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The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a  [#permalink]

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Difficulty:   55% (hard)

Question Stats: 59% (01:36) correct 41% (01:52) wrong based on 686 sessions

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The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a factor of y and y is a factor of z. Is z even?

(1) xz is even

(2) y is even.

Originally posted by amitgovin on 17 Oct 2009, 14:15.
Last edited by Bunuel on 25 Feb 2012, 02:35, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: positive integers  [#permalink]

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amitgovin wrote:
The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a factor of y and y is a factor of z. Is z even?

(1) xz is even

(2) y is even.

Given:
x is a factor of y --> $$y=mx$$, for some non-zero integer $$m$$;
y is a factor of z --> $$z=ny$$, for some non-zero integer $$n$$;
So, $$z=mnx$$.

Question: is z even? Note that $$z$$ will be even if either $$x$$ or $$y$$ is even

(1) $$xz$$ even --> either $$z$$ even, so the answer is directly YES or $$x$$ is even (or both). But if $$x$$ is even and as $$z=mnx$$ then z must be even too (one of the multiples of z is even, so z is even too). Sufficient.

(2) $$y$$ even --> as $$z=ny$$ then as one of the multiples of z even --> z even. Sufficient.

Answer: D.
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Re: positive integers  [#permalink]

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1
amitgovin wrote:
The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a factor of y and y is a factor of z. Is z even?

1) xz is even
2) y is even.

Please explain. thanks.

y/x = k where k is an integer.
y = xk ....................i

z/y = m where m is an integer.
z = ym = xkm .....................ii

If a factor is even, then the source of the factor must be even.

1) If xz is even, z must be even because x may or may not be an even because x is a factor of z but z must be even. SUFF.
2) If y is even, z must be even because y is a factor of z. SUFF..

D..
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Re: positive integers  [#permalink]

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amitgovin wrote:
The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a factor of y and y is a factor of z. Is z even?

1) xz is even

2) y is even.

Please explain. thanks.

Though Bunuel has provided the solution, I would just like to bring to your notice a train of thought.

When we say, "The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a factor of y and y is a factor of z.", it implies that if x or y is even, z will be even.

e.g. x = 4. Since x is a factor of y, y will be a multiple of 4 and will be even. Since z is a multiple of y, it will also be even. So, in a way, the 2 in x will drive through the entire sequence and make everything even.

Once this makes sense to you, it will take 10 secs to arrive at the solution.
Stmnt 1: Either x or z (or both which will happen if x is even) is even. In either case, z is even.
Stmnt 2: y is even, so z must be even
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Re: positive integers  [#permalink]

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Bunuel, you always try to solve the questions algebraically, don't you?
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Re: positive integers  [#permalink]

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metallicafan wrote:
Bunuel, you always try to solve the questions algebraically, don't you?

Not at all. There are certain GMAT questions which are pretty much only solvable with plug-in or trial and error methods (well at leas in 2-3 minutes). Also many questions can be solved with logic and common sense much quicker than with algebraic approach. So you shouldn't always rely on algebra. Having said that I must add that there are of course other types of questions which are perfect for algebraic approach, plus I often use algebra just to explain a solution.
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Re: positive integers  [#permalink]

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I like to thing of the boxes method. If you draw them out, then x is inside y which is inside z.
zx, a 2 will exist inside the box of either z or x (which is itself inside z) so YES
y a 2 will exist inside the box of y which is itself z so YES
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Re: positive integers  [#permalink]

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VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
amitgovin wrote:
The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a factor of y and y is a factor of z. Is z even?

1) xz is even

2) y is even.

Please explain. thanks.

Though Bunuel has provided the solution, I would just like to bring to your notice a train of thought.

When we say, "The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a factor of y and y is a factor of z.", it implies that if x or y is even, z will be even.

e.g. x = 4. Since x is a factor of y, y will be a multiple of 4 and will be even. Since z is a multiple of y, it will also be even. So, in a way, the 2 in x will drive through the entire sequence and make everything even.

Once this makes sense to you, it will take 10 secs to arrive at the solution.
Stmnt 1: Either x or z (or both which will happen if x is even) is even. In either case, z is even.
Stmnt 2: y is even, so z must be even

awesome. your explanations and bunuel as well, are amazing thanks
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Re: positive integers  [#permalink]

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Easy if you realize the following:
When a is a factor of b
AND b is a factor of c
THEN a is a factor of c as well.

Hence when either one of these numbers is even, the other has to be even too..
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Re: positive integers  [#permalink]

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z = ky

y = mx

so z = (km)xy

(1) -> xz is eve means at least x or z is even, and if x = even, then z is also even as it has an even factor.

2 -> y is even so z having an even factor is even too.

Answer D
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Re: positive integers  [#permalink]

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At first, mistook "factor" for "multiple" came with answer E.
Later, understood that the problem was so easy...just plug and play !!
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Re: The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a  [#permalink]

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if we plug and play, why can't we test X = 1? then y/n..
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Re: The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a  [#permalink]

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The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a factor of y and y is a factor of z. Is z even?
1) xz is even
2) y is even.
Please explain. thanks.[/quote]

Ans. let us take any 3 numbers, say x=3,y=18,z=54,
or x=2,y=4,z=20
1)if xz is even then it means that either x or z is even,say that x is even, now there is no even number which is a factor of odd number, so z is definitely even, now if x is odd as in the above case, still then we can point out that z is even.
2)if y is even then it is clear that z will be even.
Thus this question could be answered by any of the two questions.
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Re: The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a  [#permalink]

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dchow23 wrote:
if we plug and play, why can't we test X = 1? then y/n..

