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Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit

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Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2016, 05:57
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Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. The success of antibiotics against disease-causing bacteria is one of modern medicine’s great achievements. However, many bacteria harmful to humans have developed ways to circumvent the effects of antibiotics, and many infectious diseases are now much more difficult to treat than they were just a few decades ago. Antibiotic resistance is an especially difficult problem for hospitals with critically ill patients who are less able to fight off infections without the help of antibiotics.
Bacteria can develop antibiotic resistance because they have the ability to adapt quickly to new environmental conditions. Most commonly, bacteria share with each other genetic material called resistance plasmids; these shared plasmids, which contain the genetic code enabling antibiotic resistance, can spread throughout a bacterial population to create a strain of resistant bacteria. Less commonly, a natural mutation that enables antibiotic resistance takes place within the chromosome of the bacteria, and the resulting strain of bacteria can reproduce and become dominant via natural selection. In the absence of human involvement, however, bacteria in the wild rarely develop resistance to antibiotics.
In the United States, animals raised on industrial-scale factory farms are routinely administered low levels of antibiotics in their feed not as a cure for ongoing maladies, but primarily as a growth-enhancing agent to produce more meat and also as a prophylactic measure to compensate for overcrowded and unsanitary conditions. Currently, several antibiotics that are used in human medical treatment are administered non-therapeutically to healthy livestock and poultry. Examples include tetracycline, penicillin and erythromycin. This long-term non-therapeutic feeding of antibiotics to animals creates the ideal conditions for the development of antibioticresistant bacteria, as it kills the susceptible bacteria while
leaving the resistant strains to reproduce and flourish. Europe is far ahead of the United States in the responsible use of antibiotics: On January 1, 2006, the European Union
banned the feeding of all antibiotics to livestock for nontherapeutic purposes. This sweeping policy follows a 1998 ban on the non-therapeutic use of four medically-important
antibiotics on animals. The time has come for the United States to follow Europe’s lead.


1. Based on the information in the passage, to which of the following practices would the author most likely be opposed?
A. Hospitals are hiring higher numbers of infectious disease specialists than ever before.
B. Many health insurance policies do not or only partially reimburse patients for prescriptions of the newest and most effective antibiotics.
C. The industrial farm industry contributes more than $100 million to incumbent members of Congress each year.
D. Physicians routinely prescribe antibiotics to patients with viral diseases, even though antibiotics have no effect on viruses.
E. Hospitals are enforcing more stringent “hand-hygiene” standards in an effort to reduce infections.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


2.Based on the information in the passage, which of the following statements can be inferred?
A. Most industrial farms do not meet the standards for sanitation required by the United States government.
B. If the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics were halted worldwide, there would be no new resistant strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
C. European livestock and poultry are raised in more sanitary conditions than are those in the United States.
D. Hospitals are better learning to cope with the growing spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
E. It is possible for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animals to be passed on to humans.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


3. Which of the following best describes what the phrase “prophylactic measure” in the third paragraph means?
A. a measure to cure the animals of any existing infectious diseases
B. a contraceptive measure to prevent the animals from spreading genetic diseases
C. a pre-emptive measure to kill bacteria in the animals before the animals become ill
D. an antiseptic measure to kill surface bacteria in the surrounding environment
E. a measure that creates a physical barrier that protects the animals from the bacteria in the surrounding environment

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C


4. The passage is primarily concerned with
A. advocating the banning of a practice
B. explaining the mechanism of a process
C. explaining the practices of a particular industry
D. describing the history of a phenomenon
E. weighing the costs versus the benefits of a practice

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


5.According to the passage, which of the following describes how bacteria can develop antibiotic resistance?
A. Radiation from medical devices such as x-ray machines weaken the immune system in both humans and animals.
B. Resistant strains developed through genetic engineering dominate a bacterial population through natural selection.
C. Medical practitioners over-prescribe antibiotics in hospitals which encourages bacteria to adapt and form resistant strains.
D.Genetic material containing the resistant trait is shared among a bacterial population.
E. Many antibiotics lose potency and become ineffective over time.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #5 OA

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Re: Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2016, 06:00

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Re: Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2016, 09:06
Just now attempted this passage in MGMAT 6 Mock test.

