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The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and

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The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2013, 14:57
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The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and eats all forms of vegetable matter. Farmers are concerned that this mole could eat some of their commercial fruits, planted in above-ground planters and bins. The farmers need not worry about the Mole, though, because throughout the region in which the Spotted Mole is found, birds of prey such as hawks and falcons are active, and these birds would prey upon the Spotted Mole if the mole came above ground at all. Therefore, the Spotted Mole poses no threat to these totally above-ground fruits.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The birds of prey capture and kill every single Spotted Mole that comes above ground.
(B) Some land-based mammals active in this region, such as fox, will also hunt and eat the Spotted Mole on a regular basis.
(C) No other animal could pose as significant a threat to the above-ground fruits as could the Spotted Mole.
(D) The times of day the Spotted Mole feeds are the same as the times of day that the birds of prey are in the air.
(E) Larger burrowing mammals, such as badgers or weasels, can dig up the burrows of the Spotted Mole, endangering those that remain underground.


For a discussion of Assumptions and the Negation Test, and the explanation for this question, see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/assumption ... -the-gmat/

Mike :-)

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Re: The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and  [#permalink]

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Re: The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2013, 15:39
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A was a bit tricky but too extreme.

D it is.

The times of day the Spotted Mole feeds are the same as the times of day that the birds are prey are in the air.

is not a bit awkward ?? or i'm wrong Mike ??

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Re: The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and  [#permalink]

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New post 07 May 2014, 07:36
A sounded too extreme, but still wouldn't it have to be true? Could someone clarify this please?

Disclosure: I picked

Cheers!
J :)
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New post 07 May 2014, 14:07
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jlgdr wrote:
A sounded too extreme, but still wouldn't it have to be true? Could someone clarify this please?

Disclosure: I picked

Cheers!
J :)

Dear jlgdr,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

First of all, remember, the opposite of "all" is not "none." The opposite of "all" is simply "not all" --- of course, "all" means 100%, but "not all" could be 1%, 10%, 50%, 80% or 99.9%.

So, suppose (A) is false. Suppose it's not true that the "birds of prey capture and kill every single Spotted Mole that comes above ground." Suppose of an original population of 1000 Spotted Moles on a particular, the birds of prey kill all but 7, and some 7 particularly lucky or particularly fast or crafty Spotted Moles survive. Well, in that case, the birds of prey did not kill "every single" one, but if there are only 7 left, they are not going to pose much of a threat to the farm. The spotted hawks could kill over 99%, the vast majority of the moles, and even though they didn't kill every last one, it's enough to protect the farms.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and  [#permalink]

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New post 26 May 2014, 04:10
mikemcgarry wrote:
.. they are not going to pose much of a threat to the farm. The spotted hawks could kill over 99%, the vast majority of the moles, and even though they didn't kill every last one, it's enough to protect the farms.


How do you know this? How can you refer this from the passage?
The last sentence says:

Quote:
Therefore, the Spotted Mole poses no threat to these totally above-ground fruits.


'No threat' versus your 'not much of a threat'

I'm trying to fully grasp this, sorry if I am being so specific. It's just thought that we should not think too much with our own knowledge or with outside information when answering a CR question.
Thank you for your feedback.
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The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2014, 09:17
Saabs wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
.. they are not going to pose much of a threat to the farm. The spotted hawks could kill over 99%, the vast majority of the moles, and even though they didn't kill every last one, it's enough to protect the farms.


How do you know this? How can you refer this from the passage?
The last sentence says:

Quote:
Therefore, the Spotted Mole poses no threat to these totally above-ground fruits.


'No threat' versus your 'not much of a threat'

I'm trying to fully grasp this, sorry if I am being so specific. It's just thought that we should not think too much with our own knowledge or with outside information when answering a CR question.
Thank you for your feedback.


I agree. Like Magoosh said, what if the birds kill 99.9% of the moles that come above ground but 1 fast one gets away. What if this 1 mole destroys three plants. This kills the argument "Therefore, the Spotted Mole poses no threat to these totally above-ground fruits".