Plug in method would be far more painful for this question (and most other questions in my opinion). Think how you would go about it:
Checking whether stmnt 1 is enough: xz is even
If x = 1, y = 1 and z = 2 (so that xz is even), then z is even.
If x = 2, y = 2 and z = 4, z is again even.
Then you start thinking if you can take some values such that xz is even but z is not... Now you start using logic... Wouldn't you say it is far better to use logic in the first place itself?
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Re: The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a  [#permalink]

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amitgovin wrote:
The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a factor of y and y is a factor of z. Is z even?

(1) xz is even
(2) y is even.

What is given?

$$z = y*N$$
$$y = x*R$$

1.
$$xz = 2*I$$
If x is even, then z is even since $$z = x*R$$
If z is even, then z is even.
SUFFICIENT!

2. $$y = 2*I$$ ==> $$z = 2*I*N$$ Definitely EVEN
SUFFICIENT!

Answer: D
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Re: positive integers  [#permalink]

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Bunuel wrote:

(1) $$xz$$ even --> either $$z$$ even, so the answer is directly YES or $$x$$ is even (or both). But if $$x$$ is even and as $$z=mnx$$ then z must be even too (one of the multiples of z is even, so z is even too). Sufficient.

Can you please provide a numerical example for this part it isn't very clear. Thanks in advance!

I thought it was insufficient as there were multiple cases either X or Y even or both....
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Re: positive integers  [#permalink]

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fozzzy wrote:
Bunuel wrote:

(1) $$xz$$ even --> either $$z$$ even, so the answer is directly YES or $$x$$ is even (or both). But if $$x$$ is even and as $$z=mnx$$ then z must be even too (one of the multiples of z is even, so z is even too). Sufficient.

Can you please provide a numerical example for this part it isn't very clear. Thanks in advance!

I thought it was insufficient as there were multiple cases either X or Y even or both....

We know that x is a factor of $$y \to y = Ix$$
Again, $$z = yI^'$$. Now, given that xz - even.

Case I:Assume that x = even , z = odd. Now, as x is even, y = even(I can be odd/even,doesn't matter).
Again, as y is even, z HAS to be even($$I^'$$ is odd/even, doesn't matter). Thus, if x is even, z IS even.
Numerical Example :y = 2*I(x=2).
$$z = 6*I^'$$. z IS even.

Case II : z is even OR (x and z) both are even.

Hope this helps.
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Re: positive integers  [#permalink]

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Bunuel wrote:
amitgovin wrote:
The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a factor of y and y is a factor of z. Is z even?

(1) xz is even

(2) y is even.

Given:
x is a factor of y --> $$y=mx$$, for some non-zero integer $$m$$;
y is a factor of z --> $$z=ny$$, for some non-zero integer $$n$$;
So, $$z=mnx$$.

Question: is z even? Note that $$z$$ will be even if either $$x$$ or $$y$$ is even

(1) $$xz$$ even --> either $$z$$ even, so the answer is directly YES or $$x$$ is even (or both). But if $$x$$ is even and as $$z=mnx$$ then z must be even too (one of the multiples of z is even, so z is even too). Sufficient.

(2) $$y$$ even --> as $$z=ny$$ then as one of the multiples of z even --> z even. Sufficient.

Answer: D.

Perfect explanation. Remember the factor foundation rule.
Also, other properties of factors that might be helpful to have in mind.

Just to remind you, The factor foundation rule states that "if a is a factor of b, and b is a factor of c, then a is a factor of c"
Also, if 'a' is a factor of 'b', and 'a' is a factor of 'c', then 'a' is a factor of (b+c). In fact, 'a' is a factor of (mb + nc) for all integers 'm' and 'n'
If 'a' is a factor of 'b' and 'b' is a factor of 'a', then 'a=b'
If 'a' is a factor of 'bc' and gcd (a,b) = 1, then 'a' is a factor of 'c'
If 'p' is a prime number and 'p' is a factor of 'ab' then 'p' is a factor of 'a' or 'p' is a factor of 'b'
In other words,, any integer is divisible by all of its factors- and it is also divisible by all of the factors of its factors

Show your appreciation in Kudos.
Hope it helps
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GRE 1: Q169 V154 Re: The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a  [#permalink]

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here is the question stem => y=ax z=by => z=cx for some integers a,b,c
now statement 1 => xz is even => cases are => E,E E,O O,E => If x is even then has to be even as z=cx and if x is odd => z has to be even as zx = even
=> suff
statement 2 => y is even => z=by => z has to be even as E*E = E
suff
SMASH that D
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Re: The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a  [#permalink]

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Bunuel wrote:
amitgovin wrote:
The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a factor of y and y is a factor of z. Is z even?

(1) xz is even

(2) y is even.

Given:
x is a factor of y --> $$y=mx$$, for some non-zero integer $$m$$;
y is a factor of z --> $$z=ny$$, for some non-zero integer $$n$$;
So, $$z=mnx$$.

Question: is z even? Note that $$z$$ will be even if either $$x$$ or $$y$$ is even

(1) $$xz$$ even --> either $$z$$ even, so the answer is directly YES or $$x$$ is even (or both). But if $$x$$ is even and as $$z=mnx$$ then z must be even too (one of the multiples of z is even, so z is even too). Sufficient.

(2) $$y$$ even --> as $$z=ny$$ then as one of the multiples of z even --> z even. Sufficient.

Answer: D.

Bunuel if x, y, and z are 3, 9 and 27 repectivey then how can A be sufficient ?  Re: The positive integers x, y, and z are such that x is a   [#permalink] 15 Mar 2018, 11:50

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