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# The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640-1689) cha

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The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640-1689) cha  [#permalink]

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22 Feb 2017, 14:56
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8
Question 1
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49% (03:19) correct 51% (03:33) wrong

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Question 3
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The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640-1689) changed markedly during the 1680s, as she turned from writing plays to writing prose narratives. According to literary critic Rachel Carnell, most scholars view this change as primarily motivated by financial considerations: earning a living by writing for the theatre became more difficult in the 1680s, so Behn tried various other types of prose genres in the hope of finding another lucrative medium. In fact, a long epistolary scandal novel that she wrote in the mid-1680s sold quite well. Yet, as Carnell notes, Behn did not repeat this approach in her other prose works; instead, she turned to writing shorter, more serious novels, even though only about half of these were published during her lifetime. Carnell argues that Behn, whose stage productions are primarily comedies, may have turned to an emerging literary form, the novel, in a conscious attempt to criticize, and subvert for her own ends, the conventions and ideology of a well-established form of her day, the dramatic tragedy.

Carnell acknowledges that Behn admired the skill of such contemporary writers of dramatic tragedy as John Dryden, and that Behn's own comic stage productions displayed the same partisanship for the reigning Stuart monarchy that characterized most of the politically oriented dramatic tragedies of her day. However, Carnell argues that Behn took issue with the way in which these writers and plays defined the nature of tragedy. As prescribed by Dryden, tragedy was supposed to concern a heroic man who is a public figure and who undergoes a fall that evokes pity from the audience. Carnell points out that Behn’s tragic novels focus instead on the plight of little-known women and the private world of the household; even in her few novels featuring male protagonists, Behn insists on the importance of the crimes these otherwise heroic figures commit in the domestic sphere. Moreover, according to Carnell, Behn questioned the view promulgated by monarchist dramatic tragedies such as Dryden’s: that the envisioned “public” political ideal—passive obedience to the nation’s king—ought to be mirrored in the private sphere, with family members wholly obedient to a male head of household. Carnell sees Behn’s novels not only as rejecting the model of patriarchal and hierarchical family order, but also as warning that insisting on such a parallel can result in real tragedy befalling the members of the domestic sphere. According to Carnell, Behn’s choice of literary form underscores the differences between her own approach to crafting a tragic story and that taken in the dramatic tragedies, with their artificial distinction between the public and private spheres. Behn’s novels engage in the political dialogue of her era by demonstrating that the good of the nation ultimately encompasses more than the good of the public figures who rule it.
The passage is primarily concerned with
A) tracing how Behn's view of the nature of tragedy changed over time
B) explaining one author's view of Behn's contribution to the development of an emerging literary form
C) differentiating between the early and the late literary works of Behn
D) contrasting the approaches to tragedy taken by Behn and by Dryden
E) presenting one scholar's explanation for a major development in Behn's literary career

The passage suggests that Carnell sees Behn's novels featuring male protagonists as differing from dramatic tragedies such as Dryden's featuring male protagonists in that the former
A) depict these characters as less than heroic in their public actions
B) emphasize the consequences of these characters' actions in the private sphere
C) insist on a parallel between the public and the private spheres
D) are aimed at a predominantly female audience
E) depict family members who disobey these protagonists

The passage suggests that Carnell believes Behn held which of the following attitudes about the relationship between the private and public spheres?

A) The private sphere is more appropriate than is the public sphere as the setting for plays about political events.
B) The structure of the private sphere should not replicate the hierarchical order of the public sphere.
C) Actions in the private sphere are more fundamental to ensuring the good of the nation than are actions in the public sphere.
D) Crimes committed in the private sphere are likely to cause tragedy in the public sphere rather than vice versa.
E) The private sphere is the mirror in which issues affecting the public sphere can most clearly be seen.

It can be inferred from the passage that the "artificial distinction" refers to the

A) practice utilized in dramatic tragedies of providing different structural models for the public and the private spheres
B) ideology of many dramatic tragedies that advocate passive obedience only in the private sphere and not in the public sphere
C) convention that drama ought to concern events in the public sphere and that novels ought to concern events in the private sphere
D) assumption made by the authors of conventional dramatic tragedies that legitimate tragic action occurs only in the public sphere
E) approach taken by the dramatic tragedies in depicting male and female characters differently, depending on whether their roles were public or private

NOTE: passage from official GRE Material.

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Re: The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640-1689) cha  [#permalink]

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22 Feb 2017, 19:58
2
a hard passage.

the last question is hard and I do not understand it.
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Re: The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640-1689) cha  [#permalink]

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24 Feb 2017, 02:00
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victory47 wrote:
a hard passage.

the last question is hard and I do not understand it.

