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# The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous a

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The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous a  [#permalink]

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21 Nov 2018, 10:49
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The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous as the volume of the plastic aquarium.

(A) The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous as the volume of the plastic aquarium.
(B) The volume of the aquarium, which is made with glass, is not as numerous as the volume of the plastic aquarium.
(C) The volume of the aquarium, which is made with glass, is greater than the volume of the plastic aquarium.
(D) Made of glass, the volume of the aquarium is lesser than the volume of the plastic aquarium.
(E) When the aquarium is made of glass, the volume is less than the volume of the plastic aquarium.

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The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous a  [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2018, 12:52
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nkin wrote:
The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous as the volume of the plastic aquarium.

(A) The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous as the volume of the plastic aquarium.
(B) The volume of the aquarium, which is made with glass, is not as numerous as the volume of the plastic aquarium.
(C) The volume of the aquarium, which is made with glass, is greater than the volume of the plastic aquarium.
(D) Made of glass, the volume of the aquarium is lesser than the volume of the plastic aquarium.
(E) When the aquarium is made of glass, the volume is less than the volume of the plastic aquarium.

sashikarri , vanam52923 , daagh (see definition of volume in context; it may help)
In this question, the correct answer is a zero conditional in disguise (see below).

• First, eliminate A and B for "numerous."

Correct: This canister contains as much volume as that canister.
Wrong: This canister contains as numerous volume as that canister.

Volume is not itself countable in this context.

Volume = the amount of space that is enclosed within a container Cambridge Dictionary online, HERE.
An amount of space in which to contain something = volume --> is a capacity.

Think of other capacities in order to remember that a capacity is not countable:
She has less love for her pet lizard than she has for her dog.

The love she has for her pet lizard is not as numerous as the love she has for her dog? No.

Love, patience, tenacity, etc. are capacities.
Volume is a capacity.
Capacity cannot be counted.
One patience, two patiences.

For uncountable amounts, we use LESS than.

• Eliminate (D) for "lesser."
Again, we use LESS than for volume.
"Small," by contrast, is not comparative, so we use "smallER."
"Lesser" is not a quantifier. Lesser is an adjective that usually means "of inferior quality."

• (C) The volume of the aquarium, which is made of glass, is greater than the volume of the plastic aquarium.

Eliminate (C) because it uses WHICH to distinguish a glass from a plastic aquarium.

The WHICH clause IS correctly set off by commas. The result of those commas, though, leads to an incorrect sentence in which "made of glass" can be removed.

The WHICH clause incorrectly signals that "made of glass" is NONessential. We can remove nonessential modifiers.

If we have
(1) which and commas? Then we also have non-essential and removable information.
Literally, we can remove the whole clause "which is made of glass" to test the sentence.
Once we remove that information, does the sentence make sense?
If not, then answer (C) is wrong.

But if we have
(2) THAT and NO commas? We have essential information.
(That is called a restrictive modifier.) We cannot take the information out of the sentence.

Remove the allegedly "non-essential" WHICH clause information. Result:

The volume of the aquarium . . . is greater than the volume of the plastic aquarium.
Nonsense. Eliminate C

Option E remains.

Conditionals/Statements of fact

Option E is actually a zero conditional in disguise.

If we have statements of fact without any exceptions or qualifiers, look for a zero conditional.

Conditionals are IF/THEN constructs, but they do not always use the words IF and THEN.
In fact, on the GMAT, conditionals are often "hidden"; they are written without the words if and then.

Zero conditionals

Zero conditionals use or imply the words if and then, but there really is no doubt about outcome.

Zero conditionals express general truths and facts.
If this thing happens, then that thing happens.
If she eats peanuts, then she has a dangerous allergic reaction.

The time frame is now and always.
The IF or conditional clause is always in simple present tense
The RESULT or main clause is always in simple present tense

If an aquarium is made of glass, then its volume is less than the volume of an aquarium made of plastic.

Zero conditionals can use the word "when" instead of "if."

Zero conditionals and the use of WHEN

If THIS thing happens, WHEN does THAT thing happen? ALWAYS.
So we are allowed to use "when" and "whenever."

WHEN this thing happens, then that thing happens.

Correct: If it rains, the ground gets wet.

Correct: When it rains, the ground gets wet.

Correct: The ground gets wet when it rains.

This resource about conditionals is among the best I have found.

Finally, we transform the IF statement above

WHEN an aquarium is made of glass, [then] its volume is less than the volume of an aquarium made of plastic.

That sentence is very close to Option E:

When the aquarium is made of glass, the volume is less than the volume of the plastic aquarium.

Option E is correct.
This question is hard because only option E is a hidden zero conditional and it contains the word "when."
In this case, "when" is correct.

Hope that helps.
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##### General Discussion
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Re: The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous a  [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2018, 13:15
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generis, thank you so much for that explanation! I was actually of the opinion that "When" was probably incorrect in E, until I read through your post!

Just to add to the discussion, when I looked at the question here's how I approached it and chose the best option:

(A) The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous as the volume of the plastic aquarium.
Here numerous is incorrect since volume is not really countable such as 1 volume or 2 volumes.

(B) The volume of the aquarium, which is made with glass, is not as numerous as the volume of the plastic aquarium.
Similar to (A), numerous cannot be used to show comparison of volumes.

(C) The volume of the aquarium, which is made with glass, is greater than the volume of the plastic aquarium.
This option changes meaning of the original sentence.

