. In option E, doesn't 'including Norway, Mexico, and Russia' modify 'non-OPEC nations' to suggest
that Norway, Mexico and Russia are part of non-OPEC nations.

Thanks for your time!!!



Hello VishalOne,


I would be glad to help you out with this query. :)

1. In Choices B and D, the noun modifier which modifies the preceding noun entity non-OPEC nations. The modification is correct because per the context of the sentence Norway, Mexico, and Russia are non-OPEC nations. But because which stands for plural non-OPEC nations, use of singular verb includes for the subject which is incorrect.

2. Yes, your analysis about the role of including Norway, Mexico, and Russia is correct.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Regarding the including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, I thought 'comma + verb-ing modifier' only modifies the preceding clause. Then shouldn't the modifier be modifying something other than OPEC nations since 'OPEC nations' is a noun?
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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2018, 23:13
2
fusion327 wrote:
Regarding the including Norway, Mexico, and Russia, I thought 'comma + verb-ing modifier' only modifies the preceding clause. Then shouldn't the modifier be modifying something other than OPEC nations since 'OPEC nations' is a noun?

Hi fusion327, this indeed creates confusion. The rule you've mentioned is for present participial phrases. However, including is not a present participial phrase; including is actually a preposition. Hence, the general rules of participial phrases do not apply to including.

including can modify the Noun or Noun-Phrase immediately before the word including.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana has a special note on the usage of including. Have attached the corresponding section of the book, for your reference.
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Re: The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) had long been &nbs [#permalink] 30 May 2018, 23:13

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