I know but if you read carefully back in the passage you are able to grasp the meaning

Quote:
Moreover, according to Carnell, Behn questioned the view promulgated by monarchist dramatic tragedies such as Dryden’s: that the envisioned “public” political ideal—passive obedience to the nation’s king—ought to be mirrored in the private sphere, with family members wholly obedient to a male head of household.

Mirrored means that whatever it is that might be in public can be replicated in private AND

Quote:
Behn’s choice of literary form underscores the differences between her own approach to crafting a tragic story and that taken in the dramatic tragedies, with their artificial distinction between the public and private spheres.

Which means that the author assumes that the tragedy of whatever we are talking about might happen only in public and not in private sphere. Actually though, is not true. CAN happen in private with dangerous consequences.

Hope now is clear.
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Re: The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640-1689) cha  [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2017, 08:13
Hi,

I don't understand the ans of qstn 2 "B) emphasize the consequences of these characters' actions in the private sphere" is correct. No where in the passage it is mentioned about the consequence of the characters in the private sphere.

Please explain the ans of question 4.
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Re: The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640-1689) cha  [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2017, 08:28
Top Contributor
arunavamunshi1988 wrote:
Hi,

I don't understand the ans of qstn 2 "B) emphasize the consequences of these characters' actions in the private sphere" is correct. No where in the passage it is mentioned about the consequence of the characters in the private sphere.

Please explain the ans of question 4.

The passage is really dense and convoluted. However, if you read very carefully the answer is B

Quote:
Carnell points out that Behn’s tragic novels focus instead on the plight of little-known women and the private world of the household; even in her few novels featuring male protagonists, Behn insists on the importance of the crimes these otherwise heroic figures commit in the domestic sphere

the author point out that Behn addresses the tragedy of women in their private world even in her few novels featuring male protagonists

Hope now is clear
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Re: The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640-1689) cha  [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2017, 18:49
Why is option B wrong in question 1? Paragraph 1 does talk about "may have turned to an emerging literary form".

Thank you,
Jat
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Re: The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640-1689) cha  [#permalink]

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20 Nov 2017, 09:48
Top Contributor
The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640-1689) changed markedly during the 1680s, as she turned from writing plays to writing prose narratives. According to literary critic Rachel Carnell, most scholars view this change as primarily motivated by financial considerations: earning a living by writing for the theatre became more difficult in the 1680s, so Behn tried various other types of prose genres in the hope of finding another lucrative medium. In fact, a long epistolary scandal novel that she wrote in the mid-1680s sold quite well. Yet, as Carnell notes, Behn did not repeat this approach in her other prose works; instead, she turned to writing shorter, more serious novels, even though only about half of these were published during her lifetime. Carnell argues that Behn, whose stage productions are primarily comedies, may have turned to an emerging literary form, the novel, in a conscious attempt to criticize, and subvert for her own ends, the conventions and ideology of a well-established form of her day, the dramatic tragedy.
Camell acknowledges that Behn admired the skill of such contemporary writers of dramatic tragedy as John Dryden, and that Behn's own comic stage productions displayed the same partisanship for the reigning Stuart monarchy that characterized most of the politically oriented dramatic tragedies of her day. However, Camell argues that Behn took issue with the way in which these writers and plays defined the nature of tragedy. As prescribed by Dryden, tragedy was supposed to concern a heroic man who is a public figure and who undergoes a fall that evokes pity from the audience. Carnell points out that Behn's tragic novels focus instead on the plight of little-known women and the private world of the household; even in her few novels featuring male protagonists, Behn insists on the importance of the crimes these otherwise heroic figures commit in the domestic sphere. Moreover, according to Camell, Behn questioned the view promulgated by monarchist dramatic tragedies such as Dryden's: that the envisioned "public" political ideal—passive obedience to the nation's king—ought to be mirrored in the private sphere, with family members wholly obedient to a male head of household. Camell sees Behn's novels not only as rejecting the model of patriarchal and hierarchical family order, but also as warning that insisting on such a parallel can result in real tragedy befalling the members of the domestic sphere. According to Carnell, Behn's choice of literary form underscores the differences between her own approach to crafting a tragic story and that taken in the dramatic tragedies, with their artificial distinction between the public and private spheres. Behn's novels engage in the political dialogue of her era by demonstrating that the good of the nation ultimately encompasses more than the good of the public figures who rule it.
The passage is primarily concerned with

A. tracing how Behn's view of the nature of tragedy changed over time
B. explaining one author's view of Behn's contribution to the development of an emerging literary form
C. differentiating between the early and the late literary works of Behn
D. contrasting the approaches to tragedy taken by Behn and by Dryden
E. presenting one scholar's explanation for a major development in Behn's literary career

The passage suggests that Camell sees Behn's novels featuring male protagonists as differing from dramatic tragedies such as Dryden's featuring male protagonists in that the former
A. depict these characters as less than heroic in their public actions
B. emphasize the consequences of these characters' actions in the private sphere
C. insist on a parallel between the public and the private spheres
D. are aimed at a predominantly female audience
E. depict family members who disobey these protagonists

The passage suggests that Carnell believes Behn held which of the following attitudes about the relationship between the private and public spheres?