(D) Made of glass, the volume of the aquarium is lesser than the volume of the plastic aquarium.
"Made of glass" is modifying "the volume". The volume is not made of glass, the aquarium is. Also I was not sure of the usage of the phrase "lesser than". I thought it should always be "less than" for uncountable nouns and "fewer than" for countable nouns. Please correct me here if this is incorrect.

(E) When the aquarium is made of glass, the volume is less than the volume of the plastic aquarium.
This seemed like the only option with no real errors that stood out like the other ones, except for the usage of "when" which generis clarified.

Hope this adds some more value!
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The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous a  [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2018, 13:26
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nkin wrote:
generis, thank you so much for that explanation! I was actually of the opinion that "When" was probably incorrect in E, until I read through your post!

Just to add to the discussion, when I looked at the question here's how I approached it and chose the best option:

(A) The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous as the volume of the plastic aquarium.
Here numerous is incorrect since volume is not really countable such as 1 volume or 2 volumes.

(B) The volume of the aquarium, which is made with glass, is not as numerous as the volume of the plastic aquarium.
Similar to (A), numerous cannot be used to show comparison of volumes.

(C) The volume of the aquarium, which is made with glass, is greater than the volume of the plastic aquarium.
This option changes meaning of the original sentence.

(D) Made of glass, the volume of the aquarium is lesser than the volume of the plastic aquarium.
"Made of glass" is modifying "the volume". The volume is not made of glass, the aquarium is. Also I was not sure of the usage of the phrase "lesser than". I thought it should always be "less than" for uncountable nouns and "fewer than" for countable nouns. Please correct me here if this is incorrect.

(E) When the aquarium is made of glass, the volume is less than the volume of the plastic aquarium.
This seemed like the only option with no real errors that stood out like the other ones, except for the usage of "when" which generis clarified.

Hope this adds some more value!
nkin, whom I forgot to tag initially . . .
After realizing that I had not accounted for the FOUR other options, I edited my post. I did so as you were posting.
(I didn't see the additional post.) +1 to you.

(C) does not necessarily change the original meaning.

Option A does not determine the original meaning, although I think it's fair to say that if 4 of 5 options indicate one meaning, and only one indicates a different meaning, we are allowed to infer what the sentence is supposed to say.

The serious grammar issue in option C is that it is constructed with a non-essential modifier that is dispensable. In my post above, I removed the WHICH clause. Disaster.

However, if (C) had said ...

The volume of the aquarium THAT is made with glass is greater than the volume of the plastic aquarium.
... then we would have two correct options with diametrically opposed meanings.
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Re: The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous a  [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2018, 00:53
nkin wrote:
The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous as the volume of the plastic aquarium.

(A) The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous as the volume of the plastic aquarium.
(B) The volume of the aquarium, which is made with glass, is not as numerous as the volume of the plastic aquarium.
(C) The volume of the aquarium, which is made with glass, is greater than the volume of the plastic aquarium.
(D) Made of glass, the volume of the aquarium is lesser than the volume of the plastic aquarium.
(E) When the aquarium is made of glass, the volume is less than the volume of the plastic aquarium.

A, D- terrible modifier error, suggesting that "volume" is made of glass.
"numerous" is not the correct term for comparing volumes. So A, B are gone.

C and E also have their problems.
E is awkward in the "when..." construction.
In C, the positioning of "which is made with glass" between two commas fails to convey the intended meaning- a bigger problem.
E is the best of the 5.
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Re: The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous a  [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2019, 02:44
Numerous is not used to describe volume, so A and B are clearly wrong. D has a modifier error that makes it sound as if the volume is made of glass. C puts vital information between commas, so it is wrong. E is the right option.
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Re: The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous a  [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2019, 04:37
In my opinion, in C, the supposedly correct choice, in

volume of the aquarium, which

"which" is referring to "volume" and not aquarium
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The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous a  [#permalink]

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26 Mar 2019, 10:16
Mpuneet wrote:
In my opinion, in C, the supposedly correct choice, in

volume of the aquarium, which

"which" is referring to "volume" and not aquarium

Mpuneet , why do you believe that "which" refers to "volume" rather than to "aquarium"?

Which usually refers to the closest noun.
That noun is aquarium.

The antecedent of which must be logical.

Oddly enough, I think you have turned the "touch" rule on its head.
That is, you seem to believe that if a prepositional phrase is involved, the default antecedent is not close to the word which.

Yes, which is allowed to "jump over" or "reach behind" prepositional phrases
such as of the aquarium
-- because prepositional phrases typically cannot be placed elsewhere
and so the touch rule has an "exception," and
-- because the noun attached to the prepositional phrase is —in the case of an exception to the touch rule—
more logical and more sensible.

Where did you get the idea that the object of a preposition cannot be the antecedent of which?
That idea is mistaken.

The object of a preposition cannot be the subject of a sentence.
Are you a little mixed up about rules?

The word which refers to aquarium.
Aquarium immediately precedes which.

The antecedent of which is not ambiguous.
It makes no sense to say that the volume is made of glass.

Here you will find an official question from OG 2019.

Spoiler alert: 2 of 5 answers for an official question are eliminated in the sentence beneath the spoiler.
The word which modifies the immediately preceding word groundwater, which is the object of a preposition.
Normally a bone becomes fossilized through the action of groundwater, which . . .

what seems to be an identical misconception. The whole thread is here.

and the source in which you may have found those reasons?

Also, the correct answer is (E).

I hope that analysis helps.
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The volume of the aquarium, when made with glass, is not as numerous a   [#permalink] 26 Mar 2019, 10:16
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