Time taken = 8 Mins
Answers are : DECAD
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Re: Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2017, 12:17
Q2

Where does the text indicate that the virus/bacteria can be passed to humans ?
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Re: Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2017, 23:05
Hi,

Could you please provide explanation for Q2 and Q3?
in Q3, its mentioned 'overcrowded and unsanitary conditions', so these are external conditions and not abt bacteria 'in the animal'.
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Re: Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit [#permalink]

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New post 08 Feb 2017, 23:06
Hi,

Could anyone please provide explanations for Q2 and Q3?
in Q3, its mentioned 'overcrowded and unsanitary conditions', so these are external conditions and not abt bacteria 'in the animal'.
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Re: Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2017, 09:48
Passage explains in detail the phenomenon about how antibiotic resistant bacteria are produced and flourished.
Only the last paragraph talks about banning the use of antibiotic drugs in animal breeding factory.
So how can the OA for Question 4 be A?

Besides what is the OE for Question 3?
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Re: Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit [#permalink]

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New post 15 Mar 2017, 06:44
Hi experts,
Please help with the main idea question.
What is the main purpose of the passage? Advocating the ban?
Ban has only been discussed in the last portion of the passage. The main idea of the passage should cover the whole passage and not only a portion of the passage/paragraph, I think. But Here is a different thing.
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Re: Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2017, 02:21
Hi,

Could somebody please provide a detailed explanation for Question 2 and 3 of this passage.
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Re: Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2017, 03:39
Ashana Beria wrote:
Hi,

Could somebody please provide a detailed explanation for Question 2 and 3 of this passage.


Hi,

Here are my explanations

Q2. For this one, you have to read all the choices and go back to the passage and find out which one of them is correct.

A. Most industrial farms do not meet the standards for sanitation required by the United States government. Wrong, We know that some farms, such as animal farms, have unsanitary conditions and use non-therapeutic drugs to compensate for that. But we don't know whether this is the case for ALL farms.
B. If the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics were halted worldwide, there would be no new resistant strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Wrong, too extreme. The passage mentions "..bacteria in the wild rarely develop resistance to antibiotics". Rarely does not mean never.
C. European livestock and poultry are raised in more sanitary conditions than are those in the United States. Wrong, EU countries are better in dealing with non-therapeutic drugs, doesn't mean they have better sanitation.
D. Hospitals are better learning to cope with the growing spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Wrong, we don't know that. In fact, we have to scan the passage really hard to get anything related to hospitals.
E. It is possible for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animals to be passed on to humans. Right. If this weren't the case then we shouldn't have been losing our sleep over the animal farms that use non-therapeutic drugs.


Q3. This one is best tackled by first thoroughly reading the relevant sentence and then applying POE unless of course, you know the exact meaning of the word. So by POE

A. a measure to cure the animals of any existing infectious diseases. Wrong, because in the sentence it is mentioned, "that In the United States, animals raised on industrial-scale factory farms are routinely administered low levels of antibiotics in their feed not as a cure for ongoing maladies..."
B. a contraceptive measure to prevent the animals from spreading genetic diseases. Wrong, because we are NOT worried about ANIMALS spreading genetic diseases but we are concerned how BACTERIA spreads its resistant genes.
C. a pre-emptive measure to kill bacteria in the animals before the animals become ill. Right. If you read the sentence carefully you can guess this option. If you are still not sure then hold this one as a contender and move on to next choices.
D. an antiseptic measure to kill surface bacteria in the surrounding environment. Wrong, we are concerned with bacteria within animals that resist drugs.
E. a measure that creates a physical barrier that protects the animals from the bacteria in the surrounding environment. Wrong, This one is kind of tricky. We don't know whether the drugs save those animals from external bacteria but if you read that 3rd paragraph you will find that these drugs kill weaker strains while leaving the stronger ones untouched. That means we are dealing with bacteria present within the animals not coming from outside.

Hope this helps.
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Re: Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2018, 09:27
5min 44sec for reading
6min 53 sec for solving
4/5 correct. :?
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Re: Antibiotics are chemical substances that kill or inhibit   [#permalink] 09 Jan 2018, 09:27
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