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There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North Ame

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There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North Ame  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Mar 2016, 11:28
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There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North America in recent years. Yet there are approximately 12 new cases of polio each year in North America, all caused by the commonly administered live oral polio vaccine (OPV). Substituting inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) for most childhood polio immunizations would cut the number of cases of vaccination-caused polio about in half. Clearly it is time to switch from OPV to IPV as the most commonly used polio vaccine for North American children.

Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the argument?


(A) If IPV replaces OPV as the most commonly used polio vaccine, at least a few new cases of naturally occurring polio in North America will result each year.

(B) The vast majority of cases of polio caused by OPV have occurred in children with preexisting but unsuspected immunodeficiency disorders.

(C) A child's risk of contracting polio from OPV has been estimated at 1 in 8.7 million, which is significantly less than the risk of being struck by lightning.

(D) Although IPV is preferred in some European nations, most countries with comprehensive child immunization programs use OPV.

(E) IPV, like most vaccines, carries a slight risk of inducing seizures in children with neurological diseases such as epilepsy.
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Re: There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North Ame  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Mar 2016, 12:52
i couldn't get why e is wrong.

but not convinced with OA. It says that usage of IPV would cut the number of cases of vaccination-caused polio about in half.

So, A is not completely weakening.

Chetan 2u may explain.


rs47 wrote:
There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North America in recent years. Yet there are approximately 12 new cases of polio each year in North America, all caused by the commonly administered live oral polio vaccine (OPV). Substituting inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) for most childhood polio immunizations would cut the number of cases of vaccination-caused polio about in half. Clearly it is time to switch from OPV to IPV as the most commonly used polio vaccine for North American children.

Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the argument?

(A) If IPV replaces OPV as the most commonly used polio vaccine, at least a few new cases of naturally occurring polio in North America will result each year.
(B) The vast majority of cases of polio caused by OPV have occurred in children with preexisting but unsuspected immunodeficiency disorders.
(C) A child's risk of contracting polio from OPV has been estimated at 1 in 8.7 million, which is significantly less than the risk of being struck by lightning.
(D) Although IPV is preferred in some European nations, most countries with comprehensive child immunization programs use OPV.
(E) IPV, like most vaccines, carries a slight risk of inducing seizures in children with neurological diseases such as epilepsy.

Please provide your reasoning.. And do not forget kudos!!! :)

OA is A
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Re: There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North Ame  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2016, 02:04
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sun01 wrote:
i couldn't get why e is wrong.

but not convinced with OA. It says that usage of IPV would cut the number of cases of vaccination-caused polio about in half.

So, A is not completely weakening.

Chetan 2u may explain.



(E) IPV, like most vaccines, carries a slight risk of inducing seizures in children with neurological diseases such as epilepsy.

"

sun01, I eliminated E cos E only mentions possibility of "slight risk" and that too only in children with "neurological diseases"... I felt that B was the best amongst the options and hence went ahead with it.. I was not convinced with A as the answer..
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Re: There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North Ame  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2016, 04:11
The argument is all about the substitution of OPV vaccines with IPV vaccines.

Option B says that there is certain problem with OPV related to vast majority of polio cases/ It any way strengthens the argument.

So, B is definitely not in the race.


rs47 wrote:
sun01 wrote:
i couldn't get why e is wrong.

but not convinced with OA. It says that usage of IPV would cut the number of cases of vaccination-caused polio about in half.

So, A is not completely weakening.

Chetan 2u may explain.



(E) IPV, like most vaccines, carries a slight risk of inducing seizures in children with neurological diseases such as epilepsy.

"

sun01, I eliminated E cos E only mentions possibility of "slight risk" and that too only in children with "neurological diseases"... I felt that B was the best amongst the options and hence went ahead with it.. I was not convinced with A as the answer..
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Re: There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North Ame  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2016, 09:33
rs47 wrote:
There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North America in recent years. Yet there are approximately 12 new cases of polio each year in North America, all caused by the commonly administered live oral polio vaccine (OPV). Substituting inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) for most childhood polio immunizations would cut the number of cases of vaccination-caused polio about in half. Clearly it is time to switch from OPV to IPV as the most commonly used polio vaccine for North American children.

Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the argument?

(A) If IPV replaces OPV as the most commonly used polio vaccine, at least a few new cases of naturally occurring polio in North America will result each year.
(B) The vast majority of cases of polio caused by OPV have occurred in children with preexisting but unsuspected immunodeficiency disorders.
(C) A child's risk of contracting polio from OPV has been estimated at 1 in 8.7 million, which is significantly less than the risk of being struck by lightning.
(D) Although IPV is preferred in some European nations, most countries with comprehensive child immunization programs use OPV.
(E) IPV, like most vaccines, carries a slight risk of inducing seizures in children with neurological diseases such as epilepsy.

Please provide your reasoning.. And do not forget kudos!!! :)

OA is A


Dear Experts,

Can someone explain how option A is correct

IMO Option A gives the possibility of few new cases of naturally occurring polio in North America will result each year.

Stimulus says "Substituting inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) for most childhood polio immunizations would cut the number of cases of vaccination-caused polio about in half"
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Re: There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North Ame  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2016, 18:20
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If X is replacing Y and X is having new characteristics better than Y, Then X is preferred over Y only when:
1) X is at least as good as Y (retains original advantage)
2) X does not create new weaknesses which Y does not have.

A tells that X is not retaining original advantage which Y has. Thus A weakens the argument.
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Re: There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North Ame  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2016, 18:45
ankitmani2004 wrote:
If X is replacing Y and X is having new characteristics better than Y, Then X is preferred over Y only when:
1) X is at least as good as Y (retains original advantage)
2) X does not create new weaknesses which Y does not have.