Poorly written question in my opinion because if even one fruit gets eaten, it is a threat.
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Re: The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2014, 10:19
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eggplantpower wrote:
Saabs wrote:
'No threat' versus your 'not much of a threat'

I'm trying to fully grasp this, sorry if I am being so specific. It's just thought that we should not think too much with our own knowledge or with outside information when answering a CR question.
Thank you for your feedback.


I agree. Like Magoosh said, what if the birds kill 99.9% of the moles that come above ground but 1 fast one gets away. What if this 1 mole destroys three plants. This kills the argument "Therefore, the Spotted Mole poses no threat to these totally above-ground fruits".

Poorly written question in my opinion because if even one fruit gets eaten, it is a threat.

Dear eggplantpower,
My friend, I think you are approaching this too idealistically. The "threat" in question is an economic threat, a threat to the business interests of the farmers who plant the fruit for commercial purposes. If one mole survives and eats a little fruit, this will have essentially no impact on the business interests of those commercial grower. Remember that rain, birds, insects, and all kind of other factors will cause ordinary fluctuations in the crop, and whatever a single mole might destroy likely would be lost in these fluctuations. It would be an economic threat if the moles destroyed some significant portion of the crop, but what one mole could destroy might not even be noticed.

Think about any business. Suppose I don't like a particular store. Suppose I convince one friend never to shop there again. Yes, the store lost one customer's revenue, but that difference would be lost in the ordinary up & down fluctuations of business. No one could reasonably say that, by talking just one person out of using that store, that I am a "threat" to their business. Now, if I organize a campaign, take out newspaper ads, etc. and convince hundreds of people not to use the store, then I would be "threat." In the latter case, the owners of the store certainly should worry about me, but they would be crazy to worry about me in the former case.

On the GMAT, always think in terms of the real-world economic and business interests of the players.

My friend, I think you are thinking too much in terms of ideals --- farmers plant 200 plants, and all 200 come to bloom and yield equal amounts of fruit. That's a fairy tale. The real world is not that mathematical and precise. The real world is always messy, and there are always multiple factors in play. In the real world, farmers plant their crops, and expect some kind of average yield --- this varies slightly from year to year, but is certain not every plant automatically producing at maximum capacity. That doesn't happen in the real world.

This is a funny thing about GMAT CR. You don't need to know specific details about planting and farming and all that, but you have to have a general sense for how events in the real world work. See this blog:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2014/gmat-criti ... knowledge/
If you think too much in terms of isolated ideas, such that the presence or absence of a single fruit makes a huge difference, then you really don't have a feel for the push and pull of the business world. Having that sense is essential for mastering the GMAT CR.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2014, 11:30
Can anyone else chime in? Nowhere does the passage mention anything about the sale or economic rewards of the plants. Thinking about the "economic threats" would be going outside the scope.

The passage states "Therefore, the Spotted Mole poses no threat to these totally above-ground fruits."

We are not worried about economic rewards. Any thoughts?
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Re: The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2014, 22:07
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eggplantpower wrote:
Can anyone else chime in? Nowhere does the passage mention anything about the sale or economic rewards of the plants. Thinking about the "economic threats" would be going outside the scope.

The passage states "Therefore, the Spotted Mole poses no threat to these totally above-ground fruits."

We are not worried about economic rewards. Any thoughts?


I think this thread epitomizes why so many people swear by doing ONLY GMAC approved problems. While I agree with Magoosh's logic here (he's mostly correct), that's not how assumption - inference questions on the CR section work. There are 4 answers that are CLEARLY wrong, and in this case, A and D work to a certain extent. This isn't a 'which best strengthens / weakens' in which case we would have to choose the better answer.

When it comes to assumption / inference questions, there is no gray area and unfortunately there is gray area in this question. Even if 1 mole survives it poses SOME threat, even if that's 0.00000001% and this directly attacks the conclusion that there is NO threat. Poorly worded question and answer choices

I think the may take away from non-GMAC questions is to make sure you understand the logic and problem, and can diagram things out (on paper or in your head).
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Re: The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Feb 2015, 10:13
Hello,

The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and eats all forms of vegetable matter. Farmers are concerned that this mole could eat some of their commercial fruits, planted in above-ground planters and bins. The farmers need not worry about the Mole, though, because throughout the region in which the Spotted Mole is found, birds of prey such as hawks and falcons are active, and these birds would prey upon the Spotted Mole if the mole came above ground at all. Therefore, the Spotted Mole poses no threat to these totally above-ground fruits.