A. The private sphere is more appropriate than is the public sphere as the setting for plays about political events.
B. The structure of the private sphere should not replicate the hierarchical order of the public sphere.
C. Actions in the private sphere are more fundamental to ensuring the good of the nation than are actions in the public sphere.
D. Crimes committed in the private sphere are likely to cause tragedy in the public sphere rather than vice versa.
E. The private sphere is the mirror in which issues affecting the public sphere can most clearly be seen.

It can be inferred from the passage that the "artificial distinction" refers to the

A. practice utilized in dramatic tragedies of providing different structural models for the public and the private spheres
B. ideology of many dramatic tragedies that advocate passive obedience only in the private sphere and not in the public sphere
C. convention that drama ought to concern events in the public sphere and that novels ought to concern events in the private sphere
D. assumption made by the authors of conventional dramatic tragedies that legitimate tragic action occurs only in the public sphere
E. approach taken by the dramatic tragedies in depicting male and female characters differently, depending on whether their roles were public or private

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Re: The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640-1689) cha  [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2017, 07:31
2
Woah, I really got them all right. but took around 8 - 10 minutes.

The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640-1689) changed markedly during the 1680s, as she turned from writing plays to writing prose narratives. According to literary critic Rachel Carnell, most scholars view this change as primarily motivated by financial considerations: earning a living by writing for the theatre became more difficult in the 1680s, so Behn tried various other types of prose genres in the hope of finding another lucrative medium. In fact, a long epistolary scandal novel that she wrote in the mid-1680s sold quite well. Yet, as Carnell notes, Behn did not repeat this approach in her other prose works; instead, she turned to writing shorter, more serious novels, even though only about half of these were published during her lifetime. Carnell argues that Behn, whose stage productions are primarily comedies, may have turned to an emerging literary form, the novel, in a conscious attempt to criticize, and subvert for her own ends, the conventions and ideology of a well-established form of her day, the dramatic tragedy.

Carnell acknowledges that Behn admired the skill of such contemporary writers of dramatic tragedy as John Dryden, and that Behn's own comic stage productions displayed the same partisanship for the reigning Stuart monarchy that characterized most of the politically oriented dramatic tragedies of her day. However, Carnell argues that Behn took issue with the way in which these writers and plays defined the nature of tragedy. As prescribed by Dryden, tragedy was supposed to concern a heroic man who is a public figure and who undergoes a fall that evokes pity from the audience. Carnell points out that Behn’s tragic novels focus instead on the plight of little-known women and the private world of the household; even in her few novels featuring male protagonists, Behn insists on the importance of the crimes these otherwise heroic figures commit in the domestic sphere. Moreover, according to Carnell, Behn questioned the view promulgated by monarchist dramatic tragedies such as Dryden’s: that the envisioned “public” political ideal—passive obedience to the nation’s king—ought to be mirrored in the private sphere, with family members wholly obedient to a male head of household. Carnell sees Behn’s novels not only as rejecting the model of patriarchal and hierarchical family order, but also as warning that insisting on such a parallel can result in real tragedy befalling the members of the domestic sphere. According to Carnell, Behn’s choice of literary form underscores the differences between her own approach to crafting a tragic story and that taken in the dramatic tragedies, with their artificial distinction between the public and private spheres. Behn’s novels engage in the political dialogue of her era by demonstrating that the good of the nation ultimately encompasses more than the good of the public figures who rule it.
The passage is primarily concerned with
A) tracing how Behn's view of the nature of tragedy changed over time -The passage is talking about a critic's thoughts regarding the change spoken in the very first line of the passage. This option is incorrect.
B) explaining one author's view of Behn's contribution to the development of an emerging literary form -This passage is presentation of thoughts of a critic over the change in the work of an author.
C) differentiating between the early and the late literary works of Behn -As explained in option A, this option is correct
D) contrasting the approaches to tragedy taken by Behn and by Dryden -This is just part of thought process of the critic. This doesn't sum up the passage as a whole
E) presenting one scholar's explanation for a major development in Behn's literary career -Correct. The critic (scholar) tries to explain why things changed in the author's (Behn's) life

The passage suggests that Carnell sees Behn's novels featuring male protagonists as differing from dramatic tragedies such as Dryden's featuring male protagonists in that the former
A) depict these characters as less than heroic in their public actions -No. Behn does call them hero.
B) emphasize the consequences of these characters' actions in the private sphere -Correct. "even in her few novels featuring male protagonists, Behn insists on the importance of the crimes these otherwise heroic figures commit in the domestic sphere" --> these lines explain the answer perfectly
C) insist on a parallel between the public and the private spheres -Irrelevant
D) are aimed at a predominantly female audience -Extreme statement, not supported by the passage
E) depict family members who disobey these protagonists -Its in fact the protagonists about whom Behn talks about.