A tells that X is not retaining original advantage which Y has. Thus A weakens the argument.


Hi ankitmani2004,

here option A creates new weakness which OPV doesn't have.

"at least a few new cases of naturally occurring polio in North America will result each year. "
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Re: There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North Ame  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2016, 07:34
rs47 wrote:
There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North America in recent years. Yet there are approximately 12 new cases of polio each year in North America, all caused by the commonly administered live oral polio vaccine (OPV). Substituting inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) for most childhood polio immunizations would cut the number of cases of vaccination-caused polio about in half. Clearly it is time to switch from OPV to IPV as the most commonly used polio vaccine for North American children.

Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the argument?

(A) If IPV replaces OPV as the most commonly used polio vaccine, at least a few new cases of naturally occurring polio in North America will result each year.
(B) The vast majority of cases of polio caused by OPV have occurred in children with preexisting but unsuspected immunodeficiency disorders.
(C) A child's risk of contracting polio from OPV has been estimated at 1 in 8.7 million, which is significantly less than the risk of being struck by lightning.
(D) Although IPV is preferred in some European nations, most countries with comprehensive child immunization programs use OPV.
(E) IPV, like most vaccines, carries a slight risk of inducing seizures in children with neurological diseases such as epilepsy.

Please provide your reasoning.. And do not forget kudos!!! :)

OA is A


I have two questions about this one.

Option A. For example switching from OPV to IPV will cut cases of naturally occuring polio from 12 to 6 (in half as premise says). Does option A says that actually number of cases of naturally occuring polin will be 6+n where n is "few new cases"?
Option B. In my opinion this option weakens the argument by saying that the problem is not in OPV but may be somewhere else. For example, immunodeficiency disorders. So switching from OPV to IPV may not help.
Please help!
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Re: There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North Ame  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2016, 06:00
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Konstantin1983 wrote:
rs47 wrote:
There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North America in recent years. Yet there are approximately 12 new cases of polio each year in North America, all caused by the commonly administered live oral polio vaccine (OPV). Substituting inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) for most childhood polio immunizations would cut the number of cases of vaccination-caused polio about in half. Clearly it is time to switch from OPV to IPV as the most commonly used polio vaccine for North American children.

Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the argument?

(A) If IPV replaces OPV as the most commonly used polio vaccine, at least a few new cases of naturally occurring polio in North America will result each year.
(B) The vast majority of cases of polio caused by OPV have occurred in children with preexisting but unsuspected immunodeficiency disorders.
(C) A child's risk of contracting polio from OPV has been estimated at 1 in 8.7 million, which is significantly less than the risk of being struck by lightning.
(D) Although IPV is preferred in some European nations, most countries with comprehensive child immunization programs use OPV.
(E) IPV, like most vaccines, carries a slight risk of inducing seizures in children with neurological diseases such as epilepsy.

Please provide your reasoning.. And do not forget kudos!!! :)

OA is A


I have two questions about this one.

Option A. For example switching from OPV to IPV will cut cases of naturally occuring polio from 12 to 6 (in half as premise says). Does option A says that actually number of cases of naturally occuring polin will be 6+n where n is "few new cases"?
Option B. In my opinion this option weakens the argument by saying that the problem is not in OPV but may be somewhere else. For example, immunodeficiency disorders. So switching from OPV to IPV may not help.
Please help!


Hi Konstantin1983

Option B : It says that the vast majority of cases of polio caused by OPV have occurred in children with preexisting but unsuspected immunodeficiency disorders. , In this case this will not be prevented even if we use IPV , thus there is nothing in the argument to weaken it

Option A : It will reduce the number by half to 6 , but will result in a new phenomenon : a few new cases of naturally occurring polio in North America will result each year , This is completely non existent as of now , a few new cases can be 1 or 1000 , just like some can men atleast 1 or at the most All .

IMO A is my preferred choice ...

Don't Forget Kudos if it helps
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Kudos if it was helpful :)

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Re: There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2018, 18:44
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The conclusion of the argument here is that it is time to switch from OPV to IPV as the most commonly used polio vaccine.

The argument offers us the evidence that there would be fewer vaccination-caused cases of polio.

It's easy to read this piece of evidence and conclude that it makes sense to switch to the apparently safer IPV vaccine. The problem with this reasoning is that while IPV may cause fewer cases of polio, it may allow a significant number of naturally occurring cases of polio. So, overall, IPV could lead to there being an overall increase in the total number of cases of polio.

(A) weakens the argument by reminding us that the IPV vaccine could lead to increased naturally occurring cases of polio and so while there would be a reduction in vaccination-caused cases, there would still be an overall increase in the total number of cases of polio.

(B) is irrelevant. We care about the number of cases of polio caused by OPV, but not who gets those cases. Whether or not it's children doesn't really affect the argument.

(C) is irrelevant. The argument never claims the risk of contracting polio is high. It merely claims that the risk could be reduced by switching from OPV to IPV - which may or may not be true.

(D) is irrelevant. Preferences for one vaccine over another by certain countries does not give any measure of risk factors associated with each of the polio vaccines.

(E) is irrelevant. If IPV has this risk, similar to most vaccines, than IPV is no more dangerous than most vaccines. This does not provide a new threat that did not exist using OPV.
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Re: There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North &nbs [#permalink] 16 Sep 2018, 18:44
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There have been no new cases of naturally occurring polio in North Ame

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