I chose - D has an answer , just because the information provided in A - Is already present in the argument .
D provides the assumption after we know A is true .
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Re: The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Feb 2015, 01:04
mikemcgarry wrote:
jlgdr wrote:
A sounded too extreme, but still wouldn't it have to be true? Could someone clarify this please?

Disclosure: I picked

Cheers!
J :)

Dear jlgdr,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

First of all, remember, the opposite of "all" is not "none." The opposite of "all" is simply "not all" --- of course, "all" means 100%, but "not all" could be 1%, 10%, 50%, 80% or 99.9%.

So, suppose (A) is false. Suppose it's not true that the "birds of prey capture and kill every single Spotted Mole that comes above ground." Suppose of an original population of 1000 Spotted Moles on a particular, the birds of prey kill all but 7, and some 7 particularly lucky or particularly fast or crafty Spotted Moles survive. Well, in that case, the birds of prey did not kill "every single" one, but if there are only 7 left, they are not going to pose much of a threat to the farm. The spotted hawks could kill over 99%, the vast majority of the moles, and even though they didn't kill every last one, it's enough to protect the farms.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Even though I chose D here, A could very much be true. Not a very high quality qs IMO.
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Re: The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Feb 2015, 03:25
KS15 wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
jlgdr wrote:
A sounded too extreme, but still wouldn't it have to be true? Could someone clarify this please?

Disclosure: I picked

Cheers!
J :)

Dear jlgdr,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

First of all, remember, the opposite of "all" is not "none." The opposite of "all" is simply "not all" --- of course, "all" means 100%, but "not all" could be 1%, 10%, 50%, 80% or 99.9%.

So, suppose (A) is false. Suppose it's not true that the "birds of prey capture and kill every single Spotted Mole that comes above ground." Suppose of an original population of 1000 Spotted Moles on a particular, the birds of prey kill all but 7, and some 7 particularly lucky or particularly fast or crafty Spotted Moles survive. Well, in that case, the birds of prey did not kill "every single" one, but if there are only 7 left, they are not going to pose much of a threat to the farm. The spotted hawks could kill over 99%, the vast majority of the moles, and even though they didn't kill every last one, it's enough to protect the farms.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Even though I chose D here, A could very much be true. Not a very high quality qs IMO.


^+1

Not a question you would see on the GMAT...leaves too much unneccessary room for interpretations
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Re: The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Mar 2015, 09:00
D a little bit confusing but after think8ng a little bit...
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Re: The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2015, 10:33
Conclusion: Spotted mole are not threat to fruits.
Premise:Hawks and falcons are active and will prey on moles.

Pre-thinking: 1.Birds are active at same time when moles are active?
2.There is no other way that moles eat fruits and stay out of the sight of hawks and falcons

B-Not assumption...strengthener may be
c-conclusion is spotted moles are not threat.Other threat is irrelevant.
E-like B can be strengthener
Left with A and d
A is too extreme as it used 'All'-even if birds of prey do not eat all moles still can discourage moles to pose threat on fruits.
D- Bingo...statement 1 of pre-thinking...Hence,the correct answer
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Re: The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2015, 17:15
the reason why I love magoosh is that if you know to to solve a question, you will definitely get to only 1 answer choice!

My pre-thinking assumptions were:
SH would come out to eat when H are active
SH will not find a way to eat without getting above the ground :D

clearly, only D fits.
If negated, D shatters the conclusion, as the fact that SH is no longer a threat because H prey on them no longer stands.
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Re: The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2015, 03:33
Hello,

Isn't the conclusion too extreme: Therefore, the Spotted Mole poses no threat to these totally above-ground fruits.

I choose A because of the word "totally". Not sure whether I understood the conclusion correctly.
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The Spotted Mole is a rodent that burrows underground and  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2015, 12:22
hwgmat2015 wrote:
Hello,

Isn't the conclusion too extreme: Therefore, the Spotted Mole poses no threat to these totally above-ground fruits.

