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# #Top150 SC: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in

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#Top150 SC: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2015, 06:31
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1
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Difficulty:

95% (hard)

Question Stats:

37% (01:08) correct 63% (01:21) wrong based on 161 sessions

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Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it.

A. Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it

B. Over a long period of time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it

C. Over time, weightlessness cause medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration

D. Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronaut are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration

E. Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, but astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: #Top150 SC: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2015, 07:45
A and B are out due to ambiguous pronoun reference. 'it' may refer to weightlessness or deterioration of the spinal cord.
Astronaut is singular in D but plural verb is used. Hence incorrect.
E changes the meaning of the sentence by introducing a contrast.

In my opinion, answer is C.

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Re: #Top150 SC: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2015, 08:00
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A. Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it

B. Over a long period of time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid it

C. Over time, weightlessness cause medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration

D. Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronaut are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration

E. Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, but astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid such backbone deterioration

C, D and E can be dumped for silly errors. In C, ‘weightlessness … cause’ is an SV error. In D, ‘astronaut … are’ is yet another SV error. The ‘but’ in E is an intrusion of unwanted contrast.

Now between A and B: In both the cases, ‘it’ refers to weightlessness rather than deterioration. Deterioration is only an example of the medical problems the astronauts face and not the only problem. Therefore, by avoiding the deterioration alone, one cannot dodge other medical problems. The only difference is ‘over time’ in A and over a long time’ in B; ‘over time’ itself means over considerable time. Hence, that conveys the intended meaning more succinctly than the comparatively longer ‘a long period of time.”
Although somewhat by a wafer-thin margin, ‘A’ can be voted in.

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#Top150 SC: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in [#permalink]

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30 Dec 2015, 00:36
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daagh You nailed it almost completely.

daagh wrote:
C, D and E can be dumped for silly errors.
In C, ‘weightlessness … cause’ is an SV error.
In D, ‘astronaut … are’ is yet another SV error.
The ‘but’ in E is an intrusion of unwanted contrast.

Now between A and B:
The only difference is ‘over time’ in A and over a long time’ in B; ‘over time’ itself means over considerable time. Hence, that conveys the intended meaning more succinctly than the comparatively longer ‘a long period of time.”
Although somewhat by a wafer-thin margin, ‘A’ can be voted in.

However

In both the cases, ‘it’ refers to weightlessness rather than medical problems.

As Deterioration is only an example of the medical problems the astronauts face and not the only problem.
Therefore, by avoiding the deterioration alone, one cannot dodge other medical problems.

So I believe the intended meaning is to train in order to avoid medical problems in astronauts.
Thus the sentence can be much better if you replace "it" with "them" thereby conveying the intended meaning as below.

here "them" refer to medical problems correctly.

Quote:
Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in astronauts, such as the deterioration of the spinal cord, so astronauts are advised to train rigorously in order to avoid them.

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Re: #Top150 SC: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2017, 22:33
D changes the meaning -> A is correct.

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Re: #Top150 SC: Over time, weightlessness causes medical problems in   [#permalink] 31 Oct 2017, 22:33
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