The passage suggests that Carnell believes Behn held which of the following attitudes about the relationship between the private and public spheres?

A) The private sphere is more appropriate than is the public sphere as the setting for plays about political events. -Out of scope
B) The structure of the private sphere should not replicate the hierarchical order of the public sphere. -Correct. "Behn questioned the view promulgated by monarchist dramatic tragedies such as Dryden’s: that the envisioned “public” political ideal—passive obedience to the nation’s king—ought to be mirrored in the private sphere, with family members wholly obedient to a male head of household" --> these lines depict that Behn was against the given thought
C) Actions in the private sphere are more fundamental to ensuring the good of the nation than are actions in the public sphere. -Out of scope
D) Crimes committed in the private sphere are likely to cause tragedy in the public sphere rather than vice versa. -Out of scope
E) The private sphere is the mirror in which issues affecting the public sphere can most clearly be seen. -Out of scope

It can be inferred from the passage that the "artificial distinction" refers to the

A) practice utilized in dramatic tragedies of providing different structural models for the public and the private spheres -dramatic tragedies concentrated only on public sphere
B) ideology of many dramatic tragedies that advocate passive obedience only in the private sphere and not in the public sphere -This is opposite of what can be inferred from the passage
C) convention that drama ought to concern events in the public sphere and that novels ought to concern events in the private sphere -Irrelevant
D) assumption made by the authors of conventional dramatic tragedies that legitimate tragic action occurs only in the public sphere -Correct. "Behn’s choice of literary form underscores the differences between her own approach to crafting a tragic story and that taken in the dramatic tragedies, with their artificial distinction between the public and private spheres" --> These lines state that Behn's tragedies were different from dramatic tragedies in that they were written keeping private sphere in mind. Thus we can safely say that conventional writers wrote the tragedies keeping public perspective in mind
E) approach taken by the dramatic tragedies in depicting male and female characters differently, depending on whether their roles were public or private -no such approach is discussed in the passage

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Re: The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640-1689) cha  [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2017, 23:06
can anyone please help me i am facing problem in these type of passages i was not able to understand these type of passages no matter how many times i reread the passage. Please provide me any way out to over come my problem. If you are not able to understand then you are not able to answer the question. please help me to improve my understanding in these types of passages.
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Re: The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640-1689) cha  [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2017, 09:27
1
rishabhmishra wrote:
can anyone please help me i am facing problem in these type of passages i was not able to understand these type of passages no matter how many times i reread the passage. Please provide me any way out to over come my problem. If you are not able to understand then you are not able to answer the question. please help me to improve my understanding in these types of passages.
thankyou

8 minutes all correct for me. Excellent passage because of the tricky options in questions.

I understand how intimidating such passage can make you feel, because it used to do the same to me.But trust me, patience is all you need.

There are various ways advised on how to approach RC passages. At the beginning, I had tried following the approaches advising to skim the passage or make notes based on the paragraphs. However, both didn't work for me under timed conditions. The only way that I realized would be useful was doing what it actually is - "Reading Comprehension". It's solely about comprehending the entire passage. Now the question is how. Here's what worked for me-
start without timing your practice session and please be patient with yourself at the beginning. All the three steps are extremely important to follow.

1. Read the first sentence of the passage twice and get an idea what is going to be discussed further. This information is usually contained in the first sentence or, if not, in second sentence.
2. Your mind should get alarmed on seeing words marking transition of focus - eg. 'However' , 'Although' 'Unlike' . - Anticipate that something opposite is about to be discussed. Develop this skill of predictive ability by stopping after every 2 sentences and asking what can possibly be discussed now? think
3. Important - While reading, sense the tone of the author-
Imagine the passage discusses the literary work of a guy. Analyze and ask yourself - Is the author impressed by this guy's work described in the passage or is he/she disappointed that the guy made a few mistakes. If the guy made mistakes, is the author still supporting that guy? Or the author is criticizing the guy all through? Or is the author presenting both positives or negatives about a theory/guy? In that case, the author's tone is neutral.
The tone of the author will be THE clue for you while eliminating options while answering questions that deal with the main point or inferences from the passage. If the tone is neutral, you will know to eliminate options involving any harsh criticism about that topic.

Make sure you read the solutions religiously. At the end of practicing the questions from downloaded file, you will know exactly how is 'Comprehending' done.
And please be patient with yourself.

Good luck.
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Re: The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640-1689) cha  [#permalink]

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11 Jan 2019, 19:54

+1 kudos to the posts containing answer explanations of all questions

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Re: The work of English writer Aphra Behn (1640-1689) cha   [#permalink] 11 Jan 2019, 19:54
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