I choose A because of the word "totally". Not sure whether I understood the conclusion correctly.

Dear hwgmat2015,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

The word "totally" in the conclusion simply clarifies that no part of these plants are below the ground. Ordinarily, farmers plant their crops in the ground, and the roots are therefore below the surface. Thus, theoretically, the Spotted Mole could eat the below-ground roots of the plants, significantly damaging them, without ever coming above ground and risking encounters with the hawk. The question eliminates that scenario, by stipulating that the "commercial fruits" are "planted in above-ground planters and bins." Because the plants are in these bins, no part of them, not even the roots, are below ground. The word "totally" in the last section simply clarifies this, making clear that 100% of these plants are above ground. Therefore, the only way that the Spotted Mole could pose a threat is if the Spotted Mole comes above ground.

Choice (A) is not the answer because it is too extreme. Here's a slight rephrase of (A)
(A') The birds of prey capture and kill 100% of the Spotted Moles that come above ground.
To check this, we will negate this statement and ask, could the conclusion of the argument be true when this possible assumption is negated?

The crucial piece of this is to understand what the opposite of 100% is. Some people thing the opposite of 100% would be 0%, but that's not a proper logical negation. The negation of one possibility must include all other possibilities. The opposite of 100% is simply "not 100%," everything other than 100%. Thus, the negation would be
(not A) The birds of prey capture and kill less than 100% of the Spotted Moles that come above ground.
Would it be possible for this to be true and the conclusion of the argument still to be true? Yes. "Less than 100%" could be, say, 99%. Suppose the birds of prey wipe out 99%, or 99.9%, of the Spotted Moles that come above ground. Yes, there would still be some straggling remnant that might eat some of the plants, but these few Spotted Moles will not do enough damage to be noticeable. Essentially, there is still no threat, even though the birds of prey did not obliterate every last rodent. It's possible to negate this and still imagine a scenario in which the argument's conclusion works. Therefore, (A) is not a true assumption. As a general rule, an statement with extreme language (all, every, none, etc.) is not going to be correct in the GMAT CR.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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New post 03 Jan 2016, 19:14
Hi Mike,

I have a question here.
Even though I marked the corrected answer and while answering used negation to eliminate option A , it took more than 2 minutes to answer the question :(
Applying the negation in the end between two close answer choices always eats up my time.
Mostly I am suffering from this problem, in which I get confused between two answers at the end and it takes some additional time there.

Could you please tell me how to improve such this problem ? :(
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New post 04 Jan 2016, 11:45
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tryambaks wrote:
Hi Mike,

I have a question here.
Even though I marked the corrected answer and while answering used negation to eliminate option A , it took more than 2 minutes to answer the question :(
Applying the negation in the end between two close answer choices always eats up my time.
Mostly I am suffering from this problem, in which I get confused between two answers at the end and it takes some additional time there.

Could you please tell me how to improve such this problem ? :(

Dear tryambaks,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

First of all, you may notice in option (A) the extreme language, "every single Spotted Mole." This is a BIG tip-off. As a general rule, a statement that contains extreme language is exceedingly unlikely to be correct on the GMAT GC. The extreme words (all, none, never, always, every, etc.) should be a quick clue that something is amiss with that answer choice. That's at least one clue that will be helpful in a few CR arguments.

I think the larger issue, though, is getting used to critical thinking. Here's what I will say. Over and above any GMAT prep you are doing, I will recommend that you read high quality newspapers and high quality news magazines. In particular, read business news and political news. Look for arguments that people are making: most articles will contain an argument by one or more of the characters quoted in the article, and the writer may also be presenting a more subtle argument as well. Spend time thinking about these real world arguments, about what motivates all kinds of people in all kinds of positions. Ultimately, every advertisement is an argument: apply all the GMAT CR logic to every ad you see --- what are the assumptions? what would strengthen or weaken their argument? what additional information would you need to evaluate their claims? Even when a friend makes an argument to you, bring this level of analysis to it.

Make it your default habit to approach every argument you see in life this way. First of all, this will help you be more efficient on the GMAT CR. More importantly, this is precisely the mindset you need to have, once you have your MBA and are at work in the modern business world.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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